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Original Article The Short-term Effects of Bone Marrow Transplantation on Bone Metabolism.
Soon Jib Yoo, Yoo Bae Ahn, Kun Ho Yoon, Moo Il Kang, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang, Ki Ho Song, Yoon Hee Choi, Bong Yeon Cha, Hye Soo Kim, Ki Won Oh, Sung Dae Moon, Sang Ah Jang, Chun Choo Kim
Endocrinology and Metabolism 1999;14(2):355-364

Published online: January 1, 2001
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The organ transplantation becomes the management of choice for many patients with chronic and life threatening heart, liver, kidney, bone marrow, and pancreatic diseases. A new set of side effects unique to this groups of patients has become recognized. Bone disease is one of these complications. It is well known that there is an interplay between the cells in the bone marrow and the surrounding bone tissue. Marrow stromal cells include the progenitors of the osteoblastic lineage are the sources of effector molecules that support and regulate both hematopoiesis and bone remodeling. But little is known about the effects of myeloablative treatment followed by bone marrow transplantation(BMT) on bone metabolism. METHODS: We have investigated prospectively in 29 patients undergoing BMT(4 autologous, 25 allogenic) for hematologic diseases(19 leukemia, 9 severe aplastic anemia, 1 myelodyspoietic syndrome). Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, gonadotropins, sex hormones and biochemical markers of bone turnover(osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen(ICTP)] were measured. The samples were collected before BMT and 1, 2, 3, 4, 12 weeks, 6 months and 1 year thereafter. Bone mineral density was measured with DEXA(Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) before and after 1 year of BMT. RESULTS: 1. ICIP was progressively increased until 4 weeks after BMT when peak values were reached. And then decreased thereafter and basal values were regained after 1 year. Osteocalcin was progressively decreased until 3 weeks after BMT when nadir values were reached. And then increased thereafter and basal values were regained after 3 months. No distinct differences were observed in serum biochemical turnover marker between both sexes and between patients who received total body irradiation and those who did not. 2. Lumbar BMD was 2.1% decreased from 1.113 +/- 0.132 g/cm to 1.089 +/- 0.137 g/cm, and femoral BMD was 6.2% decreased fiom 1.078 +/- 0.156 g/cm to 1.011 +/- 0.157 g/cm. 3. 92% of the women (11/12) became menopausal manifested by high gonadotropin and low estradiol levels immediately after BMT. In contrast to women, gonadotropins and testosterone levels were not changed significantly in men after BMT. CONCLUSION: The rapid impairment of bone formation and also increase in bone resorption, as mirrored by the biochemical markers in this study, might play a role for the post-BMT bone loss. Further studies over many patients with a longer follow up will be needed.

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