Journal of Korean Endocrine Society 2001;16(1):54-64.
Published online February 1, 2001.
Early Detection of Medullary Thyroid Cancer by Screening of the RET Proto-oncogene Germ Line Point Mutation in Family Members Affected with Hereditary Medullary Thyroid Cancer .
Sun Wook Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Young Joo Park, Won Bae Kim, Chan Soo Shin, Do Joon Park, Kyoung Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee
1Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Metabolism of Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Cheju National University, Cheju, Korea.
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Conventional biochemical screening for family members with hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is associated with problems of sensitivity and, specificity and it frequently detects gene carriers only after disease progression. Molecular genetic screening tests that detect germ-line point mutations of the RET proto-oncogene has changed our approach to hereditary MTC. In this study we screened members of a large Korean family that had a history of hereditary MTC by a molecular genetic method and propose a therapeutic approach in managing the disorder. METHODS: Using DNA acquired from peripheral blood leukocytes of the index patient, we performed PCR and direct sequencing of exon 10 of the RET proto-oncogene. PCR-RFLP using an Mbo II restriction enzyme was performed on family members who were at risk of MTC according to the family pedigree. Basal serum calcitonin level was determined in family members who had a point mutation of the RET proto-oncogene and a pentagastrin stimulation test was performed in 3 members. RESULTS: Genetic analysis in the index case revealed a mutation in exon 10, codon 618 of the RET proto-oncogene (TGC to AGC). Out of 28 members who were at risk of MTC, 24 members participated in the screening test. 9 members tested positive for a mutation in the same chromosomal location as the index patient by PCR-RFLP. Basal serum calcitonins were above 100 pg/mL in 2 members. 3 members who had a RET point muatation but a normal basal serum calcitonin level participated in the pentagastrin stimulation test and the results were negative in all members. We found a small medullary thyroid carcinoma that had a diameter of 0.2 cm in a 16 years old boy according to a negative pentagastrin stimulation test and who had received a prophylactic total thyroidectomy. He had no evidence of a lymph node metastasis. CONCLUSION: We detected a germ-line mutation of the RET proto-oncogene in codon 618 of Exon 10 by a molecular genetic method in a family with a hereditary MTC and found 9 members that had a negative history of MTC but had a RET point mutation. There was a very small MTC found in a 16 years old boy who had a normal pentagastrin stimulation test result. Therefore, It is recommended that a prophylactic total thyroidectomy be performed as well as in members that have a mutation of the RET proto-oncogene because MTC can metastasize early in its disease course.'
Key Words: RET proto-oncogene, Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma, Prophylactic thyroidectomy, Molecular genetic screening, Calcitonin
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