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From articles published in Endocrinology and Metabolism during the past two years (2022 ~ ).

Review Articles
Thyroid
Update from the 2022 World Health Organization Classification of Thyroid Tumors: A Standardized Diagnostic Approach
Chan Kwon Jung, Andrey Bychkov, Kennichi Kakudo
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(5):703-718.   Published online October 4, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1553
  • 13,311 View
  • 1,854 Download
  • 39 Web of Science
  • 52 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The fifth edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) histologic classification of thyroid neoplasms released in 2022 includes newly recognized tumor types, subtypes, and a grading system. Follicular cell-derived neoplasms are categorized into three families (classes): benign tumors, low-risk neoplasms, and malignant neoplasms. The terms “follicular nodular disease” and “differentiated high-grade thyroid carcinoma” are introduced to account for multifocal hyperplastic/neoplastic lesions and differentiated thyroid carcinomas with high-grade features, respectively. The term “Hürthle cells” is replaced with “oncocytic cells.” Invasive encapsulated follicular and cribriform morular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are now redefined as distinct tumor types, given their different genetic alterations and clinicopathologic characteristics from other PTC subtypes. The term “variant” to describe a subclass of tumor has been replaced with the term “subtype.” Instead, the term “variant” is reserved to describe genetic alterations. A histologic grading system based on the mitotic count, necrosis, and/or the Ki67 index is used to identify high-grade follicular-cell derived carcinomas and medullary thyroid carcinomas. The 2022 WHO classification introduces the following new categories: “salivary gland-type carcinomas of the thyroid” and “thyroid tumors of uncertain histogenesis.” This review summarizes the major changes in the 2022 WHO classification and their clinical relevance.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Serge Guyétant, Myriam Decaussin Petrucci, Emmanuelle Leteurtre
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  • Diagnostic Performance of [18F]TFB PET/CT Compared with Therapeutic Activity [131I]Iodine SPECT/CT and [18F]FDG PET/CT in Recurrent Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma
    David Ventura, Matthias Dittmann, Florian Büther, Michael Schäfers, Kambiz Rahbar, Daniel Hescheler, Michael Claesener, Philipp Schindler, Burkhard Riemann, Robert Seifert, Wolfgang Roll
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  • Clinicopathological features of differentiated thyroid carcinoma as predictors of the effects of radioactive iodine therapy
    Wen Liu, Beibei Jiang, Jingli Xue, Ruijing Liu, Yuqing Wei, Peifeng Li
    Annals of Diagnostic Pathology.2024; 69: 152243.     CrossRef
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    Toui Nishikawa, Ibu Matsuzaki, Ayata Takahashi, Iwamoto Ryuta, Fidele Yambayamba Musangile, Kanako Sagan, Mizuki Nishikawa, Yurina Mikasa, Yuichi Takahashi, Fumiyoshi Kojima, Shin-ichi Murata
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  • Review of the 2023 World Congress on Thyroid Cancer (WCTC 2023, London): is there light at the end of the tunnel for patients with neglected cancer?
    S.M. Cherenko
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine).2024; 19(8): 609.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Alterations and Comprehensive Clinical Management of Oncocytic Thyroid Carcinoma
    Lindsay A. Bischoff, Ian Ganly, Laura Fugazzola, Erin Buczek, William C. Faquin, Bryan R. Haugen, Bryan McIver, Caitlin P. McMullen, Kate Newbold, Daniel J. Rocke, Marika D. Russell, Mabel Ryder, Peter M. Sadow, Eric Sherman, Maisie Shindo, David C. Shonk
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    Serge Guyétant
    Annales de Pathologie.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic implication of thyroid spherules for cytological diagnosis of thyroid nodules
    Heeseung Sohn, Kennichi Kakudo, Chan Kwon Jung
    Cytopathology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Aggressive Primary Thyroid Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma with Extensive Pulmonary Involvement
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    Pathology - Research and Practice.2024; 254: 155156.     CrossRef
  • Hürthle cell (Oncocytic) carcinoma – Is hemithyroidectomy enough?
    Taylor O. Julsrud, Trenton R. Foster, Robert A. Vierkant, Melanie L. Lyden, Travis J. McKenzie, Mabel Ryder, Benzon M. Dy
    Surgical Oncology Insight.2024; 1(1): 100010.     CrossRef
  • Échographie des carcinomes thyroïdiens différenciés de souche folliculaire
    P.Y. Marcy, M. Tassart, J.G. Marchand, J. Sanglier, A. Bizeau, E. Ghanassia
    Journal d'imagerie diagnostique et interventionnelle.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Differentiating BRAF V600E- and RAS-like alterations in encapsulated follicular patterned tumors through histologic features: a validation study
    Chankyung Kim, Shipra Agarwal, Andrey Bychkov, Jen-Fan Hang, Agnes Stephanie Harahap, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Kennichi Kakudo, Somboon Keelawat, Chih-Yi Liu, Zhiyan Liu, Truong Phan-Xuan Nguyen, Chanchal Rana, Huy Gia Vuong, Yun Zhu, Chan Kwon Jung
    Virchows Archiv.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Update on C-Cell Neuroendocrine Neoplasm: Prognostic and Predictive Histopathologic and Molecular Features of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
    Chan Kwon Jung, Shipra Agarwal, Jen-Fan Hang, Dong-Jun Lim, Andrey Bychkov, Ozgur Mete
    Endocrine Pathology.2023; 34(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • The 5th edition of WHO classification of tumors of endocrine organs: changes in the diagnosis of follicular-derived thyroid carcinoma
    Fulvio Basolo, Elisabetta Macerola, Anello Marcello Poma, Liborio Torregrossa
    Endocrine.2023; 80(3): 470.     CrossRef
  • Preoperative Risk Stratification of Follicular-patterned Thyroid Lesions on Core Needle Biopsy by Histologic Subtyping and RAS Variant-specific Immunohistochemistry
    Meejeong Kim, Sora Jeon, Chan Kwon Jung
    Endocrine Pathology.2023; 34(2): 247.     CrossRef
  • Ultrasound evolution of parenchymal changes in the thyroid gland with autoimmune thyroiditis in children prior to the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma – a follow-up study
    Dominika Januś, Monika Kujdowicz, Małgorzata Wójcik, Anna Taczanowska-Niemczuk, Aleksandra Kiszka-Wiłkojć, Wojciech Górecki, Jerzy B. Starzyk
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma with aggressive fused follicular and solid growth pattern: A unique histological subtype with high‐grade malignancy?
    Shin‐ichi Murata, Ibu Matsuzaki, Mitsuo Kishimoto, Naomi Katsuki, Toshinori Onishi, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Fumiyoshi Kojima
    Pathology International.2023; 73(5): 207.     CrossRef
  • Multi-Omics and Management of Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid
    Thifhelimbilu Emmanuel Luvhengo, Ifongo Bombil, Arian Mokhtari, Maeyane Stephens Moeng, Demetra Demetriou, Claire Sanders, Zodwa Dlamini
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(4): 1217.     CrossRef
  • Molecular Genetics of Diffuse Sclerosing Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    Meshael Alswailem, Balgees Alghamdi, Anwar Alotaibi, Abeer Aljomiah, Hindi Al-Hindi, Avaniyapuram Kannan Murugan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Yufei Shi, Ali S Alzahrani
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 108(9): e704.     CrossRef
  • Multifunctional Phase-Transition Nanoparticles for Effective Targeted Sonodynamic-Gene Therapy Against Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma
    Shihui Guan, Dengke Teng, Hui Wang, Qimeihui Wang, Xi Zhen, Guoqing Sui, Yang Wang, Lingyu Zhu, Yuanqiang Lin, Dan Jiao, Feng Guo
    International Journal of Nanomedicine.2023; Volume 18: 2275.     CrossRef
  • Utilizing Dynamic Risk Stratification in Patients With Tall Cell Variant Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    David Zimmer, Gilman Plitt, Brandon Prendes, Jamie Ku, Natalie Silver, Eric Lamarre, Emrullah Yilmaz, Jessica Geiger, Christian Nasr, Lea El Hage, Mario Skugor, Shauna Cambpell, Shlomo Koyfman, Jacob Miller, Neil Woody, Katherine Heiden, Nikhil Joshi, Tar
    The Laryngoscope.2023; 133(9): 2430.     CrossRef
  • Ultrasound, laboratory and histopathological insights in diagnosing papillary thyroid carcinoma in a paediatric population: a single centre follow-up study between 2000-2022
    Dominika Januś, Małgorzata Wójcik, Anna Taczanowska-Niemczuk, Aleksandra Kiszka-Wiłkojć, Monika Kujdowicz, Małgorzata Czogała, Wojciech Górecki, Jerzy B. Starzyk
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Single Institute Experience
    Sonal Trivedi, T. Salahuddin, Mohamed Taher Mithi, Priyank Rathod, Arpit Bandi, Shashank J. Pandya, Mohit Sharma, Shailesh Patel, Vikas Warikoo, Ketul Puj, Abhijeet Salunkhe, Keval Patel, Shivam Pandya
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  • FNAC (Fine needle aspiration cytology) and histopathological correlation and reclassification of thyroid neoplasm in accordance with WHO classification 2022
    Fareeda Joshi, Shreya Hegde
    Indian Journal of Pathology and Oncology.2023; 10(2): 132.     CrossRef
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with non‑functioning parathyroid carcinoma with Warthin's tumor of the parotid gland: A case report and brief literature review
    Ari Abdullah, Aras Qaradakhy, Yadgar Saeed, Abdulwahid Salih, Seema Karim, Osama Ali, Shko Hassan, Shalaw Nasraldeen, Shvan Mohammed, Fahmi Kakamad
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    Abdel Mouhaymen Missaoui, Fatma Hamza, Wafa Belabed, Manel Mellouli, Mohamed Maaloul, Slim Charfi, Issam Jardak, Tahya Sellami-Boudawara, Nabila Rekik, Mohamed Abid
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Chan Kwon Jung
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2023; 57(4): 208.     CrossRef
  • Cancer Predisposition Syndromes and Thyroid Cancer: Keys for a Short Two-Way Street
    Ioana Balinisteanu, Monica-Cristina Panzaru, Lavinia Caba, Maria-Christina Ungureanu, Andreea Florea, Ana Maria Grigore, Eusebiu Vlad Gorduza
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(8): 2143.     CrossRef
  • Deep learning prediction model for central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma based on cytology
    Wenhao Ren, Yanli Zhu, Qian Wang, Yuntao Song, Zhihui Fan, Yanhua Bai, Dongmei Lin
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  • Cytology and Histology of Thyroid Nodules: Exploring Novel Insights in the Molecular Era for Enhanced Patient Management
    Beatrix Cochand-Priollet, Zahra Maleki
    Current Oncology.2023; 30(8): 7753.     CrossRef
  • Agrin is a novel oncogenic protein in thyroid cancer
    Anna Adamiok‑Ostrowska, Małgorzata Grzanka, Barbara Czarnocka
    Oncology Letters.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    身吾 王
    Advances in Clinical Medicine.2023; 13(10): 15820.     CrossRef
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    Wei Liu, Junkan Zhu, Zhen Wu, Yongxiang Yin, Qiao Wu, Yiming Wu, Jiaojiao Zheng, Cong Wang, Hongyan Chen, Talal Jamil Qazi, Jun Wu, Yuqing Zhang, Houbao Liu, Jingmin Yang, Daru Lu, Xumin Zhang, Zhilong Ai
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  • Identification of NIFTP-Specific mRNA Markers for Reliable Molecular Diagnosis of Thyroid Tumors
    So-Yeon Lee, Jong-Lyul Park, Kwangsoon Kim, Ja Seong Bae, Jae-Yoon Kim, Seon-Young Kim, Chan Kwon Jung
    Endocrine Pathology.2023; 34(3): 311.     CrossRef
  • Somatostatin Receptor Type 2 and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Expression in Oncocytic Thyroid Neoplasms: Implications for Prognosis and Treatment
    Andrea Gillis, Rui Zheng-Pywell, Chandler McLeod, Dezhi Wang, John M. Ness, Rachael Guenter, Jason Whitt, Tomas A. Prolla, Herbert Chen, Manuel Lora Gonzalez, Bart Rose, Ricardo V. Lloyd, Renata Jaskula-Sztul, Diana Lin
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  • Comparison of Treatment and Prognosis Between Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Classical Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
    Bing Zhang, Wenming Wu, Jinjing Liu, Zhou Liang, Liang Zong
    Hormone and Metabolic Research.2023; 55(12): 855.     CrossRef
  • Sentinel lymph node mapping: current applications and future perspectives in thyroid carcinoma
    Isabella Merante Boschin, Loris Bertazza, Carla Scaroni, Caterina Mian, Maria Rosa Pelizzo
    Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Utility of the Growth Differentiation Factor-15 in the Differential Diagnosis of Follicular-Patterned Lesions of the Thyroid on Cytopathologic and Histopathologic Samples
    Prasanna V Perumal, Neelaiah Siddaraju, Sunil K Saxena, Soundravally Rajendiran, Ramachandra V Bhat
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Investigation of pre‐operative demographic, biochemical, sonographic and cytopathological findings in low‐risk thyroid neoplasms
    Muzaffer Serdar Deniz, Didem Özdemir, Narin Nasıroğlu İmga, Hüsniye Başer, Fatma Neslihan Çuhacı Seyrek, Ayşegül Aksoy Altınboğa, Oya Topaloğlu, Reyhan Ersoy, Bekir Çakır
    Clinical Endocrinology.2023; 99(5): 502.     CrossRef
  • Applications of machine and deep learning to thyroid cytology and histopathology: a review
    Greg Slabaugh, Luis Beltran, Hasan Rizvi, Panos Deloukas, Eirini Marouli
    Frontiers in Oncology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Asian Thyroid Working Group, from 2017 to 2023
    Kennichi Kakudo, Chan Kwon Jung, Zhiyan Liu, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Andrey Bychkov, Huy Gia Vuong, Somboon Keelawat, Radhika Srinivasan, Jen-Fan Hang, Chiung-Ru Lai
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2023; 57(6): 289.     CrossRef
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer: Pathogenesis, prognostic factors and genetic landscape (Review)
    Abdul-Mohsen Alhejaily, Omar Alhuzim, Yazeed Alwelaie
    Molecular and Clinical Oncology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Simultaneous Occurrence of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Series with Literature Review
    Poupak Fallahi, Armando Patrizio, Giulio Stoppini, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Eugenia Balestri, Valeria Mazzi, Chiara Botrini, Gilda Varricchi, Salvatore Ulisse, Marco Ghionzoli, Alessandro Antonelli, Silvia Martina Ferrari
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  • Construction and validation of a nomogram for predicting cervical lymph node metastasis in diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma
    Xunyi Lin, Jiaxing Huo, Huan Zhang, Hang Su, Fenghua Zhang
    Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Canine follicular cell and medullary thyroid carcinomas: Immunohistochemical characterization
    Jana Jankovic, Eve Tièche, Martina Dettwiler, Kerstin Hahn, Stephanie Scheemaeker, Martin Kessler, Sylvie Daminet, Sven Rottenberg, Miguel Campos
    Veterinary Pathology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Management of aggressive variants of papillary thyroid cancer
    Ying Ki Lee, Aleix Rovira, Paul V. Carroll, Ricard Simo
    Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head & Neck Surgery.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A 16-Year Single-Center Series of Trachea Resections for Locally Advanced Thyroid Carcinoma
    Julia I. Staubitz-Vernazza, Sina Schwind, Oana Lozan, Thomas J. Musholt
    Cancers.2023; 16(1): 163.     CrossRef
  • Reprogramming of Cellular Metabolism and Its Therapeutic Applications in Thyroid Cancer
    Yuji Nagayama, Koichiro Hamada
    Metabolites.2022; 12(12): 1214.     CrossRef
  • Developments to improve outcomes in thyroid surgery
    Thomas J. Musholt
    Innovative Surgical Sciences.2022; 7(3-4): 77.     CrossRef
  • The relationship of the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment results of post-Chornobyl papillary thyroid microcarcinomas with the latency period and radiation exposure
    Tetiana Bogdanova, Serhii Chernyshov, Liudmyla Zurnadzhy, Tatiana I. Rogounovitch, Norisato Mitsutake, Mykola Tronko, Masahiro Ito, Michael Bolgov, Sergii Masiuk, Shunichi Yamashita, Vladimir A. Saenko
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Close layer
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Recent Updates to Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus
Jin Yu, Seung-Hwan Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(1):26-37.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.105
  • 14,798 View
  • 1,080 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Guidelines for the management of patients with diabetes have become an important part of clinical practice that improve the quality of care and help establish evidence-based medicine in this field. With rapidly accumulating evidence on various aspects of diabetes care, including landmark clinical trials of treatment agents and newer technologies, timely updates of the guidelines capture the most current state of the field and present a consensus. As a leading academic society, the Korean Diabetes Association publishes practice guidelines biennially and the American Diabetes Association does so annually. In this review, we summarize the key changes suggested in the most recent guidelines. Some of the important updates include treatment algorithms emphasizing comorbid conditions such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease in the selection of anti-diabetic agents; wider application of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), insulin pump technologies and indices derived from CGM such as time in range; more active screening of subjects at high-risk of diabetes; and more detailed individualization in diabetes care. Although there are both similarities and differences among guidelines and some uncertainty remains, these updates provide a good approach for many clinical practitioners who are battling with diabetes.

Citations

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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
Big Data Research in the Field of Endocrine Diseases Using the Korean National Health Information Database
Sun Wook Cho, Jung Hee Kim, Han Seok Choi, Hwa Young Ahn, Mee Kyoung Kim, Eun Jung Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(1):10-24.   Published online February 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.102
  • 2,941 View
  • 245 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
The Korean National Health Information Database (NHID) contains big data combining information obtained from the National Health Insurance Service and health examinations. Data are provided in the form of a cohort, and the NHID can be used to conduct longitudinal studies and research on rare diseases. Moreover, data on the cause and date of death are provided by Statistics Korea. Research and publications based on the NHID have increased explosively in the field of endocrine disorders. However, because the data were not collected for research purposes, studies using the NHID have limitations, particularly the need for the operational definition of diseases. In this review, we describe the characteristics of the Korean NHID, operational definitions of endocrine diseases used for research, and an overview of recent studies in endocrinology using the Korean NHID.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Associations Between Physical Activity and the Risk of Hip Fracture Depending on Glycemic Status: A Nationwide Cohort Study
    Kyoung Min Kim, Kyoung Jin Kim, Kyungdo Han, Yumie Rhee
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024; 109(3): e1194.     CrossRef
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Original Article
Calcium & Bone Metabolism
Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Risk of Fractures and Falls According to Dosage and Interval: A Meta-Analysis
Sung Hye Kong, Han Na Jang, Jung Hee Kim, Sang Wan Kim, Chan Soo Shin
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(2):344-358.   Published online April 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1374
  • 4,930 View
  • 263 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Although recent studies comparing various dosages and intervals of vitamin D supplementation have been published, it is yet to be elucidated whether there is an appropriate dose or interval to provide benefit regarding fracture risk. We aimed to assess the published evidence available to date regarding the putative beneficial effects of vitamin D supplements on fractures and falls according to various dosages and intervals.
Methods
We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies reporting associations between vitamin D supplementation and the risks of fractures and falls in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library. Studies with supplements of ergocalciferol or calcitriol, those with a number of event ≤10, or those with a follow-up duration of less than 6 months were also excluded.
Results
Thirty-two studies were included in the final analysis. Vitamin D supplementation with daily dose of 800 to 1,000 mg was associated with lower risks of osteoporotic fracture and fall (pooled relative risk [RR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.97 and RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85 to 0.98), while studies with <800 or >1,000 mg/day did not. Also, among intervals, daily administration of vitamin D was associated with the reduced risk of falls, while intermittent dose was not. Also, patients with vitamin D deficiency showed a significant risk reduction of falls after vitamin D supplementation.
Conclusion
Daily vitamin D dose of 800 to 1,000 IU was the most probable way to reduce the fracture and fall risk. Further studies designed with various regimens and targeted vitamin D levels are required to elucidate the benefits of vitamin D supplements.

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Namgok Lecture 2021
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
The Influence of Obesity and Metabolic Health on Vascular Health
Eun-Jung Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(1):1-8.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.101
  • 5,623 View
  • 279 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. Obesity should not be understood only as the accumulation of fat in the body, but instead as a phenomenon that exerts different effects on our health according to the place of fat deposition and its stability. Obesity is the starting point of most metabolic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, sleep apnea, and eventually cardiovascular disease. There are different kinds of obesity, ranging from simple obesity to sarcopenic obesity. The main purpose of intervening to address obesity is to decrease the ultimate consequence of obesity—namely, cardiovascular disease. The main mechanism through which obesity, especially abdominal obesity, increases cardiovascular risk is the obesity-induced derangement of metabolic health, leading to the development of metabolic diseases such as diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and metabolic syndrome, which are the main initiators of vascular damage. In this review, I discuss the influence of various types of obesity on the risk of metabolic diseases, and how these diseases increase cardiovascular disease risk.

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Close layer
Original Articles
Calcium & Bone Metabolism
Development of a Spine X-Ray-Based Fracture Prediction Model Using a Deep Learning Algorithm
Sung Hye Kong, Jae-Won Lee, Byeong Uk Bae, Jin Kyeong Sung, Kyu Hwan Jung, Jung Hee Kim, Chan Soo Shin
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(4):674-683.   Published online August 5, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1461
  • 3,419 View
  • 201 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Since image-based fracture prediction models using deep learning are lacking, we aimed to develop an X-ray-based fracture prediction model using deep learning with longitudinal data.
Methods
This study included 1,595 participants aged 50 to 75 years with at least two lumbosacral radiographs without baseline fractures from 2010 to 2015 at Seoul National University Hospital. Positive and negative cases were defined according to whether vertebral fractures developed during follow-up. The cases were divided into training (n=1,416) and test (n=179) sets. A convolutional neural network (CNN)-based prediction algorithm, DeepSurv, was trained with images and baseline clinical information (age, sex, body mass index, glucocorticoid use, and secondary osteoporosis). The concordance index (C-index) was used to compare performance between DeepSurv and the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and Cox proportional hazard (CoxPH) models.
Results
Of the total participants, 1,188 (74.4%) were women, and the mean age was 60.5 years. During a mean follow-up period of 40.7 months, vertebral fractures occurred in 7.5% (120/1,595) of participants. In the test set, when DeepSurv learned with images and clinical features, it showed higher performance than FRAX and CoxPH in terms of C-index values (DeepSurv, 0.612; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.571 to 0.653; FRAX, 0.547; CoxPH, 0.594; 95% CI, 0.552 to 0.555). Notably, the DeepSurv method without clinical features had a higher C-index (0.614; 95% CI, 0.572 to 0.656) than that of FRAX in women.
Conclusion
DeepSurv, a CNN-based prediction algorithm using baseline image and clinical information, outperformed the FRAX and CoxPH models in predicting osteoporotic fracture from spine radiographs in a longitudinal cohort.

Citations

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    Jeonghoon Ha
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Human Leukocyte Antigens and Biomarkers in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Induced by Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors
Hidefumi Inaba, Yosuke Kaido, Saya Ito, Tomonao Hirobata, Gen Inoue, Takakazu Sugita, Yuki Yamamoto, Masatoshi Jinnin, Hiroaki Kimura, Tomoko Kobayashi, Shintaro Iwama, Hiroshi Arima, Takaaki Matsuoka
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(1):84-95.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1282
  • 3,675 View
  • 153 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Type 1 diabetes mellitus induced by immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI-T1DM) is a rare critical entity. However, the etiology of ICI-T1DM remains unclear.
Methods
In order to elucidate risk factors for ICI-T1DM, we evaluated the clinical course and immunological status of patients with ICI-T1DM who had been diagnosed during 2016 to 2021.
Results
Seven of 871 (0.8%, six men and one woman) patients developed ICI-T1DM. We revealed that the allele frequencies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPA1*02:02 and DPB1*05:01 were significantly higher in the patients with ICI-T1DM In comparison to the controls who received ICI (11/14 vs. 10/26, P=0.022; 11/14 vs. 7/26, P=0.0027, respectively). HLA-DRB1*04:05, which has been found to be a T1DM susceptibility allele in Asians, was also observed as a high-risk allele for ICI-T1DM. The significance of the HLA-DPB1*05:01 and DRB1*04:05 alleles was confirmed by an analysis of four additional patients. The absolute/relative neutrophil count, neutrophils-lymphocyte ratio, and neutrophil-eosinophil ratio increased, and the absolute lymphocyte count and absolute/relative eosinophil count decreased at the onset as compared with 6 weeks before. In two patients, alterations in cytokines and chemokines were found at the onset.
Conclusion
Novel high-risk HLA alleles and haplotypes were identified in ICI-T1DM, and peripheral blood factors may be utilized as biomarkers.

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    Ichiro Yamauchi, Takuro Hakata, Taku Sugawa, Daisuke Kosugi, Haruka Fujita, Kentaro Okamoto, Yohei Ueda, Toshihito Fujii, Daisuke Taura, Norio Harada, Nobuya Inagaki
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    Majd Issa, Joy Tang, Yizhen Guo, Chris Coss, Thomas A. Mace, Jason Bischof, Mitch Phelps, Carolyn J Presley, Dwight H Owen
    Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy.2022; 22(8): 861.     CrossRef
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    Frontiers in Immunology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Pablo Rodríguez de Vera-Gómez, Ana Piñar-Gutiérrez, Raquel Guerrero-Vázquez, Virginia Bellido, Cristóbal Morales-Portillo, María Pilar Sancho-Márquez, Pablo Espejo-García, Noelia Gros-Herguido, Gema López-Gallardo, María Asunción Martínez-Brocca, Alfonso
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
Close layer
Thyroid
Frequency of TERT Promoter Mutations in Real-World Analysis of 2,092 Thyroid Carcinoma Patients
Heera Yang, Hyunju Park, Hyun Jin Ryu, Jung Heo, Jung-Sun Kim, Young Lyun Oh, Jun-Ho Choe, Jung Han Kim, Jee Soo Kim, Hye Won Jang, Tae Hyuk Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(4):652-663.   Published online July 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1477
  • 3,230 View
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  • 8 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations are associated with increased recurrence and mortality in patients with thyroid carcinoma. Previous studies on TERT promoter mutations were retrospectively conducted on a limited number of patients.
Methods
We prospectively collected data on all consecutive patients who underwent thyroid carcinoma surgery between January 2019 and December 2020 at the Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. We included 2,092 patients with thyroid carcinoma.
Results
Of 2,092 patients, 72 patients (3.4%) had TERT promoter mutations. However, the frequency of TERT promoter mutations was 0.5% in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) ≤1 cm and it was 5.8% in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) >1 cm. The frequency of TERT promoter mutations was significantly associated with older age at diagnosis (odds ratio [OR], 1.12; P<0.001), larger primary tumor size (OR, 2.02; P<0.001), and aggressive histological type (OR, 7.78 in follicular thyroid carcinoma; OR, 10.33 in poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma; OR, 45.92 in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; P<0.001). Advanced T stage, advanced N stage, and distant metastasis at diagnosis were highly prevalent in mutated thyroid cancers. However, initial distant metastasis was not present in patients with TERT promoter mutations in PTMC. Although the C228T mutation was more highly detected than the C250T mutation (64 cases vs. 7 cases), there were no significant clinicopathological differences.
Conclusion
This study is the first attempt to investigate the frequency of TERT promoter mutations in a real-world setting. The frequency of TERT promoter mutations in PTC was lower than expected, and in PTMC, young patients, and female patients, the frequency was very low.

Citations

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  • TERT Promoter Mutations Frequency Across Race, Sex, and Cancer Type
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    Michiko Matsuse, Norisato Mitsutake
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    Min Jhi Kim, Jin Kyong Kim, Gi Jeong Kim, Sang-Wook Kang, Jandee Lee, Jong Ju Jeong, Woong Youn Chung, Daham Kim, Kee-Hyun Nam
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    Hyunju Park, Jae Hoon Chung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(6): 949.     CrossRef
  • Frequency of TERT Promoter Mutations in Real-World Analysis of 2,092 Thyroid Carcinoma Patients (Endocrinol Metab 2022;37:652-63, Heera Yang et al.)
    Sue Youn Kim, Chan Kwon Jung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(6): 947.     CrossRef
Close layer
Review Articles
Adrenal Gland
Long-Term Outcomes of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Anna Nordenström, Svetlana Lajic, Henrik Falhammar
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(4):587-598.   Published online July 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1528
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
A plethora of negative long-term outcomes have been associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The causes are multiple and involve supra-physiological gluco- and mineralocorticoid replacement, excess adrenal androgens both intrauterine and postnatal, elevated steroid precursor and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, living with a congenital condition as well as the proximity of the cytochrome P450 family 21 subfamily A member 2 (CYP21A2) gene to other genes. This review aims to discuss the different long-term outcomes of CAH.

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    Bleuenn Dreves, Yves Reznik, Antoine Tabarin
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    Kyriakie Sarafoglou, Deborah P Merke, Nicole Reisch, Hedi Claahsen-van der Grinten, Henrik Falhammar, Richard J Auchus
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 108(9): 2154.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Newborn Screening on Adult Height in Patients With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)
    Heike Hoyer-Kuhn, Alexander J Eckert, Gerhard Binder, Walter Bonfig, Angelika Dübbers, Stefan Riedl, Joachim Woelfle, Helmuth G Dörr, Reinhard W Holl
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    Henrik Falhammar
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    Alexandra E. Kulle, Martina Jürgensen, Ulla Döhnert, Lisa Malich, Louise Marshall, Olaf Hiort
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    Tania M. Espinosa Reyes, Alba Katherine Pesántez Velepucha, Julio Oscar Cabrera Rego, Wendy Valdés Gómez, Emma Domínguez Alonso, Henrik Falhammar
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    Henrik Falhammar, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Agneta Nordenskjöld, Henrik Larsson, Anna Nordenström
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Mara Carsote, Ana-Maria Gheorghe, Claudiu Nistor, Alexandra-Ioana Trandafir, Oana-Claudia Sima, Anca-Pati Cucu, Adrian Ciuche, Eugenia Petrova, Adina Ghemigian
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    Semra Çaglar Çetinkaya
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    Tracey A. Conlon, Colin P. Hawkes, Jennifer J. Brady, J. Gerard Loeber, Nuala Murphy
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    Andreea Gabriela Nicola, Mara Carsote, Ana-Maria Gheorghe, Eugenia Petrova, Alexandru Dan Popescu, Adela Nicoleta Staicu, Mihaela Jana Țuculină, Cristian Petcu, Ionela Teodora Dascălu, Tiberiu Tircă
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    Marianna Rita Stancampiano, Silvia Laura Carla Meroni, Giovanna Weber, Gianni Russo
    L'Endocrinologo.2022; 23(6): 662.     CrossRef
Close layer
Thyroid
Thyroid Function across the Lifespan: Do Age-Related Changes Matter?
John P. Walsh
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(2):208-219.   Published online April 14, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1463
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Circulating concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) are tightly regulated. Each individual has setpoints for TSH and free T4 which are genetically determined, and subject to environmental and epigenetic influence. Pituitary-thyroid axis setpoints are probably established in utero, with maturation of thyroid function continuing until late gestation. From neonatal life (characterized by a surge of TSH and T4 secretion) through childhood and adolescence (when free triiodothyronine levels are higher than in adults), thyroid function tests display complex, dynamic patterns which are sexually dimorphic. In later life, TSH increases with age in healthy older adults without an accompanying fall in free T4, indicating alteration in TSH setpoint. In view of this, and evidence that mild subclinical hypothyroidism in older people has no health impact, a strong case can be made for implementation of age-related TSH reference ranges in adults, as is routine in children.

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    Tomohiro Kikuchi, Shouhei Hanaoka, Takahiro Nakao, Yukihiro Nomura, Takeharu Yoshikawa, Md Ashraful Alam, Harushi Mori, Naoto Hayashi
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Close layer
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Lipoprotein Lipase: Is It a Magic Target for the Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia
Joon Ho Moon, Kyuho Kim, Sung Hee Choi
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(4):575-586.   Published online August 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.402
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
High levels of triglycerides (TG) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) confer a residual risk of cardiovascular disease after optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)–lowering therapy. Consensus has been made that LDL-C is a non-arguable primary target for lipid lowering treatment, but the optimization of TGRL for reducing the remnant risk of cardiovascular diseases is urged. Omega-3 fatty acids and fibrates are used to reduce TG levels, but many patients still have high TG and TGRL levels combined with low high-density lipoprotein concentration that need to be ideally treated. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key regulator for TGs that hydrolyzes TGs to glycerol and free fatty acids in lipoprotein particles for lipid storage and consumption in peripheral organs. A deeper understanding of human genetics has enabled the identification of proteins regulating the LPL activity, which include the apolipoproteins and angiopoietin-like families. Novel therapeutic approach such as antisense oligonucleotides and monoclonal antibodies that regulate TGs have been developed in recent decades. In this article, we focus on the biology of LPL and its modulators and review recent clinical application, including genetic studies and clinical trials of novel therapeutics. Optimization of LPL activity to lower TG levels could eventually reduce incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in conjunction with successful LDL-C reduction.

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Close layer
Original Articles
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Short-Chain Fatty Acids Attenuate Renal Fibrosis and Enhance Autophagy of Renal Tubular Cells in Diabetic Mice Through the HDAC2/ULK1 Axis
Xiaoying Ma, Qiong Wang
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(3):432-443.   Published online May 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1336
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study investigated the effect of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) on diabetes in a mouse model.
Methods
Autophagy in Akita mice and streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice was determined by Western blots and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Western blots, IHC, hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson staining, periodic acid-Schiff staining, and picrosirius red staining were conducted to detect whether autophagy and renal function improved in Akita mice and STZ-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice after treatment of SCFAs. Western blots, IHC, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to determine whether SCFAs affected diabetic mice via the histone deacetylase (HDAC2)/unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) axis. Diabetic mice with kidney-specific knockout of HDAC2 were constructed, and IHC, Masson staining, and Western blots were carried out to detect whether the deletion of endogenous HDAC2 contributed to the improvement of autophagy and renal fibrosis in diabetic mice.
Results
Reduced autophagy and severe fibrosis were observed in Akita mice and STZ-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Increased autophagy and reduced renal cell fibrosis were found in SCFA-treated Akita diabetic mice and STZ-induced diabetic C57BL/6 mice. Diabetic mice treated with SCFAs had lower HDAC2 expression and more enriched binding of ULK1 promoter sequences to H3K27Ac. Endogenous knockout of HDAC2 caused enhanced autophagy and decreased renal fibrosis in diabetic mice treated with SCFAs.
Conclusion
SCFAs enhanced autophagy of renal tubular cells and attenuated renal fibrosis in diabetic mice through the HDAC2/ULK1 axis.

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Thyroid
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
Repeated Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Nationwide Population- Based Study in Korea
Jinyoung Kim, Mee Kyoung Kim, Ki-Hyun Baek, Ki-Ho Song, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(2):303-311.   Published online April 6, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1332
  • 4,172 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) plays an important role in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway and prevents atherosclerosis-mediated disease. It has also been suggested that HDL-C may be a protective factor against cancer. However, an inverse correlation between HDL-C and cancer has not been established, and few studies have explored thyroid cancer.
Methods
The study participants received health checkups provided by the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2009 to 2013 and were followed until 2019. Considering the variability of serum HDL-C level, low HDL-C level was analyzed by grouping based on four consecutive health checkups. The data analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models.
Results
A total of 3,134,278 total study participants, thyroid cancer occurred in 16,129. In the crude model, the hazard ratios for the association between repeatedly measured low HDL-C levels and thyroid cancer were 1.243, 1.404, 1.486, and 1.680 (P for trend <0.01), respectively, which were significant even after adjusting for age, sex, lifestyle factors, and metabolic diseases. The subgroup analysis revealed that low HDL-C levels likely had a greater impact on the group of patients with central obesity (P for interaction= 0.062), high blood pressure (P for interaction=0.057), impaired fasting glucose (P for interaction=0.051), and hyperlipidemia (P for interaction=0.126).
Conclusion
Repeatedly measured low HDL-C levels can be considered a risk factor for cancer as well as vascular disease. Low HDL-C levels were associated with the risk of thyroid cancer, and this correlation was stronger in a metabolically unhealthy population.

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  • Association between total cholesterol levels and all-cause mortality among newly diagnosed patients with cancer
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    Fei Wang, Luo Lu, HuiJuan Chen, Yanhua Yue, Yanting Sun, Feng Yan, Bai He, Rongrong Lin, Weiying Gu
    Annals of Hematology.2023; 102(2): 393.     CrossRef
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    Sun Wook Cho, Jung Hee Kim, Han Seok Choi, Hwa Young Ahn, Mee Kyoung Kim, Eun Jung Rhee
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    Meijuan Tan, Shijie Yang, Xiequn Xu
    Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 34(5): 303.     CrossRef
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    Rui Gao, Kaixin Du, Jinhua Liang, Yi Xia, Jiazhu Wu, Yue Li, Bihui Pan, Li Wang, Jianyong Li, Wei Xu
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(8): 7396.     CrossRef
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    Weiwei Liang, FangFang Sun
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Qiang Ma, Yu Li, Lijuan An, Liang Guo, Xiaokang Liu
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Xiaowen Zhang, Yuyang Ze, Jianfeng Sang, Xianbiao Shi, Yan Bi, Shanmei Shen, Xinlin Zhang, Dalong Zhu
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Calcium & Bone Metabolism
Decreased Serum Level of Sclerostin in Older Adults with Sarcopenia
Seong Hee Ahn, Hee-Won Jung, Eunju Lee, Ji Yeon Baek, Il-Young Jang, So Jeong Park, Jin Young Lee, Eunah Choi, Yun Sun Lee, Seongbin Hong, Beom-Jun Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(3):487-496.   Published online May 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1428
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Although muscles and bones interact with each other through various secretory factors, the role of sclerostin, an osteocyte-secreted factor, on muscle metabolism has not been well studied. We investigated the levels of serum sclerostin in Korean older adults with sarcopenia.
Methods
Blood samples were collected from 129 participants who underwent evaluation of muscle mass and function in an outpatient geriatric clinic of a teaching hospital. Sarcopenia and related parameters were determined using cutoff values for the Asian population. Serum sclerostin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
The mean age of the participants was 69.6 years, and 20 participants (15.5%) were classified as having sarcopenia. After adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, serum sclerostin levels were significantly lower in participants with sarcopenia, low muscle mass, or weak muscle strength (P=0.003 to 0.045). Serum sclerostin levels were positively associated with skeletal muscle index and grip strength after adjusting for confounders (P=0.001 and P=0.003), whereas sarcopenic phenotype score showed a negative association (P=0.006). These increases in muscle mass and strength were also dose dependent as serum sclerostin levels increased (P for trends=0.003 and P for trends=0.015). Higher serum sclerostin levels were associated with lower odds ratio (ORs) for sarcopenia, low muscle mass, and weak muscle strength after adjusting for confounders (OR, 0.27 to 0.50; P<0.001 to 0.025).
Conclusion
Higher serum sclerostin levels were associated with a lower risk of sarcopenia, low muscle mass, and weak muscle strength in Korean older adults.

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    Hyon-Seung Yi
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    Giulia Minniti, Letícia Maria Pescinini-Salzedas, Guilherme Almeida dos Santos Minniti, Lucas Fornari Laurindo, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Renata Vargas Sinatora, Lance Alan Sloan, Rafael Santos de Argollo Haber, Adriano Cressoni Araújo, Karina Quesada, Jesse
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Review Article
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Homeostatic Regulation of Glucose Metabolism by the Central Nervous System
Jong Han Choi, Min-Seon Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(1):9-25.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1364
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  • 8 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Evidence for involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) in the regulation of glucose metabolism dates back to the 19th century, although the majority of the research on glucose metabolism has focused on the peripheral metabolic organs. Due to recent advances in neuroscience, it has now become clear that the CNS is indeed vital for maintaining glucose homeostasis. To achieve normoglycemia, specific populations of neurons and glia in the hypothalamus sense changes in the blood concentrations of glucose and of glucoregulatory hormones such as insulin, leptin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucagon. This information is integrated and transmitted to other areas of the brain where it eventually modulates various processes in glucose metabolism (i.e., hepatic glucose production, glucose uptake in the brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, pancreatic insulin and glucagon secretion, renal glucose reabsorption, etc.). Errors in these processes lead to hyper- or hypoglycemia. We here review the current understanding of the brain regulation of glucose metabolism.

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