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Original Article Determinants of Limb-Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Men and Women Aged over 50 in Rural Area.
Soo Lim, Chan Soo Shin, Ki Sook Kim, Soo Youn Kim, Eun Joo Bang, Eun Kyung Shin, Hye Ran Choi, Moon Ho Chung, Sung Il Cho
Endocrinology and Metabolism 2003;18(2):193-205

Published online: April 1, 2003
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1School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Korea.
2Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.

Many studies have shown a strong inverse relationship between the bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures, with a doubling in the incidence of fractures for each standard deviation reduction in the BMD. Newer peripheral densitometry devices have recently been developed, with the advantages of a low cost and increased portability. In addition, studies focusing on the osteoporosis of rural populations are rare. The authors assessed the factors related with the BMD in rural areas, using peripheral bone densitometry. METHODS: 23 men (68.4+/-9.2[mean age+/-SD] years) and 32 women (63.9+/-8.3 years), living in rural areas, voluntarily participated in this community-based study. The BMD of the distal radius (BMDr) and calcaneus (BMDc) were measured using peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMI, waist to hip ratio, body composition, blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose and insulin were measured. The sociodemographic characteristics and physical activities were investigated using questionnaires. RESULTS: 21.7% of the men and 34.4% of the women were diagnosed with osteoporosis according to the WHO definition. The BMDr and BMDc were 0.46+/-0.08 and 0.46+/-0.11 and 0.34+/-0.07 and 0.33+/-0.08g/cm2 in the men and women, respectively. In the men, age, BMI, physical activity and smoking were correlated with the BMDr, and age, lean body mass, physical activity, TV watching and smoking with the BMDc. In the women, age, weight and lean body mass were correlated with the BMDr, and age, weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, lean body mass and year since menopause with the BMDc. From a multiple regression analysis, age and smoking in men, and year since menopause and lean body mass in women, respectively, had independent effects on the BMD. CONCLUSION: In the rural community studied, osteoporosis was as highly prevalent as in urban communities. Of the determinants for the BMD, smoking for men, and lean body mass for women, were modifiable factors. Education for quitting smoking in men, and maintenance of optimal weight in women, are required to prevent osteoporosis in rural areas.

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