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Original Article Relationship between Adiponectin, Leptin and Body Fat in Men with Hypogonadism Before and After Testosterone Treatment.
Sang Wan Kim, Joon Ku Kang, Do Joon Park, Chan Soo Shin, Kyung Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee
Endocrinology and Metabolism 2004;19(5):473-484

Published online: October 1, 2004
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1Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.
2Center of Hormone Research, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Korea.
3The Institute of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Metabolism, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Korea.
4Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital4, Seoul, Korea.

BACKGROUND
Testosterone replacement therapy in men with hypogonadism improves sexual function, decreases body fat, and increases the mass and function of lean muscle. These beneficial effects of testosterone replacement therapy are accompanied by slight lowering of the high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, increase in the hematocrit/hemoglobin ratio and size of the prostate gland. It is presently unknown whether the effect of testosterone on body fat could also reduce the risk of atherosclerotic disease associated with obesity. We investigated the relationship between body fat and blood leptin and adiponectin levels to elucidate the effect of testosterone on body fat metabolism, as well as the effect of testosterone on lipid and bone metabolism. METHODS: We selected 28 men, who were hypogonadal (mean serum testosterone+/-SD, 22.3+/-35.3 ng/dL) due to an organic disease, and them with oral testosterone (testosterone undecanoate) for 12 months. We measured the body composition, serum leptin, plasma adiponectin, biochemical bone markers, bone mineral density, prostate-specific antigen, and serum lipids before and 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. We analyzed the relationship between body fat and blood leptin and adiponectin levels. RESULTS: The mean serum testosterone concentration reached the subnormal range after 6 months of treatment, which remained for the duration of treatment. The fat mass decreased and muscle mass increased, not within the first 6 months, but principally within 12 months (p<0.05). Although the decrease in the serum leptin level was not statistically significant, there were positive correlations between the leptin level and fat mass before and after 6 months of treatment (p<0.05). The plasma adiponectin did not increase or correlate with body fat parameters. The bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and femoral neck did not increased, but the serum osteocalcin and urine N-telopeptide were significantly decreased (p<0.05 and <0.01, respectively). The HDL-cholesterol decreased, principally within the first 6 months (p<0.01), but the total and LDL cholesterols, and the triglycerides remained unchanged during the course of treatment. There was also no change in prostate-specific antigen. CONCLUSION: Twelve months of oral testosterone replacement in men with hypogonadism improved body composition and bone metabolism, but demonstrated subnormal serum testosterone levels, had no effect on the leptin and adiponectin levels and decrease in HDL-cholesterol levels. It will be necessary to examine the long-term effects of testosterone replacement on the incidence of cardiovascular events as well as cardiovascular risk factors in men with hypogonadism

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