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Original Article
Clinical Study
Triglyceride Glucose Index Is Superior to the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance for Predicting Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Adults
Sang Bae Lee, Min Kyung Kim, Shinae Kang, Kahui Park, Jung Hye Kim, Su Jung Baik, Ji Sun Nam, Chul Woo Ahn, Jong Suk Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2019;34(2):179-186.   Published online May 20, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2019.34.2.179
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

Recently, the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index has been considered a surrogate marker of insulin resistance which is a well-known pathogenic factor in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the TyG index and NAFLD. Thus, we investigated the relationship between the TyG index and NAFLD and the effectiveness of the TyG index compared with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in identifying NAFLD in Korean adults.

Methods

Participants of 4,986 who underwent ultrasonography in a health promotion center were enrolled. The TyG index was calculated as ln [fasting triglycerides (mg/dL)×fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2], and HOMA-IR was estimated. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography.

Results

Significant differences were observed in metabolic parameters among the quartiles of the TyG index. The prevalence of NAFLD significantly increased with increment in the TyG index. After adjusting for multiple risk factors, a logistic regression analysis was performed. When the highest and lowest quartiles of the TyG index and HOMA-IR were compared, the odds ratios for the prevalence of NAFLD were 2.94 and 1.93 (95% confidence interval, 2.32 to 3.72 and 1.43 to 2.61; both P for trend <0.01), respectively. According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the TyG index was superior to HOMA-IR in predicting NAFLD.

Conclusion

The TyG index and prevalence of NAFLD were significantly related and the TyG index was superior to HOMA-IR in predicting NAFLD in Korean adults.

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Review Article
Thyroid
Update from the 2022 World Health Organization Classification of Thyroid Tumors: A Standardized Diagnostic Approach
Chan Kwon Jung, Andrey Bychkov, Kennichi Kakudo
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(5):703-718.   Published online October 4, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1553
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The fifth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) histologic classification of thyroid neoplasms released in 2022 includes newly recognized tumor types, subtypes, and a grading system. Follicular cell-derived neoplasms are categorized into three families (classes): benign tumors, low-risk neoplasms, and malignant neoplasms. The terms “follicular nodular disease” and “differentiated high-grade thyroid carcinoma” are introduced to account for multifocal hyperplastic/neoplastic lesions and differentiated thyroid carcinomas with high-grade features, respectively. The term “Hürthle cells” is replaced with “oncocytic cells.” Invasive encapsulated follicular and cribriform morular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are now redefined as distinct tumor types, given their different genetic alterations and clinicopathologic characteristics from other PTC subtypes. The term “variant” to describe a subclass of tumor has been replaced with the term “subtype.” Instead, the term “variant” is reserved to describe genetic alterations. A histologic grading system based on the mitotic count, necrosis, and/or the Ki67 index is used to identify high-grade follicular-cell derived carcinomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas. The 2022 WHO classification introduces the following new categories: “salivary gland-type carcinomas of the thyroid” and “thyroid tumors of uncertain histogenesis.” This review summarizes the major changes in the 2022 WHO classification and their clinical relevance.

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Close layer
Original Article
Clinical Study
Association between Obesity and Bone Mineral Density by Gender and Menopausal Status
Mohammad Reza Salamat, Amir Hossein Salamat, Mohsen Janghorbani
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):547-558.   Published online November 4, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.547
  • 5,820 View
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  • 62 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We investigated whether there were gender differences in the effect of obesity on bone mineral density (BMD) based on menopausal status.

Methods

We assessed 5,892 consecutive patients 20 to 91 years old who were referred for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. All subjects underwent a standard BMD scan of the hip (total hip and femoral neck) and lumbar spine (L1 to L4) using a DXA scan and body size assessment. Body mass index was used to categorize the subjects as normal weight, overweight, and obese.

Results

BMD was higher in obese and overweight versus normal weight men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. Compared to men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women with normal weight, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07 to 0.56) and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.51) for obese men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women. Corresponding summaries for osteoporosis were 0.26 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.64) and 0.15 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.20), respectively. Compared to men <50 years and premenopausal women with normal weight, the age-adjusted odds ratio of low bone mass was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.45) and 0.16 (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.26) for obese men <50 years and premenopausal women, respectively.

Conclusion

Obesity is associated with BMD of the hip and lumbar spine and overweight and obese individuals have similar degrees of osteoporosis. This result was not significantly different based on gender and menopausal status, which could be an important issue for further investigation.

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Close layer
Review Article
Thyroid
Deiodinases and the Three Types of Thyroid Hormone Deiodination Reactions
Laura Sabatino, Cristina Vassalle, Cristina Del Seppia, Giorgio Iervasi
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(5):952-964.   Published online October 21, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1198
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling is strictly regulated by iodothyronine deiodinase activity, which both preserves the circulating levels of the biologically active triiodothyronine (T3) and regulates TH homeostasis at the local level, in a cell- and time-dependent manner. Three deiodinases have been identified—namely iodothyronine deiodinase 1 (DIO1), DIO2, and DIO3—that differ in their catalytic properties and tissue distribution. The deiodinases represent a dynamic system that changes in the different stages of life according to their functions and roles in various cell types and tissues. Deiodinase activity at the tissue level permits cell-targeted fine regulation of TH homeostasis, mediating the activation (DIO1 and DIO2) and inactivation (DIO3) of THs. Deiodinase homeostasis is the driving force that leads T3-target cells towards customized TH signaling, which takes into account both the hormonal circulating levels and the tissue-specific response. This review analyzes the complex role of deiodinases in physiological and pathological contexts, exploring new challenges and opportunities deriving from a deeper knowledge of the dynamics underlying their roles and functions.

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Close layer
Original Articles
Clinical Study
Long-Term Results of Thermal Ablation of Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Se Jin Cho, Jung Hwan Baek, Sae Rom Chung, Young Jun Choi, Jeong Hyun Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(2):339-350.   Published online June 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.2.339
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Ultrasound-guided thermal ablations have become one of the main options for treating benign thyroid nodules. To determine efficacy of thermal ablation of benign thyroid nodules, we performed a meta-analysis of studies with long-term follow-up of more than 3 years.
Methods
Databases were searched for studies published up to August 25, 2019, reporting patients with benign thyroid nodules treated with thermal ablation and with follow-up data of more than 3 years. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed according to PRISMA guidelines. The analysis yielded serial volume reduction rates (VRRs) of ablated nodules for up to 3 years or more, and adverse effect of ablation during follow-up. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and laser ablation (LA) were compared in a subgroup analysis.
Results
The pooled VRRs for ablated nodules showed rapid volume reduction before 12 months, a plateau from 12 to 36 months, and more volume reduction appearing after 36 months, demonstrating long-term maintenance of treatment efficacy. Thermal ablation had an acceptable complication rate of 3.8%. Moreover, patients undergoing nodule ablation showed no unexpected delayed complications during the follow-up period. In the subgroup analysis, RFA was shown to be superior to LA in terms of the pooled VRR and the number of patients who underwent delayed surgery.
Conclusion
Thermal ablations are safe and effective methods for treating benign thyroid nodules, as shown by a long follow-up analysis of more than 3 years. In addition, RFA showed superior VRRs compared with LA for the treatment of benign thyroid nodules, with less regrowth and less delayed surgery.

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Close layer
Clinical Study
C-Peptide-Based Index Is More Related to Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Non-Diabetic Subjects than Insulin-Based Index
Jong-Dai Kim, Sung Ju Kang, Min Kyung Lee, Se Eun Park, Eun Jung Rhee, Cheol-Young Park, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Won-Young Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(2):320-327.   Published online June 21, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.2.320
  • 5,249 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Diabetes can be efficiently prevented by life style modification and medical therapy. So, identification for high risk subjects for incident type 2 diabetes is important. The aim of this study is to identify the best β-cell function index to identify high risk subjects in non-diabetic Koreans.

Methods

This is a retrospective longitudinal study. Total 140 non-diabetic subjects who underwent standard 2-hour 75 g oral glucose tolerance test from January 2007 to February 2007 at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital and followed up for more than 1 year were analyzed (mean follow-up, 54.9±16.4 months). The subjects were consist of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (n=44) and subjects with prediabetes (n=97) who were 20 years of age or older. Samples for insulin and C-peptide levels were obtained at 0 and 30 minutes at baseline.

Results

Thirty subjects out of 140 subjects (21.4%) developed type 2 diabetes. When insulin-based index and C-peptide-based index are compared between progressor and non-progressor to diabetes, all C-peptide-based indices were statistically different between two groups, but only insulinogenic index and disposition index among insulin-based index were statistically different. C-peptide-based index had higher value of area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC) value than that of insulin-based index. "C-peptidogenic" index had highest AROC value among indices (AROC, 0.850; 95% confidence interval, 0.761 to 0.915). C-peptidogenic index had significantly higher AROC than insulinogenic index (0.850 vs. 0.731 respectively; P=0.014).

Conclusion

C-peptide-based index was more closely related to incident type 2 diabetes in non-diabetic subjects than insulin-based index.

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Close layer
Review Articles
Bone Metabolism
Long-Term Treatment of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Jacques P. Brown
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(3):544-552.   Published online June 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.301
  • 16,617 View
  • 989 Download
  • 43 Web of Science
  • 43 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Osteoporosis is an incurable chronic condition, like heart disease, diabetes, or hypertension. A large gap currently exists in the primary prevention of fractures, and studies show that an estimated 80% to 90% of adults do not receive appropriate osteoporosis management even in the secondary prevention setting. Case finding strategies have been developed and effective pharmacological interventions are available. This publication addresses how best to use the pharmacological options available for postmenopausal osteoporosis to provide lifelong fracture protection in patients at high and very high risk of fracture. The benefit of osteoporosis therapies far outweighs the rare risks.

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Close layer
Thyroid
Current Guidelines for Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
Mijin Kim, Bo Hyun Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(3):514-524.   Published online June 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1082
  • 19,416 View
  • 1,848 Download
  • 33 Web of Science
  • 36 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor originating from the parafollicular cells. The diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the condition are different from those used for well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Since the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of MTC, the latest, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and European Association for Medical Oncology guidelines have been updated to reflect several recent advances in the management of MTC. Advances in molecular diagnosis and postoperative risk stratification systems have led to individualized treatment and follow-up strategies. Multi-kinase inhibitors, such as vandetanib and cabozantinib, can prolong disease progression-free survival with favorable adverse effects. In addition, potent selective rearranged during transfection (RET) inhibitors (selpercatinib and pralsetinib) have shown a promising efficacy in recent clinical trials. This review summarizes the management of MTC in recent guidelines focused on sporadic MTC.

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Close layer
Original Article
Thyroid
Insights from a Prospective Follow-up of Thyroid Function and Autoimmunity among COVID-19 Survivors
David Tak Wai Lui, Chi Ho Lee, Wing Sun Chow, Alan Chun Hong Lee, Anthony Raymond Tam, Carol Ho Yi Fong, Chun Yiu Law, Eunice Ka Hong Leung, Kelvin Kai Wang To, Kathryn Choon Beng Tan, Yu Cho Woo, Ching Wan Lam, Ivan Fan Ngai Hung, Karen Siu Ling Lam
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(3):582-589.   Published online June 8, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.983
  • 11,436 View
  • 273 Download
  • 34 Web of Science
  • 36 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
The occurrence of Graves’ disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) raised concerns that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may trigger thyroid autoimmunity. We aimed to address the current uncertainties regarding incident thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity among COVID-19 survivors.
Methods
We included consecutive adult COVID-19 patients without known thyroid disorders, who were admitted to Queen Mary Hospital from July 21 to September 21, 2020 and had serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine (fT3), and anti-thyroid antibodies measured both on admission and at 3 months.
Results
In total, 122 patients were included. Among 20 patients with abnormal thyroid function tests (TFTs) on admission (mostly low fT3), 15 recovered. Among 102 patients with initial normal TFTs, two had new-onset abnormalities that could represent different phases of thyroiditis. Among 104 patients whose anti-thyroid antibody titers were reassessed, we observed increases in anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) (P<0.001) and anti-thyroglobulin (P<0.001), but not anti-thyroid stimulating hormone receptor titers (P=0.486). Of 82 patients with negative anti-TPO findings at baseline, 16 had a significant interval increase in anti-TPO titer by >12 U, and four became anti-TPO-positive. Worse baseline clinical severity (P=0.018), elevated C-reactive protein during hospitalization (P=0.033), and higher baseline anti-TPO titer (P=0.005) were associated with a significant increase in anti-TPO titer.
Conclusion
Most patients with thyroid dysfunction on admission recovered during convalescence. Abnormal TFTs suggestive of thyroiditis occurred during convalescence, but infrequently. Importantly, our novel observation of an increase in anti-thyroid antibody titers post-COVID-19 warrants further follow-up for incident thyroid dysfunction among COVID-19 survivors.

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Close layer
Review Article
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Effects of Intermittent Fasting on the Circulating Levels and Circadian Rhythms of Hormones
Bo Hye Kim, Yena Joo, Min-Seon Kim, Han Kyoung Choe, Qingchun Tong, Obin Kwon
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(4):745-756.   Published online August 27, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.405
  • 27,697 View
  • 1,048 Download
  • 32 Web of Science
  • 34 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Intermittent fasting has become an increasingly popular strategy in losing weight and associated reduction in obesity-related medical complications. Overwhelming studies support metabolic improvements from intermittent fasting in blood glucose levels, cardiac and brain function, and other health benefits, in addition to weight loss. However, concerns have also been raised on side effects including muscle loss, ketosis, and electrolyte imbalance. Of particular concern, the effect of intermittent fasting on hormonal circadian rhythms has received little attention. Given the known importance of circadian hormonal changes to normal physiology, potential detrimental effects by dysregulation of hormonal changes deserve careful discussions. In this review, we describe the changes in circadian rhythms of hormones caused by intermittent fasting. We covered major hormones commonly pathophysiologically involved in clinical endocrinology, including insulin, thyroid hormones, and glucocorticoids. Given that intermittent fasting could alter both the level and frequency of hormone secretion, decisions on practicing intermittent fasting should take more considerations on potential detrimental consequences versus beneficial effects pertaining to individual health conditions.

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Close layer
Original Articles
Clinical Study
Effect of Lactobacillus sakei, a Probiotic Derived from Kimchi, on Body Fat in Koreans with Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Study
Soo Lim, Ji Hye Moon, Chol Min Shin, Dahye Jeong, Bongjoon Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(2):425-434.   Published online June 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.2.425
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
The increased prevalence of obesity has led to increases in the prevalence of chronic diseases worldwide. There is interest whether probiotics have an effect on obesity, but the effectiveness and safety of only a few probiotics for the treatment of obesity have been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ingestion of Lactobacillus sakei (CJLS03) derived from kimchi causes weight loss in people with obesity.
Methods
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial involved 114 adults with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 who were assigned randomly to a CJLS03 or placebo group. The groups received two allocations of either 5×109 colony-forming units of CJLS03/allocation or the equivalent vehicle for 12 weeks. Demographic and biochemical parameters, and body composition including fat and muscle mass were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Changes in body fat, weight, and waist circumference were compared between the two treatment groups. Adverse events were monitored during study period.
Results
Body fat mass decreased by 0.2 kg in the CJLS03 group and increased by 0.6 kg in the placebo group (0.8 kg difference, P=0.018). After the 12 weeks, waist circumference was 0.8 cm smaller in the CJLS03 group than in the placebo group (P=0.013). BMI and body weight did not change after the 12 weeks. Adverse events were mild and did not differ between the two groups.
Conclusion
These data suggest that L. sakei (CJLS03) might help people with obesity reduce body fat mass without serious side effects (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03248414).

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Effect of Dapagliflozin on Alanine Aminotransferase Improvement in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Dug-Hyun Choi, Chan-Hee Jung, Ji-Oh Mok, Chul-Hee Kim, Sung-Koo Kang, Bo-Yeon Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2018;33(3):387-394.   Published online September 18, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2018.33.3.387
  • 5,442 View
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  • 36 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are expected to improve the liver function of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) combined type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by its characteristic mechanism. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dapagliflozin, one of the SGLT2i, on the liver function of T2DM with NAFLD when combined with metformin.

Methods

Among patients who received dual oral hypoglycemic agents within the 3 months of diagnosing NAFLD, patients who had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (>40 IU/L) were included. Patients were divided into two groups: metformin+dapagliflozin group and metformin+dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) group. Demographic data, biochemical data and the clinical and treatment histories of all patients were reviewed.

Results

A total of 102 patients were included (dapagliflozin group, n=50; DPP4i group, n=52). Dapagliflozin group showed more weight loss and more ALT decline than DPP4i group (−2.9 kg vs. −0.4 kg, P=0.005; −21.1 U/L vs. −9.5 U/L, P=0.008, respectively) and the proportion of patients with ALT normalization after treatment was also significantly higher in the dapagliflozin group (80.0% vs. 61.5%, P=0.041). The effect of dapagliflozin with metformin on ALT normalization remained significant after adjustment for confounding variables including body weight loss (odds ratio, 3.489; P=0.046).

Conclusion

ALT improvement was statistically significant in the dapagliflozin than the DPP4i when combined with metformin and the result was consistent after adjustment for confounding variables including body weight loss.

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Trends in Diabetes Incidence in the Last Decade Based on Korean National Health Insurance Claims Data
Sun Ok Song, Yong-ho Lee, Dong Wook Kim, Young Duk Song, Joo Young Nam, Kyoung Hye Park, Dae Jung Kim, Seok Won Park, Hyun Chul Lee, Byung-Wan Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(2):292-299.   Published online June 10, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.2.292
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  • 36 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Epidemiological data is useful to estimate the necessary manpower and resources used for disease control and prevention of prevalent chronic diseases. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of diabetes and identify its trends based on the claims data from the National Health Insurance Service database over the last decade.

Methods

We extracted claims data on diabetes as the principal and first additional diagnoses of National Health Insurance from January 2003 to December 2012. We investigated the number of newly claimed subjects with diabetes codes, the number of claims and the demographic characteristics of this population.

Results

Total numbers of claimed cases and populations with diabetes continuously increased from 1,377,319 in 2003 to 2,571,067 by 2012. However, the annual number of newly claimed diabetic subjects decreased in the last decade. The total number of new claim patients with diabetes codes decreased as 30.9% over 2005 to 2009. Since 2009, the incidence of new diabetes claim patients has not experienced significant change. The 9-year average incidence rate was 0.98% and 1.01% in men and women, respectively. The data showed an increasing proportion of new diabetic subjects of younger age (<60 years) combined with a sharply decreasing proportion of subjects of older age (≥60 years).

Conclusion

There were increasing numbers of newly claimed subjects with diabetes codes of younger age over the last 10 years. This increasing number of diabetic patients will require management throughout their life courses because Korea is rapidly becoming an aging society.

Citations

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Association of the Preoperative Neutrophil-to-ymphocyte Count Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Count Ratio with Clinicopathological Characteristics in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Sang Mi Kim, Eun Heui Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Jong Ho Kim, Su Bin Park, Yoon Jeong Nam, Kang Hee Ahn, Min Young Oh, Won Jin Kim, Yun Kyung Jeon, Sang Soo Kim, Yong Ki Kim, In Ju Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(4):494-501.   Published online December 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.4.494
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  • 34 Web of Science
  • 34 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Several inflammatory biomarkers, especially a high preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte count ratio (PLR), are known to be indicator of poor prognosis in several cancers. However, very few studies have evaluated the significance of the NLR and PLR in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We evaluated the association of the preoperative NLR and PLR with clinicopathological characteristics in patients with PTC.

Methods

This study included 1,066 female patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for PTC. Patients were stratified into 4 quartiles by preoperative NLR and PLR. And the combination of preoperative NLR and PLR was calculated on the basis of data obtained value of tertile as follows: patients with both an elevated PLR and an elevated NLR were allocated a score of 2, and patients showing one or neither were allocated a score of 1 or 0, respectively.

Results

The preoperative NLR and PLR were significantly lower in patients aged ≥45 years and in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The PLR was significantly higher in patients with tumor size >1 cm (P=0.021).When the patients were categorized into the aforementioned four groups, the group with the higher preoperative PLR was found to have a significantly increased incidence of lateral lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P=0.018). However, there are no significant association between the combination of preoperative NLR and PLR and prognostic factors in PTC patients.

Conclusion

These results suggest that a preoperative high PLR were significant associated with lateral LNM in female patients with PTC.

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Review Article
Miscellaneous
Quality Matters as Much as Quantity of Skeletal Muscle: Clinical Implications of Myosteatosis in Cardiometabolic Health
Hong-Kyu Kim, Chul-Hee Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(6):1161-1174.   Published online December 28, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1348
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Although age-related changes in skeletal muscles are closely associated with decreases in muscle strength and functional decline, their associations with cardiometabolic diseases in the literature are inconsistent. Such inconsistency could be explained by the fact that muscle quality—which is closely associated with fatty infiltration of the muscle (i.e., myosteatosis)—is as important as muscle quantity in cardiometabolic health. However, muscle quality has been less explored compared with muscle mass. Moreover, the standard definition of myosteatosis and its assessment methods have not been established yet. Recently, some techniques using single axial computed tomography (CT) images have been introduced and utilized in many studies, as the mass and quality of abdominal muscles could be measured opportunistically on abdominal CT scans obtained during routine clinical care. Yet, the mechanisms by which myosteatosis affect metabolic and cardiovascular health remain largely unknown. In this review, we explore the recent advances in the assessment of myosteatosis and its changes associated with aging. We also review the recent literature on the clinical implication of myosteatosis by focusing on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Finally, we discuss the challenges and unanswered questions that need addressing to set myosteatosis as a therapeutic target for the prevention or treatment of cardiometabolic diseases.

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