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Volume 38(6); December 2023
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Special Article
Adrenal gland
2023 Korean Endocrine Society Consensus Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Primary Aldosteronism
Jeonghoon Ha, Jung Hwan Park, Kyoung Jin Kim, Jung Hee Kim, Kyong Yeun Jung, Jeongmin Lee, Jong Han Choi, Seung Hun Lee, Namki Hong, Jung Soo Lim, Byung Kwan Park, Jung-Han Kim, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Jooyoung Cho, Mi-kyung Kim, Choon Hee Chung, The Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline of Korean Endocrine Society, The Korean Adrenal Study Group of Korean Endocrine Society
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):597-618.   Published online October 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1789
  • 4,485 View
  • 587 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common, yet underdiagnosed cause of secondary hypertension. It is characterized by an overproduction of aldosterone, leading to hypertension and/or hypokalemia. Despite affecting between 5.9% and 34% of patients with hypertension, PA is frequently missed due to a lack of clinical awareness and systematic screening, which can result in significant cardiovascular complications. To address this, medical societies have developed clinical practice guidelines to improve the management of hypertension and PA. The Korean Endocrine Society, drawing on a wealth of research, has formulated new guidelines for PA. A task force has been established to prepare PA guidelines, which encompass epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care. The Korean clinical guidelines for PA aim to deliver an evidence-based protocol for PA diagnosis, treatment, and patient monitoring. These guidelines are anticipated to ease the burden of this potentially curable condition.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Temporal trends in clinical features of patients with primary aldosteronism over 20 years
    Seung Shin Park, Chang Ho Ahn, Sang Wan Kim, Jung-Min Koh, Seung Hun Lee, Jung Hee Kim
    Hypertension Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Correlation of Histopathologic Subtypes of Primary Aldosteronism with Clinical Phenotypes and Postsurgical Outcomes
    Chang Ho Ahn, You-Bin Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, Young Lyun Oh, Jung Hee Kim, Kyeong Cheon Jung
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Review Articles
Miscellaneous
Toward Systems-Level Metabolic Analysis in Endocrine Disorders and Cancer
Aliya Lakhani, Da Hyun Kang, Yea Eun Kang, Junyoung O. Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):619-630.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1814
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  • 118 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Metabolism is a dynamic network of biochemical reactions that support systemic homeostasis amidst changing nutritional, environmental, and physical activity factors. The circulatory system facilitates metabolite exchange among organs, while the endocrine system finely tunes metabolism through hormone release. Endocrine disorders like obesity, diabetes, and Cushing’s syndrome disrupt this balance, contributing to systemic inflammation and global health burdens. They accompany metabolic changes on multiple levels from molecular interactions to individual organs to the whole body. Understanding how metabolic fluxes relate to endocrine disorders illuminates the underlying dysregulation. Cancer is increasingly considered a systemic disorder because it not only affects cells in localized tumors but also the whole body, especially in metastasis. In tumorigenesis, cancer-specific mutations and nutrient availability in the tumor microenvironment reprogram cellular metabolism to meet increased energy and biosynthesis needs. Cancer cachexia results in metabolic changes to other organs like muscle, adipose tissue, and liver. This review explores the interplay between the endocrine system and systems-level metabolism in health and disease. We highlight metabolic fluxes in conditions like obesity, diabetes, Cushing’s syndrome, and cancers. Recent advances in metabolomics, fluxomics, and systems biology promise new insights into dynamic metabolism, offering potential biomarkers, therapeutic targets, and personalized medicine.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Editorial: Tumor metabolism and programmed cell death
    Dan-Lan Pu, Qi-Nan Wu
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Molecular subtypes of clear cell renal carcinoma based on PCD-related long non-coding RNAs expression: insights into the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic strategies
    Han Wang, Yang Liu, Aifa Tang, Xiansheng Zhang
    European Journal of Medical Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Update on Current Evidence for the Diagnosis and Management of Nonfunctioning Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors
Elizabeth Whyte, Masahiro Nezu, Constance Chik, Toru Tateno
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):631-654.   Published online November 15, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1838
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  • 185 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) are the third most frequently diagnosed intracranial tumors, with nonfunctioning PitNETs (nfPitNETs) accounting for 30% of all pituitary tumors and representing the most common type of macroPitNETs. NfPitNETs are usually benign tumors with no evidence of hormone oversecretion except for hyperprolactinemia secondary to pituitary stalk compression. Due to this, they do not typically present with clinical syndromes like acromegaly, Cushing’s disease or hyperthyroidism and instead are identified incidentally on imaging or from symptoms of mass effects (headache, vision changes, apoplexy). With the lack of effective medical interventions, first-line treatment is transsphenoidal surgical resection, however, nfPitNETs often have supra- or parasellar extension, and total resection of the tumor is often not possible, resulting in residual tumor regrowth or reoccurrence. While functional PitNETs can be easily followed for recurrence using hormonal biomarkers, there is no similar parameter to predict recurrence in nfPitNETs, hence delaying early recognition and timely management. Therefore, there is a need to identify prognostic biomarkers that can be used for patient surveillance and as therapeutic targets. This review focuses on summarizing the current evidence on nfPitNETs, with a special focus on potential new biomarkers and therapeutics.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Phenotype Transformation of PitNETs
    Zhenwei Li, Yinzi Wu, Guannan He, Renzhi Wang, Xinjie Bao
    Cancers.2024; 16(9): 1731.     CrossRef
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Calcium & bone metabolism
Acromegaly and Bone: An Update
Andrea Giustina
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):655-666.   Published online December 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.601
  • 1,963 View
  • 140 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Since our discovery in 2006 that acromegaly is associated with an increased risk of vertebral fractures, many authors have confirmed this finding in both cross-sectional and prospective studies. Due to the high epidemiological and clinical impact of this newly discovered comorbidity of acromegaly, this topic has progressively become more important and prominent over the years, and the pertinent literature has been enriched by new findings on the pathophysiology and treatment. The aim of this narrative review was to discuss these novel findings, integrating them with the seminal observations, in order to give the reader an updated view of how the field of acromegaly and bone is developing, from strong clinical observations to a mechanistic understanding and possible prevention and treatment.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • New insights into the vitamin D/PTH axis in endocrine-driven metabolic bone diseases
    Luigi di Filippo, John P. Bilezikian, Ernesto Canalis, Umberto Terenzi, Andrea Giustina
    Endocrine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Bone health and skeletal fragility in second- and third-line medical therapies for acromegaly: preliminary results from a pilot single center experience
    Sabrina Chiloiro, Antonella Giampietro, Amato Infante, Pier Paolo Mattogno, Liverana Lauretti, Alessandro Olivi, Laura De Marinis, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Francesco Doglietto, Antonio Bianchi
    Pituitary.2024; 27(3): 303.     CrossRef
  • Standards of care for medical management of acromegaly in pituitary tumor centers of excellence (PTCOE)
    Andrea Giustina, M. M. Uygur, S. Frara, A. Barkan, N. R. Biermasz, P. Chanson, P. Freda, M. Gadelha, L. Haberbosch, U. B. Kaiser, S. Lamberts, E. Laws, L. B. Nachtigall, V. Popovic, M. Reincke, A. J. van der Lely, J. A. H. Wass, S. Melmed, F. F. Casanueva
    Pituitary.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Vertebral fractures in patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas - a new frontier?
    Nicholas A. Tritos
    Pituitary.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Editorial
Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
Potential of γ-Glutamyl Transferase as a Novel Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease
Sang Youl Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):667-668.   Published online December 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.602
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  • 41 Download
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Original Articles
Calcium & bone metabolism
Age-Dependent Association of Height Loss with Incident Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women
Chaewon Lee, Hye-Sun Park, Yumie Rhee, Namki Hong
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):669-678.   Published online September 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1734
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Height loss is a simple clinical measure associated with increased fracture risk. However, limited data exists on the association between height loss and fracture risk in postmenopausal Korean women. It is unknown whether this association varies with age.
Methods
Data on height loss over a 6-year period were collected from a community-based longitudinal follow-up cohort (Ansung cohort of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study). Incident fractures were defined based on self-reported fractures after excluding those due to severe trauma or toes/fingers. The association between incident fractures and height loss was investigated using a Cox proportional hazards model.
Results
During a median follow-up of 10 years after the second visit, 259/1,806 participants (median age, 64 years) experienced incident fractures. Overall, a 1 standard deviation (SD) decrease in height (1.6 cm/median 5.8 years) was associated with 9% increased risk of fracture (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; P=0.037), which lost statistical significance after adjustment for covariates. When stratified into age groups (50–59, 60–69, 70 years or older), a 1 SD decrease in height remained a robust predictor of fracture in the 50 to 59 years age group after adjusting for covariates (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.52; P=0.003), whereas height loss was not an independent predictor of fracture in the 60 to 69 (aHR, 1.06; P=0.333) or the 70 years or older age groups (aHR, 1.05; P=0.700; P for interaction <0.05, for all).
Conclusion
Height loss during the previous 6 years was associated with an increased 10-year fracture risk in postmenopausal women in their 50s.
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Calcium & bone metabolism
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
Association between Smoking Status and the Risk of Hip Fracture in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
Se-Won Lee, Jun-Young Heu, Ju-Yeong Kim, Jinyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):679-689.   Published online December 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1760
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Limited longitudinal evidence exists regarding the potential association between smoking status and hip fracture among individuals with type 2 diabetes. We investigated this association using large-scale, nationwide cohort data for the Korean population.
Methods
This nationwide cohort study included 1,414,635 adults aged 40 and older who received Korean National Health Insurance Service health examinations between 2009 and 2012. Subjects with type 2 diabetes were categorized according to their smoking status, amount smoked (pack-years), number of cigarettes smoked per day, and duration of smoking. The results are presented as hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between smoking status parameters and risk of hip fracture in multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis.
Results
Compared with never-smokers, an increased adjusted HR (aHR) for hip fracture was observed in current smokers (1.681; 95% CI, 1.578 to 1.791), and a comparable aHR for hip fracture was found in former smokers (1.065; 95% CI, 0.999 to 1.136). For former smokers who had smoked 20 pack-years or more, the risk was slightly higher than that for never-smokers (aHR, 1.107; 95% CI, 1.024 to 1.196). The hip fracture risk of female former smokers was similar to that of female current smokers, but the hip fracture risk in male former smokers was similar to that of male never-smokers.
Conclusion
Smoking is associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in patients with type 2 diabetes. Current smokers with diabetes should be encouraged to quit smoking because the risk of hip fracture is greatly reduced in former smokers.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Influence of quitting smoking on diabetes-related complications: A scoping review with a systematic search strategy
    Magdalena Walicka, Arkadiusz Krysiński, Giusy Rita Maria La Rosa, Ang Sun, Davide Campagna, Agostino Di Ciaula, Tabinda Dugal, Andre Kengne, Phuong Le Dinh, Anoop Misra, Riccardo Polosa, Syed Abbas Raza, Cristina Russo, Roberta Sammut, Noel Somasundaram
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2024; 18(5): 103044.     CrossRef
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Calcium & bone metabolism
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
Increased Risk of Hip Fracture in Patients with Acromegaly: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Korea
Jiwon Kim, Namki Hong, Jimi Choi, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Eun Jig Lee, Sin Gon Kim, Cheol Ryong Ku
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):690-700.   Published online October 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1782
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Acromegaly leads to various skeletal complications, and fragility fractures are emerging as a new concern in patients with acromegaly. Therefore, this study investigated the risk of fractures in Korean patients with acromegaly.
Methods
We used the Korean nationwide claims database from 2009 to 2019. A total of 931 patients with acromegaly who had never used an osteoporosis drug before and were treated with surgery alone were selected as study participants, and a 1:29 ratio of 26,999 age- and sex-matched osteoporosis drug-naïve controls without acromegaly were randomly selected from the database.
Results
The mean age was 46.2 years, and 50.0% were male. During a median follow-up of 54.1 months, there was no difference in the risks of all, vertebral, and non-vertebral fractures between the acromegaly and control groups. However, hip fracture risk was significantly higher (hazard ratio [HR], 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32 to 5.65), and non-hip and non-vertebral fractures risk was significantly lower (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.98) in patients with acromegaly than in controls; these results remained robust even after adjustment for socioeconomic status and baseline comorbidities. Age, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardio-cerebrovascular disease, fracture history, recent use of acid-suppressant medication, psychotropic medication, and opioids were risk factors for all fractures in patients with acromegaly (all P<0.05).
Conclusion
Compared with controls, patients surgically treated for acromegaly had a higher risk of hip fractures. The risk factors for fracture in patients with acromegaly were consistent with widely accepted risk factors in the general population.
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Calcium & bone metabolism
Higher Plasma Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 Is Associated with Lower Risk for Sarcopenia in Older Asian Adults
Sunghwan Ji, Kyunggon Kim, So Jeong Park, Jin Young Lee, Hee-Won Jung, Hyun Ju Yoo, Il-Young Jang, Eunju Lee, Ji Yeon Baek, Beom-Jun Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):701-708.   Published online October 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1783
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Despite the protective effects of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) in stimulating muscle regeneration shown in experimental research, there is a lack of clinical studies linking circulating SDF-1 concentrations with muscle phenotypes. In order to elucidate the role of SDF-1 as a potential biomarker reflecting human muscle health, we investigated the association of plasma SDF-1 levels with sarcopenia in older adults.
Methods
This cross-sectional study included 97 community-dwelling participants who underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment at a tertiary hospital in South Korea. Sarcopenia was defined by specific cutoff values applicable to the Asian population, whereas plasma SDF-1 levels were determined using an enzyme immunoassay.
Results
After accounting for sex, age, and body mass index, participants with sarcopenia and low muscle mass exhibited plasma SDF-1 levels that were 21.8% and 18.3% lower than those without these conditions, respectively (P=0.008 and P=0.009, respectively). Consistently, higher plasma SDF-1 levels exhibited a significant correlation with higher skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and gait speed (both P=0.043), and the risk of sarcopenia and low muscle mass decreased by 58% and 55% per standard deviation increase in plasma SDF-1 levels, respectively (P=0.045 and P=0.030, respectively). Furthermore, participants in the highest SDF-1 tertile exhibited significantly higher SMI compared to those in the lowest tertile (P=0.012).
Conclusion
These findings clinically corroborate earlier experimental discoveries highlighting the muscle anabolic effects of SDF- 1 and support the potential role of circulating SDF-1 as a biomarker reflecting human muscle health in older adults.
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Calcium & bone metabolism
Familial Correlation and Heritability of Hand Grip Strength in Korean Adults (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014 to 2019)
Seong Hee Ahn, Eun Byeol Park, Seongha Seo, Yongin Cho, Da Hea Seo, So Hun Kim, Young Ju Suh, Seongbin Hong
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):709-719.   Published online November 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1740
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The onset and progression of sarcopenia are highly variable among individuals owing to genetic and environmental factors. However, there are a limited number of studies measuring the heritability of muscle strength in large numbers of parent-adult offspring pairs. We aimed to investigate the familial correlation and heritability of hand grip strength (HGS) among Korean adults.
Methods
This family-based cohort study on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014 to 2019) included 5,004 Koreans aged ≥19 years from 1,527 families. HGS was measured using a digital grip strength dynamometer. Familial correlations of HGS were calculated in different pairs of relatives. Variance component methods were used to estimate heritability.
Results
The heritability estimate of HGS among Korean adults was 0.154 (standard error, 0.066). Correlation coefficient estimates for HGS between parent-offspring, sibling, and spouse pairs were significant at 0.07, 0.10, and 0.23 (P<0.001, P=0.041, and P<0.001, respectively). The total variance in the HGS phenotype was explained by additive genetic (15.4%), shared environmental (11.0%), and unique environmental (73.6%) influences. The odds of weak HGS significantly increased in the offspring of parents with weak HGS (odds ratio [OR], 1.69–3.10; P=0.027–0.038), especially in daughters (OR, 2.04–4.64; P=0.029–0.034).
Conclusion
HGS exhibits a familial correlation and significant heritable tendency in Korean adults. Therefore, Asian adults, especially women, who have parents with weak HGS, need to pay special attention to their muscle health with the help of healthy environmental stimuli.
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Thyroid
Comparative Analysis of Driver Mutations and Transcriptomes in Papillary Thyroid Cancer by Region of Residence in South Korea
Jandee Lee, Seonhyang Jeong, Hwa Young Lee, Sunmi Park, Meesson Jeong, Young Suk Jo
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):720-729.   Published online November 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1758
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Radiation exposure is a well-known risk factor for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). South Korea has 24 nuclear reactors in operation; however, no molecular biological analysis has been performed on patients with PTC living near nuclear power plants.
Methods
We retrospectively included patients with PTC (n=512) divided into three groups according to their place of residence at the time of operation: inland areas (n=300), coastal areas far from nuclear power plants (n=134), and nuclear power plant areas (n=78). After propensity score matching (1:1:1) by age, sex, and surgical procedure, the frequency of representative driver mutations and gene expression profiles were compared (n=50 per group). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), BRAF, thyroid differentiation, and radiation scores were calculated and compared.
Results
No significant difference was observed in clinicopathological characteristics, including radiation exposure history and the frequency of incidentally discovered thyroid cancer, among the three groups. BRAFV600E mutation was most frequently detected in the groups, with no difference among the three groups. Furthermore, gene expression profiles showed no statistically significant difference. EMT and BRAF scores were higher in our cohort than in cohorts from Chernobyl tissue bank and The Cancer Genome Atlas Thyroid Cancer; however, there was no difference according to the place of residence. Radiation scores were highest in the Chernobyl tissue bank but exhibited no difference according to the place of residence.
Conclusion
Differences in clinicopathological characteristics, frequency of representative driver mutations, and gene expression profiles were not observed according to patients’ region of residence in South Korea.
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Thyroid
Exploring the Association between Thyroid Function and Frailty: Insights from Representative Korean Data
Youn-Ju Lee, Min-Hee Kim, Dong-Jun Lim, Jung-Min Lee, Sang Ah Chang, Jeongmin Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):729-738.   Published online November 2, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1769
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study investigates the association between thyroid function and frailty in the old patients using representative data.
Methods
The study was conducted using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2013 to 2015. The study population included 2,416 participants aged 50 years and older with available thyroid function test data. Frailty assessment was performed using the Fried frailty phenotype. The prevalence of frailty was analyzed across different thyroid diseases and thyroid function parameters.
Results
The significant association between thyroid dysfunction and frailty was observed in overt hyperthyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism. After adjusting for various factors, the association between thyroid dysfunction and frailty remained significant. On the other hand, overt hypothyroidism did not show a significant association with frailty in the adjusted analysis. For individuals with overt hyperthyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism, higher levels of free thyroxine (FT4) were significantly associated with an increased risk of frailty (aOR >999; 95% CI, >999 to 999). Among individuals with overt hypothyroidism, lower level of FT4 levels and high thyrotropin (TSH) levels showed a significant association with frailty risk (FT4: aOR, <0.01; TSH: aOR, 999). In participants with subclinical hypothyroidism, there were no significant associations between parameters for thyroid and frailty risk.
Conclusion
These findings suggest that thyroid dysfunction, particularly overt hyperthyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism, may be associated with an increased risk of frailty in the old patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Associations of thyroid feedback quantile-based index with diabetes in euthyroid adults in the United States and China
    Heng Wan, Genfeng Yu, Yajun He, Siyang Liu, Xingying Chen, Yuqi Jiang, Hualin Duan, Xu Lin, Lan Liu, Jie Shen
    Annals of Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Phospholipase C-γ as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Graves’ Orbitopathy
Tae Hoon Roh, Min Kyung Chae, Jae Sang Ko, Don O. Kikkawa, Sun Young Jang, Jin Sook Yoon
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):739-749.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1780
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ) plays a crucial role in immune responses and is related to the pathogenesis of various inflammatory disorders. In this study, we investigated the role of PLC-γ and the therapeutic effect of the PLC-specific inhibitor U73122 using orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves’ orbitopathy (GO).
Methods
The expression of phospholipase C gamma 1 (PLCG1) and phospholipase C gamma 2 (PLCG2) was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction in GO and normal orbital tissues/fibroblasts. The primary cultures of orbital fibroblasts were treated with non-toxic concentrations of U73122 with or without interleukin (IL)-1β to determine its therapeutic efficacy. The proinflammatory cytokine levels and activation of downstream signaling molecules were determined using Western blotting.
Results
PLCG1 and PLCG2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in GO orbital tissues than in controls (P<0.05). PLCG1 and PLCG2 mRNA expression was significantly increased (P<0.05) in IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and a cluster of differentiation 40 ligand-stimulated GO fibroblasts. U73122 significantly inhibited the IL-1β-induced expression of proinflammatory molecules, including IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) and p38 (p-p38) kinase in GO fibroblasts, whereas it inhibited IL-6, IL-8, and ICAM-1, and p-Akt and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) in normal fibroblasts (P<0.05).
Conclusion
PLC-γ-inhibiting U73122 suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the phosphorylation of Akt and p38 kinase in GO fibroblasts. This study indicates the implications of PLC-γ in GO pathogenesis and its potential as a therapeutic target for GO.
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Miscellaneous
Incidence of Endocrine-Related Dysfunction in Patients Treated with New Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review
Won Sang Yoo, Eu Jeong Ku, Eun Kyung Lee, Hwa Young Ahn
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):750-759.   Published online November 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1785
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  • 135 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study investigated the incidence of endocrine immune-related adverse events (irAEs) for recently developed immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) drugs.
Methods
We collected studies on newly developed ICI drugs using PubMed/Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception through January 31, 2023. Among ICI drugs, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and ipilimumab were excluded from the new ICI drugs because many papers on endocrine-related side effects have already been published.
Results
A total of 44,595 patients from 177 studies were included in this analysis. The incidence of hypothyroidism was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.9% to 11.4%), thyrotoxicosis was 4.6% (95% CI, 3.8% to 5.7%), hypophysitis was 0.8% (95% CI, 0.5% to 1.1%), adrenal insufficiency was 0.9% (95% CI, 0.7% to 1.1%), and hyperglycemia was 2.3% (95% CI, 1.6% to 3.4%). Hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis occurred most frequently with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitors (13.7% and 7.5%, respectively). The rate of endocrine side effects for the combination of a programmed death-ligand 1 inhibitor (durvalumab) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 inhibitor (tremelimumab) was higher than that of monotherapy. In a meta-analysis, the combination of tremelimumab and durvalumab had a 9- to 10-fold higher risk of pituitary and adrenal-related side effects than durvalumab alone.
Conclusion
Newly developed PD-1 inhibitors had a high incidence of thyroid-related irAEs, and combined treatment with durvalumab and tremelimumab increased the risk of pituitary- and adrenal-related irAEs. Based on these facts, it is necessary to predict the endocrine side effects corresponding to each ICI drug, diagnose and treat them appropriately, and try to reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Combined use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with PD-(L)1 blockade increased the risk of thyroid dysfunction in PD-(L)1 blockade: a prospective study
    Tomoko Kobayashi, Shintaro Iwama, Ayana Yamagami, Tetsushi Izuchi, Koji Suzuki, Koki Otake, Yoshinori Yasuda, Masahiko Ando, Takeshi Onoue, Takashi Miyata, Mariko Sugiyama, Daisuke Hagiwara, Hidetaka Suga, Ryoichi Banno, Tetsunari Hase, Naoki Nishio, Shoi
    Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Miscellaneous
AM1638, a GPR40-Full Agonist, Inhibited Palmitate- Induced ROS Production and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Enhancing HUVEC Viability in an NRF2-Dependent Manner
Hwan-Jin Hwang, Joo Won Kim, SukHwan Yun, Min Jeong Park, Eyun Song, Sooyeon Jang, Ahreum Jang, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):760-769.   Published online November 2, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1774
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  • 92 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is a key molecule in diabetes and fatty liver, but its role in endothelial dysfunction remains unclear. Our objective in this study was to determine whether GPR40 agonists protect endothelial cells against palmitatemediated oxidative stress.
Methods
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to investigate effects of various GPR40 agonists on vascular endothelium.
Results
In HUVECs, AM1638, a GPR40-full agonist, enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (NRF2) translocation to the nucleus and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, which blocked palmitate-induced superoxide production. Those antioxidant effects were not detected after treatment with LY2922470 or TAK875, GPR40-partial agonists, suggesting that GPR40 regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS) removal in a ligand-dependent manner. We also found that palmitate-induced CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein homologous protein expression; X-box binding protein-1 splicing, nuclear condensation, and fragmentation; and caspase-3 cleavage were all blocked in an NRF2-dependent manner after AM1638 treatment. Both LY2922470 and TAK875 also improved cell viability independent of the NRF2/ROS pathway by reducing palmitate-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and nuclear damage. GPR40 agonists thus have beneficial effects against palmitate in HUVECs. In particular, AM1638 reduced palmitate-induced superoxide production and cytotoxicity in an NRF2/HO-1 dependent manner.
Conclusion
GPR40 could be developed as a good therapeutic target to prevent or treat cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism