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Thyroid
Clinical Implications of Different Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Reference Intervals between TSH Kits for the Management of Subclinical Hypothyroidism
Won Sang Yoo
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):188-189.   Published online February 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1934
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Thyroid
Subacute Thyroiditis in the Time of COVID-19
Hwa Young Ahn
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):186-187.   Published online February 1, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1928
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Original Articles
Miscellaneous
Prediction of Cardiovascular Complication in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Using an XGBoost/GRU-ODE-Bayes-Based Machine-Learning Algorithm
Joonyub Lee, Yera Choi, Taehoon Ko, Kanghyuck Lee, Juyoung Shin, Hun-Sung Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):176-185.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1739
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Cardiovascular disease is life-threatening yet preventable for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Because each patient with T2DM has a different risk of developing cardiovascular complications, the accurate stratification of cardiovascular risk is critical. In this study, we proposed cardiovascular risk engines based on machine-learning algorithms for newly diagnosed T2DM patients in Korea.
Methods
To develop the machine-learning-based cardiovascular disease engines, we retrospectively analyzed 26,166 newly diagnosed T2DM patients who visited Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital between July 2009 and April 2019. To accurately measure diabetes-related cardiovascular events, we designed a buffer (1 year), an observation (1 year), and an outcome period (5 years). The entire dataset was split into training and testing sets in an 8:2 ratio, and this procedure was repeated 100 times. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was calculated by 10-fold cross-validation on the training dataset.
Results
The machine-learning-based risk engines (AUROC XGBoost=0.781±0.014 and AUROC gated recurrent unit [GRU]-ordinary differential equation [ODE]-Bayes=0.812±0.016) outperformed the conventional regression-based model (AUROC=0.723± 0.036).
Conclusion
GRU-ODE-Bayes-based cardiovascular risk engine is highly accurate, easily applicable, and can provide valuable information for the individualized treatment of Korean patients with newly diagnosed T2DM.
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Hypothalamus and pituitary gland
Preoperative Serum Copeptin Can Predict Delayed Hyponatremia after Pituitary Surgery in the Absence of Arginine Vasopressin Deficiency
Ho Kang, Seung Shin Park, Yoo Hyung Kim, Hwan Sub Lim, Mi-Kyeong Lee, Kyoung-Ryul Lee, Jung Hee Kim, Yong Hwy Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):164-175.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1792
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Delayed postoperative hyponatremia (DPH) is the most common cause of readmission after pituitary surgery. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cutoff values of serum copeptin and determine the optimal timing for copeptin measurement for the prediction of the occurrence of DPH in patients who undergo endoscopic transsphenoidal approach (eTSA) surgery and tumor resection.
Methods
This was a prospective observational study of 73 patients who underwent eTSA surgery for pituitary or stalk lesions. Copeptin levels were measured before surgery, 1 hour after extubation, and on postoperative days 1, 2, 7, and 90.
Results
Among 73 patients, 23 patients (31.5%) developed DPH. The baseline ratio of copeptin to serum sodium level showed the highest predictive performance (area under the curve [AUROC], 0.699), and its optimal cutoff to maximize Youden’s index was 2.5×10–11, with a sensitivity of 91.3% and negative predictive value of 92.0%. No significant predictors were identified for patients with transient arginine vasopressin (AVP) deficiency. However, for patients without transient AVP deficiency, the copeptin-to-urine osmolarity ratio at baseline demonstrated the highest predictive performance (AUROC, 0.725). An optimal cutoff of 6.5×10–12 maximized Youden’s index, with a sensitivity of 92.9% and a negative predictive value of 94.1%.
Conclusion
The occurrence of DPH can be predicted using baseline copeptin and its ratio with serum sodium or urine osmolarity only in patients without transient AVP deficiency after pituitary surgery.
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Thyroid
Active Surveillance for Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma as an Acceptable Management Option with Additional Benefits: A Comprehensive Systematic Review
Jee Hee Yoon, Wonsuk Choi, Ji Yong Park, A Ram Hong, Hee Kyung Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):152-163.   Published online January 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1794
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Active surveillance (AS) has been introduced as a management strategy for low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) due to its typically indolent nature. Despite this, the widespread adoption of AS has encountered several challenges. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the safety of AS related to disease progression and its benefits compared with immediate surgery (IS).
Methods
Studies related to AS in patients with low-risk PTC were searched through the Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed databases. Studies on disease progression, surgical complication, quality of life (QoL), and cost-effectiveness were separately analyzed and narratively synthesized.
Results
In the evaluation of disease progression, the proportions of cases with tumor growth ≥3 mm and a volume increase >50% were 2.2%–10.8% and 16.0%–25.5%, respectively. Newly detected lymph node metastasis was identified in 0.0%–1.4% of patients. No significant difference was found between IS and delayed surgery in surgical complications, including vocal cord paralysis and postoperative hypoparathyroidism. AS was associated with better QoL than IS. Studies on the cost-effectiveness of AS reported inconsistent data, but AS was more cost-effective when quality-adjusted life years were considered.
Conclusion
AS is an acceptable management option for patients with low-risk PTC based on the low rate of disease progression and the absence of an increased mortality risk. AS has additional benefits, including improved QoL and greater QoL-based cost-effectiveness.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • It Is Time to Understand the Additional Benefits of Active Surveillance for Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
    Kyeong Jin Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2024; 39(1): 95.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Hashimoto Thyroiditis and Mortality in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The National Epidemiologic Survey of Thyroid Cancer in Korea and Meta-Analysis
Injung Yang, Jae Myung Yu, Hye Soo Chung, Yoon Jung Kim, Yong Kyun Roh, Min Kyu Choi, Sung-ho Park, Young Joo Park, Shinje Moon
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):140-151.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1748
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Many studies have shown that Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) acts as a protective factor in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but little is known about its effects on mortality. Therefore, this study was performed to reveal the prognosis of HT on mortality in patients with DTC.
Methods
This study included two types of research results: retrospective cohort study using the National Epidemiologic Survey of Thyroid cancer (NEST) in Korea and meta-analysis study with the NEST data and eight selected studies.
Results
Of the 4,398 patients with DTC in NEST, 341 patients (7.8%) died during the median follow-up period of 15 years (interquartile range, 12.3 to 15.6). Of these, 91 deaths (2.1%) were related to DTC. HT was associated with a smaller tumor size and less aggressive DTC. In Cox regression analysis after adjusting for age and sex, patients with HT showed a significantly lower risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.96) and DTC-related death (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.77). The analysis with inverse probability of treatment weight data adjusted for age, sex, and year of thyroid cancer registration showed similar association. The meta-analysis showed that patients with HT showed a lower risk of all-cause mortality (risk ratio [RR], 0.24; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.47) and thyroid cancer-related mortality (RR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.40) in comparison with patients without HT.
Conclusion
This study showed that DTC co-presenting with HT is associated with a low risk of advanced DTC and presents a low risk for all-cause and DTC-related death.
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Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
FoxO6-Mediated TXNIP Induces Lipid Accumulation in the Liver through NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation
Mi Eun Kim, Jun Sik Lee, Tae Won Kim, Min Hi Park, Dae Hyun Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):127-139.   Published online February 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1826
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Hepatic steatosis, which involves the excessive accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocytes, presents a significant global health concern due to its association with obesity and metabolic disorders. Inflammation plays a crucial role in the progression of hepatic steatosis; however, the precise molecular mechanisms responsible for this process remain unknown.
Methods
This study investigated the involvement of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and the forkhead box O6 (FoxO6) transcription factor in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. We monitored the NLRP3 inflammasome and lipogenesis in mice overexpressing the constitutively active (CA)-FoxO6 allele and FoxO6-null mice. In an in vitro study, we administered palmitate to liver cells overexpressing CA-FoxO6 and measured changes in lipid metabolism.
Results
We administered palmitate treatment to clarify the mechanisms through which FoxO6 activates cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β through the NLRP3 inflammasome. The initial experiments revealed that dephosphorylation led to palmitate-induced FoxO6 transcriptional activity. Further palmitate experiments showed increased expression of IL-1β and the hepatic NLRP3 inflammasome complex, including adaptor protein apoptotic speck protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and pro-caspase-1. Furthermore, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), a key regulator of cellular redox conditions upstream of the NLRP3 inflammasome, was induced by FoxO6 in the liver and HepG2 cells.
Conclusion
The findings of this study shed light on the molecular mechanisms underpinning the FoxO6-NLRP3 inflammasome axis in promoting inflammation and lipid accumulation in the liver.
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Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
Efficacy and Safety of Omarigliptin, a Novel Once-Weekly Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor, in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
A.B.M. Kamrul-Hasan, Muhammad Shah Alam, Samir Kumar Talukder, Deep Dutta, Shahjada Selim
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):109-126.   Published online January 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1839
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
No recent meta-analysis has holistically analyzed and summarized the efficacy and safety of omarigliptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We conducted a meta-analysis to address this knowledge gap.
Methods
Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included patients with T2DM who received omarigliptin in the intervention arm. The control arm consisted of either a placebo (passive control group [PCG]) or an active comparator (active control group [ACG]). The primary outcome assessed was changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), while secondary outcomes included variations in glucose levels, achievement of glycemic targets, adverse events (AEs), and hypoglycemic events.
Results
From 332 initially screened articles, data from 16 RCTs involving 8,804 subjects were analyzed. Omarigliptin demonstrated superiority over placebo in reducing HbA1c levels (mean difference, –0.58%; 95% confidence interval, –0.75 to –0.40; P<0.00001; I2=91%). Additionally, omarigliptin outperformed placebo in lowering fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, and in the percentage of participants achieving HbA1c levels below 7.0% and 6.5%. The glycemic efficacy of omarigliptin was similar to that of the ACG across all measures. Although the omarigliptin group experienced a higher incidence of hypoglycemic events compared to the PCG, the overall AEs, serious AEs, hypoglycemia, and severe hypoglycemia were comparable between the omarigliptin and control groups (PCG and ACG).
Conclusion
Omarigliptin has a favorable glycemic efficacy and safety profile for managing T2DM.
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Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
Inhibition of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 during Serum Deprivation Increases Hepatic Gluconeogenesis via the AMPK/AKT/FOXO Signaling Pathway
Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Min-Jeong Kim, Yu-Mi Lim, Sun Joon Moon, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):98-108.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1786
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) mediates glucose reabsorption in the renal proximal tubules, and SGLT2 inhibitors are used as therapeutic agents for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to elucidate the effects and mechanisms of SGLT2 inhibition on hepatic glucose metabolism in both serum deprivation and serum supplementation states.
Methods
Huh7 cells were treated with the SGLT2 inhibitors empagliflozin and dapagliflozin to examine the effect of SGLT2 on hepatic glucose uptake. To examine the modulation of glucose metabolism by SGLT2 inhibition under serum deprivation and serum supplementation conditions, HepG2 cells were transfected with SGLT2 small interfering RNA (siRNA), cultured in serum-free Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium for 16 hours, and then cultured in media supplemented with or without 10% fetal bovine serum for 8 hours.
Results
SGLT2 inhibitors dose-dependently decreased hepatic glucose uptake. Serum deprivation increased the expression levels of the gluconeogenesis genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6pase), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and their expression levels during serum deprivation were further increased in cells transfected with SGLT2 siRNA. SGLT2 inhibition by siRNA during serum deprivation induces nuclear localization of the transcription factor forkhead box class O 1 (FOXO1), decreases nuclear phosphorylated-AKT (p-AKT), and p-FOXO1 protein expression, and increases phosphorylated-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) protein expression. However, treatment with the AMPK inhibitor, compound C, reversed the reduction in the protein expression levels of nuclear p- AKT and p-FOXO1 and decreased the protein expression levels of p-AMPK and PEPCK in cells transfected with SGLT2 siRNA during serum deprivation.
Conclusion
These data show that SGLT2 mediates glucose uptake in hepatocytes and that SGLT2 inhibition during serum deprivation increases gluconeogenesis via the AMPK/AKT/FOXO1 signaling pathway.
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Editorials
Thyroid
It Is Time to Understand the Additional Benefits of Active Surveillance for Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Kyeong Jin Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):95-97.   Published online February 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.104
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Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
No More NAFLD: The Term Is Now MASLD
Ji Cheol Bae
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):92-94.   Published online February 13, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.103
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Diabetes, obesity and metabolism
Younger-Onset Diabetes: Is the Age of Onset More Important than the Duration of Diabetes?
Mee Kyoung Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):90-91.   Published online February 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.102
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Review Articles
Adrenal gland
The Fascinating Interplay between Growth Hormone, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1, and Insulin
Eline C. Nijenhuis-Noort, Kirsten A. Berk, Sebastian J. C. M. M. Neggers, Aart J. van der Lely
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):83-89.   Published online January 9, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.101
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
This review intends to provide the reader with a practical overview of several (patho)physiological conditions in which knowledge of the interplay between growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin is important. This might help treating physicians in making the right decisions on how to intervene and improve metabolism for the benefit of patients, and to understand why and how metabolism responds in their specific cases. We will specifically address the interplay between GH, IGF-1, and insulin in type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, and acromegaly as examples in which this knowledge is truly necessary.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • IGF-1 and IGF-2 as Molecules Linked to Causes and Consequences of Obesity from Fetal Life to Adulthood: A Systematic Review
    Justyna Szydlowska-Gladysz, Adrianna Edyta Gorecka, Julia Stepien, Izabela Rysz, Iwona Ben-Skowronek
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(7): 3966.     CrossRef
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Adrenal gland
A Contemporary Approach to the Diagnosis and Management of Adrenal Insufficiency
Suranut Charoensri, Richard J. Auchus
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):73-82.   Published online January 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1894
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Adrenal insufficiency (AI) can be classified into three distinct categories based on its underlying causes: primary adrenal disorders, secondary deficiencies in adrenocorticotropin, or hypothalamic suppression from external factors, most commonly glucocorticoid medications used for anti-inflammatory therapy. The hallmark clinical features of AI include fatigue, appetite loss, unintentional weight loss, low blood pressure, and hyponatremia. Individuals with primary AI additionally manifest skin hyperpigmentation, hyperkalemia, and salt craving. The diagnosis of AI is frequently delayed due to the non-specific symptoms and signs early in the disease course, which poses a significant challenge to its early detection prior to an adrenal crisis. Despite the widespread availability of lifesaving glucocorticoid medications for decades, notable challenges persist, particularly in the domains of timely diagnosis while simultaneously avoiding misdiagnosis, patient education for averting adrenal crises, and the determination of optimal replacement therapies. This article reviews recent advancements in the contemporary diagnostic strategy and approaches to optimal treatment for AI.
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Thyroid
A Narrative Review of the 2023 Korean Thyroid Association Management Guideline for Patients with Thyroid Nodules
Eun Kyung Lee, Young Joo Park, Chan Kwon Jung, Dong Gyu Na
Endocrinol Metab. 2024;39(1):61-72.   Published online February 14, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2024.1938
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The 2023 Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) Management Guideline for Patients with Thyroid Nodules constitute an update of the 2016 KTA guideline for thyroid nodules and cancers that focuses specifically on nodules. The 2023 guideline aim to offer updated guidance based on new evidence that reflects the changes in clinical practice since the 2016 KTA guideline. To update the 2023 guideline, a comprehensive literature search was conducted from January 2022 to May 2022. The literature search included studies, reviews, and other evidence involving human subjects that were published in English in MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, and other relevant databases. Additional significant clinical trials and research studies published up to April 2023 were also reviewed. The limitations of the current evidence are discussed, and suggestions for areas in need of further research are identified. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of the 2023 KTA guideline for the management of thyroid nodules released in May 2023 and to give a balanced insight with comparison of recent guidelines from other societies.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism