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18 Guidelines in EnM
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Review Articles
Thyroid
A Narrative Review of the 2023 Korean Thyroid Association Management Guideline for Patients with Thyroid Nodules
Eun Kyung Lee, Young Joo Park, Chan Kwon Jung, Dong Gyu Na
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):61-72.   Published online February 14, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1938
  • 2,564 View
  • 171 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The 2023 Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) Management Guideline for Patients with Thyroid Nodules constitute an update of the 2016 KTA guideline for thyroid nodules and cancers that focuses specifically on nodules. The 2023 guideline aim to offer updated guidance based on new evidence that reflects the changes in clinical practice since the 2016 KTA guideline. To update the 2023 guideline, a comprehensive literature search was conducted from January 2022 to May 2022. The literature search included studies, reviews, and other evidence involving human subjects that were published in English in MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, and other relevant databases. Additional significant clinical trials and research studies published up to April 2023 were also reviewed. The limitations of the current evidence are discussed, and suggestions for areas in need of further research are identified. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the 2023 KTA guideline for the management of thyroid nodules released in May 2023 and to give a balanced insight with comparison of recent guidelines from other societies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • 2023 Update of the Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Thyroid Nodules
    Eun Kyung Lee, Young Joo Park
    Clinical Thyroidology®.2024; 36(4): 153.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Active Surveillance for Low-Risk Thyroid Cancers: A Review of Current Practice Guidelines
Min Joo Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Eun Kyung Lee, Young Shin Song, Kyong Yeun Jung, Ji Ye Lee, Ji-hoon Kim, Kyungsik Kim, Sue K. Park, Young Joo Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):47-60.   Published online February 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1937
  • 3,253 View
  • 245 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The indolent nature and favorable outcomes associated with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma have prompted numerous prospective studies on active surveillance (AS) and its adoption as an alternative to immediate surgery in managing low-risk thyroid cancer. This article reviews the current status of AS, as outlined in various international practice guidelines. AS is typically recommended for tumors that measure 1 cm or less in diameter and do not exhibit aggressive subtypes on cytology, extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastasis, or distant metastasis. To determine the most appropriate candidates for AS, factors such as tumor size, location, multiplicity, and ultrasound findings are considered, along with patient characteristics like medical condition, age, and family history. Moreover, shared decision-making, which includes patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life and cost-effectiveness, is essential. During AS, patients undergo regular ultrasound examinations to monitor for signs of disease progression, including tumor growth, extrathyroidal extension, or lymph node metastasis. In conclusion, while AS is a feasible and reliable approach for managing lowrisk thyroid cancer, it requires careful patient selection, effective communication for shared decision-making, standardized follow-up protocols, and a clear definition of disease progression.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • 2023 Update of the Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Thyroid Nodules
    Eun Kyung Lee, Young Joo Park
    Clinical Thyroidology®.2024; 36(4): 153.     CrossRef
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Special Article
Adrenal gland
2023 Korean Endocrine Society Consensus Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Primary Aldosteronism
Jeonghoon Ha, Jung Hwan Park, Kyoung Jin Kim, Jung Hee Kim, Kyong Yeun Jung, Jeongmin Lee, Jong Han Choi, Seung Hun Lee, Namki Hong, Jung Soo Lim, Byung Kwan Park, Jung-Han Kim, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Jooyoung Cho, Mi-kyung Kim, Choon Hee Chung, The Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline of Korean Endocrine Society, The Korean Adrenal Study Group of Korean Endocrine Society
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(6):597-618.   Published online October 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1789
  • 4,322 View
  • 574 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common, yet underdiagnosed cause of secondary hypertension. It is characterized by an overproduction of aldosterone, leading to hypertension and/or hypokalemia. Despite affecting between 5.9% and 34% of patients with hypertension, PA is frequently missed due to a lack of clinical awareness and systematic screening, which can result in significant cardiovascular complications. To address this, medical societies have developed clinical practice guidelines to improve the management of hypertension and PA. The Korean Endocrine Society, drawing on a wealth of research, has formulated new guidelines for PA. A task force has been established to prepare PA guidelines, which encompass epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care. The Korean clinical guidelines for PA aim to deliver an evidence-based protocol for PA diagnosis, treatment, and patient monitoring. These guidelines are anticipated to ease the burden of this potentially curable condition.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Temporal trends in clinical features of patients with primary aldosteronism over 20 years
    Seung Shin Park, Chang Ho Ahn, Sang Wan Kim, Jung-Min Koh, Seung Hun Lee, Jung Hee Kim
    Hypertension Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Correlation of Histopathologic Subtypes of Primary Aldosteronism with Clinical Phenotypes and Postsurgical Outcomes
    Chang Ho Ahn, You-Bin Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, Young Lyun Oh, Jung Hee Kim, Kyeong Cheon Jung
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Review Articles
Thyroid
Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Focus on Proven Health Effects in the 2023 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines
Eu Jeong Ku, Won Sang Yoo, Hyun Kyung Chung
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(4):381-391.   Published online August 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1778
  • 3,503 View
  • 479 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is characterized by elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and normal free thyroxine levels. The Korean Thyroid Association recently issued a guideline for managing SCH, which emphasizes Korean-specific TSH diagnostic criteria and highlights the health benefits of levothyroxine (LT4) treatment. A serum TSH level of 6.8 mIU/L is presented as the reference value for diagnosing SCH. SCH can be classified as mild (TSH 6.8 to 10.0 mIU/L) or severe (TSH >10.0 mIU/L), and patients can be categorized as adults (age <70 years) or elderly (age ≥70 years), depending on the health effects of LT4 treatment. An initial increase in serum TSH levels should be reassessed with a subsequent measurement, including a thyroid peroxidase antibody test, preferably 2 to 3 months after the initial assessment. While LT4 treatment is not generally recommended for mild SCH in adults, it is necessary for severe SCH in patients with underlying coronary artery disease or heart failure and it may be considered for those with concurrent dyslipidemia. Conversely, LT4 treatment is generally not recommended for elderly patients, regardless of SCH severity. For those SCH patients who are prescribed LT4 treatment, the dosage should be personalized, and serum TSH levels should be regularly monitored to maintain the optimal LT4 regimen.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Clinical Implications of Different Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Reference Intervals between TSH Kits for the Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism
    Won Sang Yoo
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2024; 39(1): 188.     CrossRef
  • Serum Vitamin B12 and Holotranscobalamin Levels in Subclinical Hypothyroid Patients in Relation to Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Levels and the Positivity of Anti-thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies: A Case-Control Study
    Muqdad Al-Mousawi, Sherwan Salih, Ameer Ahmed, Barhav Abdullah
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease during Pregnancy and Postpartum: 2023 Revised Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines
Hwa Young Ahn, Ka Hee Yi
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(3):289-294.   Published online June 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1696
  • 7,438 View
  • 766 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Thyroid hormone plays a critical role in fetal growth and development, and thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with several adverse outcomes, such as miscarriage and preterm birth. In this review, we introduce and explain three major changes in the revised Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) guidelines for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy: first, the normal range of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) during pregnancy; second, the treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism; and third, the management of euthyroid pregnant women with positive thyroid autoantibodies. The revised KTA guidelines adopt 4.0 mIU/L as the upper limit of TSH in the first trimester. A TSH level between 4.0 and 10.0 mIU/L, combined with free thyroxine (T4) within the normal range, is defined as subclinical hypothyroidism, and a TSH level over 10 mIU/L is defined as overt hypothyroidism regardless of the free T4 level. Levothyroxine treatment is recommended when the TSH level is higher than 4 mIU/L in subclinical hypothyroidism, regardless of thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity. However, thyroid hormone therapy to prevent miscarriage is not recommended in thyroid autoantibody-positive women with normal thyroid function.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Use of thyroid hormones in hypothyroid and euthyroid patients: A survey of members of the Endocrine Society of Australia
    Nicole Lafontaine, Suzanne J. Brown, Petros Perros, Enrico Papini, Endre V. Nagy, Roberto Attanasio, Laszlo Hegedüs, John P. Walsh
    Clinical Endocrinology.2024; 100(5): 477.     CrossRef
  • Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Focus on Proven Health Effects in the 2023 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines
    Eu Jeong Ku, Won Sang Yoo, Hyun Kyung Chung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(4): 381.     CrossRef
  • Maternal isolated hypothyroxinemia in the first trimester is not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, except for macrosomia: a prospective cohort study in China
    Jing Du, Linong Ji, Xiaomei Zhang, Ning Yuan, Jianbin Sun, Dan Zhao
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Special Article
Miscellaneous
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Endocrine Disorders: A Position Statement from the Korean Endocrine Society
Hyemi Kwon, Eun Roh, Chang Ho Ahn, Hee Kyung Kim, Cheol Ryong Ku, Kyong Yeun Jung, Ju Hee Lee, Eun Heui Kim, Sunghwan Suh, Sangmo Hong, Jeonghoon Ha, Jun Sung Moon, Jin Hwa Kim, Mi-kyung Kim, The Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline of the Korean Endocrine Society
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(6):839-850.   Published online December 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1627
  • 3,936 View
  • 331 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) including an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 inhibitor, anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitors, and anti-PD-ligand 1 inhibitors are representative therapeutics for various malignancies. In oncology, the application of ICIs is currently expanding to a wider range of malignancies due to their remarkable clinical outcomes. ICIs target immune checkpoints which suppress the activity of T-cells that are specific for tumor antigens, thereby allowing tumor cells to escape the immune response. However, immune checkpoints also play a crucial role in preventing autoimmune reactions. Therefore, ICIs targeting immune checkpoints can trigger various immune-related adverse events (irAEs), especially in endocrine organs. Considering the endocrine organs that are frequently involved, irAEs associated endocrinopathies are frequently life-threatening and have unfavorable clinical implications for patients. However, there are very limited data from large clinical trials that would inform the development of clinical guidelines for patients with irAEs associated endocrinopathies. Considering the current clinical situation, in which the scope and scale of the application of ICIs are increasing, position statements from clinical specialists play an essential role in providing the appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experience. As endocrinologists, we would like to present precautions and recommendations for the management of immune-related endocrine disorders, especially those involving the adrenal, thyroid, and pituitary glands caused by ICIs.

Citations

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  • Pembrolizumab plus lenvatinib for radically unresectable or metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the Japanese population
    Ryo Fujiwara, Takeshi yuasa, kenichi kobayashi, tetsuya yoshida, susumu kageyama
    Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy.2023; 23(5): 461.     CrossRef
  • Incidence of Endocrine-Related Dysfunction in Patients Treated with New Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Meta-Analysis and Comprehensive Review
    Won Sang Yoo, Eu Jeong Ku, Eun Kyung Lee, Hwa Young Ahn
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(6): 750.     CrossRef
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Review Article
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Recent Updates to Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus
Jin Yu, Seung-Hwan Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(1):26-37.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.105
  • 18,396 View
  • 1,190 Download
  • 23 Web of Science
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Guidelines for the management of patients with diabetes have become an important part of clinical practice that improve the quality of care and help establish evidence-based medicine in this field. With rapidly accumulating evidence on various aspects of diabetes care, including landmark clinical trials of treatment agents and newer technologies, timely updates of the guidelines capture the most current state of the field and present a consensus. As a leading academic society, the Korean Diabetes Association publishes practice guidelines biennially and the American Diabetes Association does so annually. In this review, we summarize the key changes suggested in the most recent guidelines. Some of the important updates include treatment algorithms emphasizing comorbid conditions such as atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease in the selection of anti-diabetic agents; wider application of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), insulin pump technologies and indices derived from CGM such as time in range; more active screening of subjects at high-risk of diabetes; and more detailed individualization in diabetes care. Although there are both similarities and differences among guidelines and some uncertainty remains, these updates provide a good approach for many clinical practitioners who are battling with diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Finerenone: Efficacy of a New Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist in Treatment of Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes
    Subo Dey, Jasmine Garg, Andy Wang, Eva Holzner, William H. Frishman, Wilbert S. Aronow
    Cardiology in Review.2024; 32(3): 285.     CrossRef
  • Use of Diabetes Medications before and after a Heart Failure–Related Hospitalization among Nursing Home Residents
    Tingting Zhang, Andrew R. Zullo, Kaleen (Kaley) N. Hayes, Dae Hyun Kim, Yoojin Lee, Lori A. Daiello, Douglas P. Kiel, Sarah D. Berry
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association.2024; 25(3): 454.     CrossRef
  • Accuracy and Safety of the 15-Day CareSens Air Continuous Glucose Monitoring System
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Won Sang Yoo, Cheol-Young Park
    Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics.2024; 26(4): 222.     CrossRef
  • Body composition and metabolic syndrome in patients with type 1 diabetes
    Qiong Zeng, Xiao-Jing Chen, Yi-Ting He, Ze-Ming Ma, Yi-Xi Wu, Kun Lin
    World Journal of Diabetes.2024; 15(1): 81.     CrossRef
  • The best internal structure of the Diabetes Quality of Life Measure (DQOL) in Brazilian patients
    Denilson Menezes Almeida, Aldair Darlan Santos-de-Araújo, José Mário Costa Brito Júnior, Marcela Cacere, André Pontes-Silva, Cyrene Piazera Costa, Maria Cláudia Gonçalves, José Márcio Soares Leite, Almir Vieira Dibai-Filho, Daniela Bassi-Dibai
    BMC Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Duration, Cholesterol Levels, and Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyu Na Lee, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • SGLT2 inhibitors and their possible use in prevention and treatment of neurological diseases
    Mateusz Sobczyk, Daria Żuraw, Paulina Oleksa, Kacper Jasiński, Mikołaj Porzak, Michał Dacka
    Prospects in Pharmaceutical Sciences.2024; 22(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • Comparison between a tubeless, on-body automated insulin delivery system and a tubeless, on-body sensor-augmented pump in type 1 diabetes: a multicentre randomised controlled trial
    Ji Yoon Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Eun Seok Kang, Soo Heon Kwak, Yeoree Yang, Jee Hee Yoo, Jae Hyun Bae, Jun Sung Moon, Chang Hee Jung, Ji Cheol Bae, Sunghwan Suh, Sun Joon Moon, Sun Ok Song, Suk Chon, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Diabetologia.2024; 67(7): 1235.     CrossRef
  • Continuous glucose monitoring data for artificial intelligence-based predictive glycemic event: A potential aspect for diabetic care
    Lim Pei Ying, Oh Xin Yin, Ong Wei Quan, Neha Jain, Jayashree Mayuren, Manisha Pandey, Bapi Gorain, Mayuren Candasamy
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A nationwide cohort study on diabetes severity and risk of Parkinson disease
    Kyungdo Han, Bongsung Kim, Seung Hwan Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Optimal Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level for Primary Prevention in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Ji Yoon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 42.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of enavogliflozin versus dapagliflozin added to metformin plus gemigliptin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes: A double-blind, randomized, comparator-active study: ENHANCE-D study
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Kyung Ah Han, Tae Nyun Kim, Cheol-Young Park, Jung Hwan Park, Sang Yong Kim, Yong Hyun Kim, Kee Ho Song, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Sik Kim, Gwanpyo Koh, Jun Goo Kang, Mi Kyung Kim, Ji Min Han, Nan Hee Kim, Ji Oh Mok, Jae Hyuk Lee, Soo Lim, Sang S
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2023; 49(4): 101440.     CrossRef
  • Impact of mental disorders on the risk of heart failure among Korean patients with diabetes: a cohort study
    Tae Kyung Yoo, Kyung-Do Han, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Chronic disease management program applied to type 2 diabetes patients and prevention of diabetic complications: a retrospective cohort study using nationwide data
    Min Kyung Hyun, Jang Won Lee, Seung-Hyun Ko
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Innovative Therapeutic Approaches in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: When Knowing Your Patient Is Key
    Marta Alonso-Peña, Maria Del Barrio, Ana Peleteiro-Vigil, Carolina Jimenez-Gonzalez, Alvaro Santos-Laso, Maria Teresa Arias-Loste, Paula Iruzubieta, Javier Crespo
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(13): 10718.     CrossRef
  • Association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression among Korean midlife women: a cross-sectional analysis study
    You Lee Yang, Eun-Ok Im, Yunmi Kim
    BMC Nursing.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Access to novel anti-diabetic agents in resource limited settings: A brief commentary
    Poobalan Naidoo, Kiolan Naidoo, Sumanth Karamchand, Rory F Leisegang
    World Journal of Diabetes.2023; 14(7): 939.     CrossRef
  • Comparative efficacy and safety profile of once-weekly Semaglutide versus once-daily Sitagliptin as an add-on to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Tirath Patel, Fnu Nageeta, Rohab Sohail, Tooba Shaukat Butt, Shyamala Ganesan, Fnu Madhurita, Muhammad Ahmed, Mahrukh Zafar, Wirda Zafar, Mohammad Uzair Zaman, Giustino Varrassi, Mahima Khatri, Satesh Kumar
    Annals of Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Bexagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, for improvement of glycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Sagar Dholariya, Siddhartha Dutta, Ragini Singh, Deepak Parchwani, Amit Sonagra, Mehul Kaliya
    Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy.2023; 24(18): 2187.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of the management and therapeutic performance of diabetes mellitus employing special target
    Hong-Yan Sun, Xiao-Yan Lin
    World Journal of Diabetes.2023; 14(12): 1721.     CrossRef
  • Zinc Chloride Enhances the Antioxidant Status, Improving the Functional and Structural Organic Disturbances in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats
    Irina Claudia Anton, Liliana Mititelu-Tartau, Eliza Gratiela Popa, Mihaela Poroch, Vladimir Poroch, Ana-Maria Pelin, Liliana Lacramioara Pavel, Ilie Cristian Drochioi, Gina Eosefina Botnariu
    Medicina.2022; 58(11): 1620.     CrossRef
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Special Article
Miscellaneous
COVID-19 Vaccination for Endocrine Patients: A Position Statement from the Korean Endocrine Society
Cheol Ryong Ku, Kyong Yeun Jung, Chang Ho Ahn, Jun Sung Moon, Ju Hee Lee, Eun Heui Kim, Hyemi Kwon, Hee Kyung Kim, Sunghwan Suh, Sangmo Hong, Jeonghoon Ha, Eun Roh, Jin Hwa Kim, Mi-kyung Kim, the Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline of the Korean Endocrine Society
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(4):757-765.   Published online August 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.404
  • 10,832 View
  • 421 Download
  • 20 Web of Science
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), ongoing efforts have been made to discover an efficacious vaccine against COVID-19 to combat the pandemic. In most countries, both mRNA and DNA vaccines have been administered, and their side effects have also been reported. The clinical course of COVID-19 and the effects of vaccination against COVID-19 are both influenced by patients’ health status and involve a systemic physiological response. In view of the systemic function of endocrine hormones, endocrine disorders themselves and the therapeutics used to treat them can influence the outcomes of vaccination for COVID-19. However, there are very limited data to support the development of clinical guidelines for patients with specific medical backgrounds based on large clinical trials. In the current severe circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic, position statements made by clinical specialists are essential to provide appropriate recommendations based on both medical evidence and clinical experiences. As endocrinologists, we would like to present the medical background of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as precautions to prevent the side effects of COVID-19 vaccination in patients with specific endocrine disorders, including adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, autoimmune thyroid disease, hypogonadism, and pituitary disorders.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • COVID-19 mRNA vaccine may trigger subacute thyroiditis
    Mehmet Sözen, Ömercan Topaloğlu, Berrin Çetinarslan, Alev Selek, Zeynep Cantürk, Emre Gezer, Damla Köksalan, Taner Bayraktaroğlu
    Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics.2024; 17(12): 5120.     CrossRef
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    Hyeyeon Moon, Sunghwan Suh, Mi Kyoung Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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  • Mortality and Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Patients with Long-Term Glucocorticoid Therapy: A Korean Nationwide Cohort Study
    Eu Jeong Ku, Keeho Song, Kyoung Min Kim, Gi Hyeon Seo, Soon Jib Yoo
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(2): 253.     CrossRef
  • Pituitary Diseases and COVID-19 Outcomes in South Korea: A Nationwide Cohort Study
    Jeonghoon Ha, Kyoung Min Kim, Dong-Jun Lim, Keeho Song, Gi Hyeon Seo
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(14): 4799.     CrossRef
  • Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination does not disturb the clinical course of Graves’ disease: An observational cohort study
    Shichen Xu, Huixin Yu, Xian Cheng, Jing Wu, Jiandong Bao, Li Zhang
    Vaccine.2023; 41(38): 5648.     CrossRef
  • Adrenal Crisis Associated With COVID-19 Vaccination in Patients With Adrenal Insufficiency
    Yukako Kurematsu, Takako Mohri, Sadanori Okada, Yutaka Takahashi
    JCEM Case Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Adverse Events Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination in Adolescents with Endocrinological Disorders: A Cross-Sectional Study
    İbrahim Mert Erbaş, İrem Ceren Erbaş, Gözde Akın Kağızmanlı, Kübra Yüksek Acinikli, Özge Besci, Korcan Demir, Ece Böber, Nurşen Belet, Ayhan Abacı
    Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology.2023; 15(3): 248.     CrossRef
  • Neue Aspekte der Glukokortikoidsubstitution bei Nebennierenrindeninsuffizienz
    Tina Kienitz, Gesine Meyer
    Der Internist.2022; 63(1): 12.     CrossRef
  • Endocrine Follow-up During Post-Acute COVID-19: Practical Recommendations Based on Available Clinical Evidence
    Rimesh Pal, Ameya Joshi, Sanjay K. Bhadada, Mainak Banerjee, Suresh Vaikkakara, Satinath Mukhopadhyay
    Endocrine Practice.2022; 28(4): 425.     CrossRef
  • Safety of Inactivated and mRNA COVID-19 Vaccination Among Patients Treated for Hypothyroidism: A Population-Based Cohort Study
    Xi Xiong, Carlos King Ho Wong, Ivan Chi Ho Au, Francisco Tsz Tsun Lai, Xue Li, Eric Yuk Fai Wan, Celine Sze Ling Chui, Esther Wai Yin Chan, Franco Wing Tak Cheng, Kristy Tsz Kwan Lau, Chi Ho Lee, Yu Cho Woo, David Tak Wai Lui, Ian Chi Kei Wong
    Thyroid.2022; 32(5): 505.     CrossRef
  • The New Entity of Subacute Thyroiditis amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: From Infection to Vaccine
    Mihaela Popescu, Adina Ghemigian, Corina Maria Vasile, Andrei Costache, Mara Carsote, Alice Elena Ghenea
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(4): 960.     CrossRef
  • Adrenal Crisis Secondary to COVID-19 Vaccination in a Patient With Hypopituitarism
    Nikolina Markovic, Anila Faizan, Chirag Boradia, Sridhar Nambi
    AACE Clinical Case Reports.2022; 8(4): 171.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines on TRAB in Graves’ Disease
    LingHong Huang, ZhengRong Jiang, JingXiong Zhou, YuPing Chen, HuiBin Huang
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Osteoporosis in Patients With Respiratory Diseases
    Yue Ma, Shui Qiu, Renyi Zhou
    Frontiers in Physiology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Pilot Findings on SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine-Induced Pituitary Diseases: A Mini Review from Diagnosis to Pathophysiology
    Ach Taieb, El Euch Mounira
    Vaccines.2022; 10(12): 2004.     CrossRef
  • Forty Years Together, New Leap Forward! The 40th Anniversary of the Korean Endocrine Society
    Jong Chul Won, Ki-Hyun Baek
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(6): 851.     CrossRef
  • No need of glucocorticoid dose adjustment in patients with adrenal insufficiency before COVID-19 vaccine
    Tania Pilli, Cristina Dalmiglio, Gilda Dalmazio, Alfonso Sagnella, Raffaella Forleo, Lucia Brilli, Fabio Maino, Cristina Ciuoli, Maria Grazia Castagna
    European Journal of Endocrinology.2022; 187(1): K7.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes and COVID-19 Vaccination
    Hae Dong Choi, Jun Sung Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2021; 22(4): 221.     CrossRef
Close layer
Review Articles
Adrenal Gland
Asian Conference on Tumor Ablation Guidelines for Adrenal Tumor Ablation
Byung Kwan Park, Masashi Fujimori, Shu-Huei Shen, Uei Pua
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(3):553-563.   Published online June 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1008
  • 3,827 View
  • 149 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Thermal ablation is a good alternative treatment in patients who are unable to undergo adrenalectomy. Even though the Asian Conference on Tumor Ablation (ACTA) has been held for many years, adrenal ablation guidelines have not been established. No guidelines for adrenal ablation are established in American and European countries, either. The aim of this review was to introduce the first version of ACTA guidelines for adrenal tumor ablation.

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Close layer
Thyroid
Current Guidelines for Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
Mijin Kim, Bo Hyun Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(3):514-524.   Published online June 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1082
  • 19,347 View
  • 1,845 Download
  • 31 Web of Science
  • 36 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor originating from the parafollicular cells. The diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the condition are different from those used for well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Since the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of MTC, the latest, including the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and European Association for Medical Oncology guidelines have been updated to reflect several recent advances in the management of MTC. Advances in molecular diagnosis and postoperative risk stratification systems have led to individualized treatment and follow-up strategies. Multi-kinase inhibitors, such as vandetanib and cabozantinib, can prolong disease progression-free survival with favorable adverse effects. In addition, potent selective rearranged during transfection (RET) inhibitors (selpercatinib and pralsetinib) have shown a promising efficacy in recent clinical trials. This review summarizes the management of MTC in recent guidelines focused on sporadic MTC.

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Close layer
Special Article
Adrenal gland
Diagnosis for Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: A Joint Position Statement of the Korean Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Task Force
Eu Jeong Ku, Kyoung Jin Kim, Jung Hee Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Chang Ho Ahn, Kyung Ae Lee, Seung Hun Lee, You-Bin Lee, Kyeong Hye Park, Yun Mi Choi, Namki Hong, A Ram Hong, Sang-Wook Kang, Byung Kwan Park, Moon-Woo Seong, Myungshin Kim, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Chan Kwon Jung, Young Seok Cho, Jin Chul Paeng, Jae Hyeon Kim, Ohk-Hyun Ryu, Yumie Rhee, Chong Hwa Kim, Eun Jig Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(2):322-338.   Published online April 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.908
  • 7,860 View
  • 593 Download
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  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

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    Changhwan Sung, Hyo Sang Lee, Dong Yun Lee, Yong-il Kim, Jae Eun Kim, Sang Ju Lee, Seung Jun Oh, Tae-Yon Sung, Yu-Mi Lee, Young Hoon Kim, Beom-Jun Kim, Jung-Min Koh, Seung Hun Lee, Jin-Sook Ryu
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    A Ram Hong, Ho-Cheol Kang
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Close layer
Review Article
Hypothalamus and Pituitary gland
Current National and International Guidelines for the Management of Male Hypogonadism: Helping Clinicians to Navigate Variation in Diagnostic Criteria and Treatment Recommendations
Ahmed Al-Sharefi, Richard Quinton
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(3):526-540.   Published online September 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.760
  • 9,960 View
  • 523 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Male hypogonadism—rebadged by some as testosterone deficiency syndrome—is a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of increasing worldwide interest. Organic male hypogonadism—usually permanent—is well-established, but aging men may also exhibit lower serum testosterone levels; principally due to burden of extra-gonadal comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, but with an underlying intact hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis capable of springing back into operation once comorbidities are addressed. Despite encouraging observational data and plausible theoretical underpinning, evidence for efficacy and safety of testosterone in this “aging” group of men is lacking; addressing comorbid illnesses remains the key priority instead. Nevertheless, in recent years, accumulation of misleading information online has triggered a global tsunami of testosterone prescriptions. Despite this, many men with organic hypogonadism remain undiagnosed or untreated; many more face a diagnostic odyssey before achieving care by the appropriate specialist. As testosterone therapy is not without risk several clinical practice guidelines have been published specialist societies to guide physicians on best practice. However, these are heterogeneous in key areas, reflecting divergent approaches to the same evidence basis. Herein, we navigate the major clinical practice guidelines on male hypogonadism and test their respective recommendations against current best evidence.

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Close layer
Special Article
Clinical Guidelines for the Management of Adrenal Incidentaloma
Jung-Min Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Jung-Min Koh, Bo-Yeon Kim, Sang Wan Kim, Soo-Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Ohk-Hyun Ryu, Juri Park, Jung Soo Lim, Seong Yeon Kim, Young Kee Shong, Soon Jib Yoo
Endocrinol Metab. 2017;32(2):200-218.   Published online June 23, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2017.32.2.200
  • 16,915 View
  • 716 Download
  • 81 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass found in an imaging study performed for other reasons unrelated to adrenal disease and often accompanied by obesity, diabetes, or hypertension. The prevalence and incidence of adrenal incidentaloma increase with age and are also expected to rise due to the rapid development of imaging technology and frequent imaging studies. The Korean Endocrine Society is promoting an appropriate practice guideline to meet the rising incidence of adrenal incidentaloma, in cooperation with the Korean Adrenal Gland and Endocrine Hypertension Study Group. In this paper, we discuss important core issues in managing the patients with adrenal incidentaloma. After evaluating core proposition, we propose the most critical 20 recommendations from the initially organized 47 recommendations by Delphi technique.

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Close layer
Review Articles
Thyroid
The Revised 2016 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancers: Differences from the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines
Ka Hee Yi
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(3):373-378.   Published online September 26, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.3.373
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Increased detection of thyroid nodules using high-resolution ultrasonography has resulted in a world-wide increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Despite the steep increase in its incidence, the age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer has remained stable, which leads toward a trend of more conservative treatment. The latest American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer revised in 2015 suggested that fine needle aspiration biopsy should be performed for thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm and lobectomy might be sufficient for 1 to 4 cm intrathyroidal DTC. In addition, active surveillance instead of immediate surgical treatment was also recommended as a treatment option for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma based on the results of a few observational studies from Japan. The Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) has organized a task force team to develop revised guidelines for thyroid nodules and DTC after an extensive review of articles and intense discussion on whether we should accept the changes in the 2015 ATA guidelines. This paper introduces and discusses the updated major issues and differences in the ATA and the KTA guidelines.

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Close layer
Obesity and Metabolism
The Diabetes Epidemic in Korea
Junghyun Noh
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(3):349-353.   Published online August 26, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.3.349
  • 6,521 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Diabetes is one of the foremost public health issues worldwide that can lead to complications in many organ systems, and has become a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Korea. According to data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), about 2.7 million Koreans (8.0%) aged 30 years or older had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 2013. The prevalence of T2DM increased with age and rose from 5.6% in 2006 to 8.0% in 2013. Using data based on The Health Screening Service of the NHIS, 25% of Korean adults were reported to have prediabetes in 2013. The prevalence of an impaired fasting glucose tended to increase over time from 21.5% in 2006 to 25.0% in 2013. Even though nationwide health screening has been regularly conducted as a public service, the proportion of undiagnosed cases of diabetes was still reported to be on the higher side in the latest study. Based on the results of these epidemic studies, further actions will be needed to effectively implement lifestyle changes on a social level and increase measures for the early detection of diabetes to stem the tide of the epidemic.

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  • Coffee Consumption, Genetic Polymorphisms, and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Pooled Analysis of Four Prospective Cohort Studies
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  • The differences in the incidence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes according to the type of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors prescribed in Korean patients
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  • Accuracy of Capillary Blood Glucose Test When Fasting in Diabetes Patients or General Population: Performance Evaluation of G300 Based on ISO 15197:2013 Standards
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