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Volume 39(2); April 2024
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Review Articles
Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
Scaling Insulin-Producing Cells by Multiple Strategies
Jinhyuk Choi, Fritz Cayabyab, Harvey Perez, Eiji Yoshihara
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):191-205.   Published online April 4, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1910
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
In the quest to combat insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), allogenic pancreatic islet cell therapy sourced from deceased donors represents a significant therapeutic advance. However, the applicability of this approach is hampered by donor scarcity and the demand for sustained immunosuppression. Human induced pluripotent stem cells are a game-changing resource for generating synthetic functional insulin-producing β cells. In addition, novel methodologies allow the direct expansion of pancreatic progenitors and mature β cells, thereby circumventing prolonged differentiation. Nevertheless, achieving practical reproducibility and scalability presents a substantial challenge for this technology. As these innovative approaches become more prominent, it is crucial to thoroughly evaluate existing expansion techniques with an emphasis on their optimization and scalability. This manuscript delineates these cutting-edge advancements, offers a critical analysis of the prevailing strategies, and underscores pivotal challenges, including cost-efficiency and logistical issues. Our insights provide a roadmap, elucidating both the promises and the imperatives in harnessing the potential of these cellular therapies for IDDM.
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Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Based Therapies: A New Horizon in Obesity Management
Jang Won Son, Soo Lim
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):206-221.   Published online April 16, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1940
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  • 234 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Obesity is a significant risk factor for health issues like type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It often proves resistant to traditional lifestyle interventions, prompting a need for more precise therapeutic strategies. This has led to a focus on signaling pathways and neuroendocrine mechanisms to develop targeted obesity treatments. Recent developments in obesity management have been revolutionized by introducing novel glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) based drugs, such as semaglutide and tirzepatide. These drugs are part of an emerging class of nutrient-stimulated hormone-based therapeutics, acting as incretin mimetics to target G-protein–coupled receptors like GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon. These receptors are vital in regulating body fat and energy balance. The development of multiagonists, including GLP-1–glucagon and GIP–GLP-1–glucagon receptor agonists, especially with the potential for glucagon receptor activation, marks a significant advancement in the field. This review covers the development and clinical efficacy of various GLP-1-based therapeutics, exploring the challenges and future directions in obesity management.
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Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
Glucocorticoid-Induced Hyperglycemia: A Neglected Problem
Jung-Hwan Cho, Sunghwan Suh
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):222-238.   Published online March 27, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1951
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  • 143 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Glucocorticoids provide a potent therapeutic response and are widely used to treat a variety of diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. However, the issue of glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia (GIH), which is observed in over one-third of patients treated with glucocorticoids, is often neglected. To improve the clinical course and prognosis of diseases that necessitate glucocorticoid therapy, proper management of GIH is essential. The key pathophysiology of GIH includes systemic insulin resistance, which exacerbates hepatic steatosis and visceral obesity, as well as proteolysis and lipolysis of muscle and adipose tissue, coupled with β-cell dysfunction. For patients on glucocorticoid therapy, risk stratification should be conducted through a detailed baseline evaluation, and frequent glucose monitoring is recommended to detect the onset of GIH, particularly in high-risk individuals. Patients with confirmed GIH who require treatment should follow an insulin-centered regimen that varies depending on whether they are inpatients or outpatients, as well as the type and dosage of glucocorticoid used. The ideal strategy to maintain normoglycemia while preventing hypoglycemia is to combine basal-bolus insulin and correction doses with a continuous glucose monitoring system. This review focuses on the current understanding and latest evidence concerning GIH, incorporating insights gained from the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
Young-Onset Diabetes in East Asians: From Epidemiology to Precision Medicine
Juliana C.N. Chan, Chun-Kwan O, Andrea O.Y. Luk
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):239-254.   Published online April 16, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1968
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Precision diagnosis is the keystone of clinical medicine. In East Asians, classical type 1 diabetes is uncommon in patients with youngonset diabetes diagnosed before age of 40, in whom a family history, obesity, and beta-cell and kidney dysfunction are key features. Young-onset diabetes affects one in five Asian adults with diabetes in clinic settings; however, it is often misclassified, resulting in delayed or non-targeted treatment. Complex aetiologies, long disease duration, aggressive clinical course, and a lack of evidence-based guidelines have contributed to variable care standards and premature death in these young patients. The high burden of comorbidities, notably mental illness, highlights the numerous knowledge gaps related to this silent killer. The majority of adult patients with youngonset diabetes are managed as part of a heterogeneous population of patients with various ages of diagnosis. A multidisciplinary care team led by physicians with special interest in young-onset diabetes will help improve the precision of diagnosis and address their physical, mental, and behavioral health. To this end, payors, planners, and providers need to align and re-design the practice environment to gather data systematically during routine practice to elucidate the multicausality of young-onset diabetes, treat to multiple targets, and improve outcomes in these vulnerable individuals.
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Calcium & bone metabolism
Acquired Forms of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23-Related Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia
Nobuaki Ito, Naoko Hidaka, Hajime Kato
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):255-261.   Published online March 11, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1908
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a pivotal humoral factor for the regulation of serum phosphate levels and was first identified in patients with autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets and tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO), the most common form of acquired FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia (FGF23rHR). After the identification of FGF23, many other inherited and acquired forms of FGF23rHR were reported. In this review article, the detailed features of each acquired FGF23rHR are discussed, including TIO, ectopic FGF23 syndrome with malignancy, fibrous dysplasia/McCune-Albright syndrome, Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome/cutaneous skeletal hypophosphatemia syndrome, intravenous iron preparation-induced FGF23rHR, alcohol consumption-induced FGF23rHR, and post-kidney transplantation hypophosphatemia. Then, an approach for the differential diagnosis and therapeutic options for each disorder are concisely introduced. Currently, the majority of endocrinologists might only consider TIO when encountering patients with acquired FGF23rHR; an adequate differential diagnosis can reduce medical costs and invasive procedures such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography and venous sampling to identify FGF23-producing tumors. Furthermore, some acquired FGF23rHRs, such as intravenous iron preparation/alcohol consumption-induced FGF23rHR, require only cessation of drugs or alcohol to achieve full recovery from osteomalacia.
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Calcium & bone metabolism
Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism by Re-Establishing the Effects of Parathyroid Hormone
Lars Rejnmark
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):262-266.   Published online April 4, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1916
  • 2,012 View
  • 134 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The conventional treatment of hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) includes active vitamin D and calcium. Despite normalization of calcium levels, the conventional treatment is associated with fluctuations in calcium levels, hypercalciuria, renal impairment, and decreased quality of life (QoL). Replacement therapy with parathyroid hormone (PTH)(1-84) is an option in some countries. However, convincing beneficial effects have not been demonstrated, which may be due to the short duration of action of this treatment. Recently, palopegteriparatide (also known as TransCon PTH) has been marketed in Europe and is expected also to be approved in other countries. Palopegteriparatide is a prodrug with sustained release of PTH(1-34) designed to provide stable physiological PTH levels for 24 hours/day. A phase 3 study demonstrated maintenance of normocalcemia in patients with chronic HypoPT, with no need for conventional therapy. Furthermore, this treatment lowers urinary calcium and improves QoL. Another long-acting PTH analog with effects on the parathyroid hormone receptor (eneboparatide) is currently being tested in a phase 3 trial. Furthermore, the treatment of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia type 1 with a calcilytic (encaleret) is also being tested. All in all, improved treatment options are on the way that will likely take the treatment of HypoPT to the next level.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Hypoparathyroidism update
    Cherie Chiang
    Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes & Obesity.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Calcium & bone metabolism
Bone Loss after Solid Organ Transplantation: A Review of Organ-Specific Considerations
Kyoung Jin Kim, Jeonghoon Ha, Sang Wan Kim, Jung-Eun Kim, Sihoon Lee, Han Seok Choi, Namki Hong, Sung Hye Kong, Seong Hee Ahn, So Young Park, Ki-Hyun Baek, on Behalf of Metabolic Bone Disease Study Group of Korean Endocrine Society
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):267-282.   Published online April 25, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1939
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
This review article investigates solid organ transplantation-induced osteoporosis, a critical yet often overlooked issue, emphasizing its significance in post-transplant care. The initial sections provide a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence and multifactorial pathogenesis of transplantation osteoporosis, including factors such as deteriorating post-transplantation health, hormonal changes, and the impact of immunosuppressive medications. Furthermore, the review is dedicated to organ-specific considerations in transplantation osteoporosis, with separate analyses for kidney, liver, heart, and lung transplantations. Each section elucidates the unique challenges and management strategies pertinent to transplantation osteoporosis in relation to each organ type, highlighting the necessity of an organ-specific approach to fully understand the diverse manifestations and implications of transplantation osteoporosis. This review underscores the importance of this topic in transplant medicine, aiming to enhance awareness and knowledge among clinicians and researchers. By comprehensively examining transplantation osteoporosis, this study contributes to the development of improved management and care strategies, ultimately leading to improved patient outcomes in this vulnerable group. This detailed review serves as an essential resource for those involved in the complex multidisciplinary care of transplant recipients.
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Editorials
Thyroid
The Levothyroxine Odyssey: Navigating the Path of Survivorship in Thyroid Cancer
Jin Hwa Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):283-284.   Published online April 25, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.201
  • 1,360 View
  • 36 Download
PDFPubReader   ePub   
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Thyroid
Selective Agonists of Thyroid Hormone Receptor Beta: Promising Tools for the Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Sun Wook Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):285-287.   Published online April 25, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.203
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  • 37 Download
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Original Articles
Thyroid
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
Risk of Subsequent Primary Cancers in Thyroid Cancer Survivors according to the Dose of Levothyroxine: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Min-Su Kim, Jang Won Lee, Min Kyung Hyun, Young Shin Song
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):288-299.   Published online March 4, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1815
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  • 82 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Current research has not investigated the effect of thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy with levothyroxine on the risk for developing subsequent primary cancers (SPCs). This study aimed to investigate the association between levothyroxine dosage and the risk for SPCs in thyroid cancer patients.
Methods
We conducted a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study form Korean National Health Insurance database. This cohort included 342,920 thyroid cancer patients between 2004 and 2018. Patients were divided into the non-levothyroxine and the levothyroxine groups, the latter consisting of four dosage subgroups according to quartiles. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to evaluate the risk for SPCs by adjusting for variables including cumulative doses of radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy.
Results
A total of 17,410 SPC cases were observed over a median 7.3 years of follow-up. The high-dose levothyroxine subgroups (Q3 and Q4) had a higher risk for SPC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.14 and 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.24 and 1.17– 1.37; respectively) compared to the non-levothyroxine group. In particular, the adjusted HR of stomach (1.31), colorectal (1.60), liver and biliary tract (1.95), and pancreatic (2.48) cancers were increased in the Q4 subgroup. We consistently observed a positive association between high levothyroxine dosage per body weight and risk of SPCs, even after adjusting for various confounding variables. Moreover, similar results were identified in the stratified analyses according to thyroidectomy type and RAI therapy, as well as in a subgroup analysis of patients with good adherence.
Conclusion
High-dose levothyroxine use was associated with increased risk of SPCs among thyroid cancer patients regardless of RAI therapy.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Levothyroxine Odyssey: Navigating the Path of Survivorship in Thyroid Cancer
    Jin Hwa Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2024; 39(2): 283.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
The Diagnostic Role of Repeated Biopsy of Thyroid Nodules with Atypia of Undetermined Significance with Architectural Atypia on Core-Needle Biopsy
Hye Hyeon Moon, Sae Rom Chung, Young Jun Choi, Tae-Yon Sung, Dong Eun Song, Tae Yong Kim, Jeong Hyun Lee, Jung Hwan Baek
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):300-309.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1818
  • 1,353 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We aimed to evaluate the utility of repeat biopsy of thyroid nodules classified as atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (IIIB) on core-needle biopsy (CNB).
Methods
This retrospective study evaluated patients with thyroid nodules categorized as IIIB on CNB between 2013 and 2015. Demographic characteristics, subsequent biopsy results, and ultrasound (US) images were evaluated. The malignancy rates of nodules according to number of CNBs and the number of IIIB diagnoses was compared. Demographic and US features were evaluated to determine factors predictive of malignancy.
Results
Of 1,003 IIIB nodules on CNB, the final diagnosis was determined for 328 (32.7%) nodules, with 121 of them confirmed as malignant, resulting in a malignancy rate of 36.9% (95% confidence interval, 31.7% to 42.1%). Repeat CNB was performed in 248 nodules (24.7%), with 75 (30.2%), 131 (52.8%), 13 (5.2%), 26 (10.5%), one (0.4%), and two (0.8%) reclassified into categories II, IIIB, IIIA, IV, V, and VI, respectively. Malignancy rates were not significantly affected by the number of CNBs (P=0.291) or the number of IIIB diagnoses (P=0.473). None of the nodules confirmed as category II on repeat CNB was malignant. US features significantly associated with malignancy (P<0.003) included solid composition, irregular margins, microcalcifications, and high suspicion on the US risk stratification system.
Conclusion
Repeat biopsy of nodules diagnosed with IIIB on CNB did not increase the detection of malignancy but can potentially reduce unnecessary surgery. Repeat biopsy should be performed selectively, with US features guiding the choice between repeat biopsy and diagnostic surgery.
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Thyroid
Thyroid Cancer Screening
Cost-Utility Analysis of Early Detection with Ultrasonography of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Retrospective Study on a Korean Population
Han-Sang Baek, Jeonghoon Ha, Kwangsoon Kim, Ja Seong Bae, Jeong Soo Kim, Sungju Kim, Dong-Jun Lim, Chul-Min Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):310-323.   Published online April 9, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1870
  • 1,456 View
  • 42 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
There is debate about ultrasonography screening for thyroid cancer and its cost-effectiveness. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of early screening (ES) versus symptomatic detection (SD) for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in Korea.
Methods
A Markov decision analysis model was constructed to compare the cost-effectiveness of ES and SD. The model considered direct medical costs, health outcomes, and different diagnostic and treatment pathways. Input data were derived from literature and Korean population studies. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. Willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold was set at USD 100,000 or 20,000 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address uncertainties of the model’s variables.
Results
In a base case scenario with 50 years of follow-up, ES was found to be cost-effective compared to SD, with an ICER of $2,852 per QALY. With WTP set at $100,000, in the case with follow-up less than 10 years, the SD was cost-effective. Sensitivity analysis showed that variables such as lobectomy probability, age, mortality, and utility scores significantly influenced the ICER. Despite variations in costs and other factors, all ICER values remained below the WTP threshold.
Conclusion
Findings of this study indicate that ES is a cost-effective strategy for DTC screening in the Korean medical system. Early detection and subsequent lobectomy contribute to the cost-effectiveness of ES, while SD at an advanced stage makes ES more cost-effective. Expected follow-up duration should be considered to determine an optimal strategy for DTC screening.
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Thyroid
Clinicopathological Features and Molecular Signatures of Lateral Neck Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma
Jinsun Lim, Han Sai Lee, Jin-Hyung Heo, Young Shin Song
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):324-333.   Published online April 4, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1885
  • 1,408 View
  • 40 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The predictive factors for lateral neck lymph node metastasis (LLNM) in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) remain undetermined. This study investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, transcriptomes, and tumor microenvironment in PTMC according to the LLNM status. We aimed to identify the biomarkers associated with LLNM development.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with PTMC from two independent institutions between 2018 and 2022 (n=597 and n=467). We compared clinicopathological features between patients without lymph node metastasis (N0) and those with LLNM (N1b). Additionally, laser capture microdissection and RNA sequencing were performed on primary tumors from both groups, including metastatic lymph nodes from the N1b group (n=30; 20 primary tumors and 10 paired LLNMs). We corroborated the findings using RNA sequencing data from 16 BRAF-like PTMCs from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Transcriptomic analyses were validated by immunohistochemical staining.
Results
Clinicopathological characteristics, such as male sex, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, lymphatic invasion, and central node metastasis showed associations with LLNM in PTMCs. Transcriptomic profiles between the N0 and N1b PTMC groups were similar. However, tumor microenvironment deconvolution from RNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry revealed an increased abundance of tumor-associated macrophages, particularly M2 macrophages, in the N1b group.
Conclusion
Patients with PTMC who have a male sex, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, lymphatic invasion, and central node metastasis exhibited an elevated risk for LLNM. Furthermore, infiltration of M2 macrophages in the tumor microenvironment potentially supports tumor progression and LLNM in PTMCs.
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Thyroid
Prognostic Roles of Inflammatory Biomarkers in Radioiodine-Refractory Thyroid Cancer Treated with Lenvatinib
Chae A Kim, Mijin Kim, Meihua Jin, Hee Kyung Kim, Min Ji Jeon, Dong Jun Lim, Bo Hyun Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang, Won Bae Kim, Dong Yeob Shin, Won Gu Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):334-343.   Published online April 4, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1854
  • 1,425 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Inflammatory biomarkers, such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), serve as valuable prognostic indicators in various cancers. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study assessed the treatment outcomes of lenvatinib in 71 patients with radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory thyroid cancer, considering the baseline inflammatory biomarkers.
Methods
This study retrospectively included patients from five tertiary hospitals in Korea whose complete blood counts were available before lenvatinib treatment. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated based on the median value of inflammatory biomarkers.
Results
No significant differences in baseline characteristics were observed among patients grouped according to the inflammatory biomarkers, except for older patients with a higher-than-median NLR (≥2) compared to their counterparts with a lower NLR (P= 0.01). Patients with a higher-than-median NLR had significantly shorter PFS (P=0.02) and OS (P=0.017) than those with a lower NLR. In multivariate analysis, a higher-than-median NLR was significantly associated with poor OS (hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.24 to 7.29; P=0.015). However, neither the LMR nor the PLR was associated with PFS. A higher-than-median LMR (≥3.9) was significantly associated with prolonged OS compared to a lower LMR (P=0.036). In contrast, a higher-than-median PLR (≥142.1) was associated with shorter OS compared to a lower PLR (P=0.039).
Conclusion
Baseline inflammatory biomarkers can serve as predictive indicators of PFS and OS in patients with RAI-refractory thyroid cancer treated with lenvatinib.
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Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
Effectiveness of a Social Networking Site Based Automatic Mobile Message Providing System on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Kyuho Kim, Jae-Seung Yun, Joonyub Lee, Yeoree Yang, Minhan Lee, Yu-Bae Ahn, Jae Hyoung Cho, Seung-Hyun Ko
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(2):344-352.   Published online December 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1871
  • 1,486 View
  • 58 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study investigated the effectiveness of a social networking site (SNS)-based automatic mobile message providing system on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
A 3-month, randomized, open-label, controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted. One hundred and ten participants with T2DM were randomized to a mobile message system (MMS) (n=55) or control group (n=55). The MMS group received protocolbased automated messages two times per day for 10 weeks regarding diabetes self-management through KakaoTalk SNS messenger. The primary outcome was the difference in the change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (%) from baseline to week 12.
Results
HbA1c levels were more markedly decreased in the MMS group (8.4%±0.7% to 8.0%±1.1%) than in the control group (8.5%±0.8% to 8.4%±0.8%), resulting in a significant between-group difference (P=0.027). No differences were observed in changes in fasting glucose levels, lipid profiles, and the number of participants who experienced hypoglycemia, or in changes in lifestyle behavior between groups. However, the self-monitoring of blood glucose frequency was significantly increased in the MMS group compared to the control group (P=0.003). In addition, sleep duration was increased in the MMS group, but was not changed in the control group.
Conclusion
An SNS-based automatic mobile message providing system was effective in improving glycemic control in patients in T2DM. Studies which based on a more individualized protocol, and investigate longer beneficial effect and sustainability will be required in the future.
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