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22 "Prognosis"
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Thyroid
Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Coexisting Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Graves’ Disease: A Retrospective Multicenter Study
Jee Hee Yoon, Meihua Jin, Mijin Kim, A Ram Hong, Hee Kyung Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong, Min Ji Jeon, Ho-Cheol Kang
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(6):1268-1276.   Published online November 26, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1227
  • 4,964 View
  • 187 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The association between Graves’ disease (GD) and co-existing thyroid cancer is still controversial and most of the previously reported data have been based on surgically treated GD patients. This study investigated the clinicopathological findings and prognosis of concomitant thyroid cancer in GD patients in the era of widespread application of ultrasonography.
Methods
Data of GD patients who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer between 2010 and 2019 in three tertiary hospitals in South Korea (Asan Medical Center, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, and Pusan National University Hospital) were collected and analyzed retrospectively. In the subgroup analysis, aggressiveness and clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer were compared nodular GD and non-nodular GD groups according to the presence or absence of the thyroid nodules other than thyroid cancer (index nodules).
Results
Of the 15,159 GD patients treated at the hospitals during the study period, 262 (1.7%) underwent thyroidectomy for coexisting thyroid cancer. Eleven patients (4.2%) were diagnosed with occult thyroid cancer and 182 patients (69.5%) had microcarcinomas. No differences in thyroid cancer aggressiveness, ultrasonographic findings, or prognosis were observed between the nodular GD and non-nodular GD groups except the cancer subtype. In the multivariate analysis, only lymph node (LN) metastasis was an independent prognostic factor for recurrent/persistent disease of thyroid cancer arising in GD (P=0.020).
Conclusion
The prevalence of concomitant thyroid cancer in GD patients was considerably lower than in previous reports. The clinical outcomes of thyroid cancer in GD patients were also excellent but, more cautious follow-up is necessary for patients with LN metastasis in the same way as for thyroid cancer in non-GD patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of Surgical Outcomes of Transoral Versus Open Thyroidectomy for Graves Disease
    Suo-Hsien Wang, Wu-Po Chao, Ta-You Lo, Soh-Ching Ng, Yu-Hsien Chen
    Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques.2024; 34(2): 150.     CrossRef
  • Outcomes of Surgical Treatment for Graves’ Disease: A Single-Center Experience of 216 Cases
    Hanxing Sun, Hui Tong, Xiaohui Shen, Haoji Gao, Jie Kuang, Xi Chen, Qinyu Li, Weihua Qiu, Zhuoran Liu, Jiqi Yan
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(4): 1308.     CrossRef
  • Cancer and Mortality Risks of Graves’ Disease in South Korea Based on National Data from 2010 to 2019
    Young Ju Choi, Kyungdo Han, Won Kyoung Cho, Min Ho Jung, Byung-Kyu Suh
    Clinical Epidemiology.2023; Volume 15: 535.     CrossRef
  • Risk and Prognosis of Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Graves’ Disease: An Umbrella Review
    Marco Palella, Francesca Maria Giustolisi, Adriana Modica Fiascaro, Martina Fichera, Antonella Palmieri, Rossella Cannarella, Aldo E. Calogero, Margherita Ferrante, Maria Fiore
    Cancers.2023; 15(10): 2724.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics, staging and outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with and without Graves’ disease
    Chaitra Gopinath, Hanna Crow, Sujata Panthi, Leonidas Bantis, Kenneth D. Burman, Chitra Choudhary
    Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology.2023; 33: 100321.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, Treatment Status, and Comorbidities of Hyperthyroidism in Korea from 2003 to 2018: A Nationwide Population Study
    Hwa Young Ahn, Sun Wook Cho, Mi Young Lee, Young Joo Park, Bon Seok Koo, Hang-Seok Chang, Ka Hee Yi
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(4): 436.     CrossRef
  • Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis and Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Follow-Up Study in Patients with Absence of Aggressive Risk Factors at the Surgery of the Primary Tumor
    Andrea Marongiu, Susanna Nuvoli, Andrea De Vito, Sonia Vargiu, Angela Spanu, Giuseppe Madeddu
    Diagnostics.2023; 13(19): 3068.     CrossRef
  • Table of Contents

    Clinical Thyroidology.2022; 34(2): 48.     CrossRef
  • Predisposition to and Prognosis of Thyroid Cancer May Not Be Affected by Graves’ Disease, But Some Questions Still Remain
    Yanrui Huang, Haixia Guan
    Clinical Thyroidology.2022; 34(2): 59.     CrossRef
  • A Comparative Follow-Up Study of Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Associated or Not with Graves’ Disease
    Andrea Marongiu, Susanna Nuvoli, Andrea De Vito, Maria Rondini, Angela Spanu, Giuseppe Madeddu
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(11): 2801.     CrossRef
  • An unusual case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as Graves’ disease
    Pooja Tiwari, Uma Kaimal Saikia, Abhamoni Baro, Ashok Krishna Bhuyan
    Thyroid Research and Practice.2022; 19(1): 47.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Clinicopathological Characteristics and Disease-Free Survival in Patients with Hürthle Cell Carcinoma: A Multicenter Cohort Study in South Korea
Meihua Jin, Eun Sook Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Hee Kyung Kim, Yea Eun Kang, Min Ji Jeon, Tae Yong Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong, Mijin Kim, Won Gu Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(5):1078-1085.   Published online October 28, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1151
  • 4,004 View
  • 110 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC), a type of thyroid carcinoma, is rare in South Korea, and few studies have investigated its prognosis.
Methods
This long-term multicenter retrospective cohort study evaluated the clinicopathological features and clinical outcomes in patients with HCC who underwent thyroid surgery between 1996 and 2009.
Results
The mean age of the 97 patients included in the study was 50.3 years, and 26.8% were male. The mean size of the primary tumor was 3.2±1.8 cm, and three (3.1%) patients had distant metastasis at initial diagnosis. Ultrasonographic findings were available for 73 patients; the number of nodules with low-, intermediate-, and high suspicion was 28 (38.4%), 27 (37.0%), and 18 (24.7%), respectively, based on the Korean-Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System. Preoperatively, follicular neoplasm (FN) or suspicion for FN accounted for 65.2% of the cases according to the Bethesda category, and 13% had malignancy or suspicious for malignancy. During a median follow-up of 8.5 years, eight (8.2%) patients had persistent/recurrent disease, and none died of HCC. Older age, gross extrathyroidal extension (ETE), and widely invasive types of tumors were significantly associated with distant metastasis (all P<0.01). Gross ETE (hazard ratio [HR], 27.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 346.4; P=0.01) and widely invasive classification (HR, 6.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 39.4; P=0.04) were independent risk factors for poor disease-free survival (DFS).
Conclusion
The long-term prognosis of HCC is relatively favorable in South Korea from this study, although this is not a nation-wide data, and gross ETE and widely invasive cancer are significant prognostic factors for DFS. The diagnosis of HCC by ultrasonography and cytopathology remains challenging.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Molecular Alterations and Comprehensive Clinical Management of Oncocytic Thyroid Carcinoma
    Lindsay A. Bischoff, Ian Ganly, Laura Fugazzola, Erin Buczek, William C. Faquin, Bryan R. Haugen, Bryan McIver, Caitlin P. McMullen, Kate Newbold, Daniel J. Rocke, Marika D. Russell, Mabel Ryder, Peter M. Sadow, Eric Sherman, Maisie Shindo, David C. Shonk
    JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery.2024; 150(3): 265.     CrossRef
  • Oncocytic carcinoma of the thyroid: Conclusions from a 20‐year patient cohort
    Nelson R. Gruszczynski, Shahzeb S. Hasan, Ana G. Brennan, Julian De La Chapa, Adithya S. Reddy, David N. Martin, Prem P. Batchala, Edward B. Stelow, Eric M. Dowling, Katherine L. Fedder, Jonathan C. Garneau, David C. Shonka
    Head & Neck.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Hurthle cell carcinoma: a rare variant of thyroid malignancy – a case report
    Yuvraj Adhikari, Anupama Marasini, Nawaraj Adhikari, Laxman D. Paneru, Binit Upadhaya Regmi, Manita Raut
    Annals of Medicine & Surgery.2023; 85(5): 1940.     CrossRef
  • Hürthle Cell Carcinoma: Single Center Analysis and Considerations for Surgical Management Based on the Recent Literature
    Costanza Chiapponi, Milan J.M. Hartmann, Matthias Schmidt, Michael Faust, Christiane J. Bruns, Anne M. Schultheis, Hakan Alakus
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Close layer
Thyroid
Clinicopathological Characteristics and Recurrence-Free Survival of Rare Variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas in Korea: A Retrospective Study
Mijin Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Young Joo Park, Hwa Young Ahn, Hee Sung Kim, Yong Joon Suh, Dughyun Choi, Bu Kyung Kim, Go Eun Yang, Il-Seok Park, Ka Hee Yi, Chan Kwon Jung, Bo Hyun Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(3):619-627.   Published online June 10, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.974
  • 4,821 View
  • 180 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological features and biological behaviors of Korean thyroid cancer patients with rare variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) to address the ambiguity regarding the prognostic consequences of these variants.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 5,496 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for PTC, between January and December 2012, in nine tertiary hospitals. Rare PTC variants included tall cell (TCV), columnar cell (CCV), diffuse sclerosing (DSV), cribriform-morular (CMV), solid (SV), hobnail, and Warthin-like variants. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was defined as the time from the date of thyroidectomy until recurrence.
Results
Rare variants accounted for 1.1% (n=63) of the PTC patients; with 0.9% TCV, 0.02% CCV, 0.1% DSV, 0.1% CMV, and 0.1% SV. The mean age of patients and primary tumor size were 42.1±13.1 years and 1.3±0.9 cm, respectively. Extrathyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastasis were observed in 38 (60.3%) and 37 (58.7%) patients, respectively. Ultrasonographic findings revealed typical malignant features in most cases. During a median follow-up of 7 years, 6.3% of patients experienced a locoregional recurrence. The 5-year RFS rates were 71.4% in patients with DSV or SV, 95.9% for TCV, or CCV, and 100% for other variants. DSV emerged an independent risk factor associated with shorter RFS.
Conclusion
In this multicenter Korean cohort, rare variants accounted for 1.1% of all PTC cases, with TCV being the most frequent subtype. DSV emerged as a significant prognostic factor for RFS.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Serum thyroglobulin testing after thyroid lobectomy in patients with 1–4 cm papillary thyroid carcinoma
    Ahreum Jang, Meihua Jin, Chae A Kim, Min Ji Jeon, Yu-Mi Lee, Tae-Yon Sung, Tae Yong Kim, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong, Won Gu Kim
    Endocrine.2023; 81(2): 290.     CrossRef
  • Do Histologically Aggressive Subtypes of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma have Worse Clinical Outcome than Non-Aggressive Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Subtypes? A Multicenter Cohort Study
    Sayid Shafi Zuhur, Hunkar Aggul, Ugur Avci, Selvinaz Erol, Mazhar Müslüm Tuna, Serhat Uysal, Gulhan Akbaba, Faruk Kilinç, Merve Catak, Sakin Tekin, Ogun Irem Bilen, Beyza Olcay Öztürk, Ecem Bilgehan Erden, Gulsah Elbuken, Halise Cinar Yavuz, Pinar Kadiogl
    Hormone and Metabolic Research.2023; 55(05): 323.     CrossRef
  • The Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas: a clinicopathologic analysis report of two cases
    Xing Zhao, Yijia Zhang, Pengyu Hao, Mingzhen Zhao, Xingbin Shen
    Oncologie.2023; 25(5): 581.     CrossRef
  • A Retrospective Cohort Study with Validation of Predictors of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Outcomes
    Ayanthi Wijewardene, Anthony J. Gill, Matti Gild, Diana L. Learoyd, Anthony Robert Glover, Mark Sywak, Stan Sidhu, Paul Roach, Geoffrey Schembri, Jeremy Hoang, Bruce Robinson, Lyndal Tacon, Roderick Clifton-Bligh
    Thyroid.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinicopathological Implications of the BRAFV600E Mutation in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of Ukrainian Patients Exposed to the Chernobyl Radiation in Childhood: A Study for 30 Years After the Accident
    Liudmyla Zurnadzhy, Tetiana Bogdanova, Tatiana I. Rogounovitch, Masahiro Ito, Mykola Tronko, Shunichi Yamashita, Norisato Mitsutake, Michael Bolgov, Serhii Chernyshov, Sergii Masiuk, Vladimir A. Saenko
    Frontiers in Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Close layer
Clinical Study
Lactate Dehydrogenase A as a Potential New Biomarker for Thyroid Cancer
Eun Jeong Ban, Daham Kim, Jin Kyong Kim, Sang-Wook Kang, Jandee Lee, Jong Ju Jeong, Kee-Hyun Nam, Woong Youn Chung, Kunhong Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(1):96-105.   Published online February 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.819
  • 6,013 View
  • 188 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Several cancers show increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), which are associated with cancer progression. However, it remains unclear whether LDHA levels are associated with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) aggressiveness or with the presence of the PTC prognostic marker, the BRAFV600E mutation. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of LDHA as a PTC prognostic marker.
Methods
LDHA expression was examined in 83 PTC tissue specimens by immunohistochemistry. Human thyroid cell lines were genetically manipulated to overexpress BRAFV600E or were treated with a BRAF-specific short hairpin RNA (shBRAF), whose effects on LDHA expression were evaluated by Western blotting. Data from 465 PTC patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and analyzed to validate the in vitro results.
Results
LDHA was aberrantly overexpressed in PTC. Intense immunostaining for LDHA was observed in PTC specimens carrying mutated BRAF, whereas the intensity was less in wild-type BRAF samples. Overexpression of BRAFV600E resulted in LDHA upregulation, whereas treatment with shBRAF downregulated LDHA in human thyroid cell lines. Furthermore, LDHA mRNA expression was significantly elevated and associated with BRAFV600E expression in thyroid cancer tissues from TCGA database. Additionally, LDHA overexpression was found to be correlated with aggressive clinical features of PTC, such as lymph node metastases and advanced tumor stages.
Conclusion
LDHA overexpression is associated with the BRAFV600E mutation and an aggressive PTC behavior. Therefore, LDHA may serve as a biomarker and therapeutic target in PTC.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Ning Qu, Di Chen, Ben Ma, Lijun Zhang, Qiuping Wang, Yuting Wang, Hongping Wang, Zhaoxian Ni, Wen Wang, Tian Liao, Jun Xiang, Yulong Wang, Shi Jin, Dixin Xue, Weili Wu, Yu Wang, Qinghai Ji, Hui He, Hai-long Piao, Rongliang Shi
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    Jaime Eduardo Pachón Suárez, Marcela C. Salazar, Victor Z. Rizo
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    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(1): 53.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry.2022; 430: 113989.     CrossRef
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    Cell Death & Disease.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Close layer
Review Article
Thyroid
Updates in the Pathologic Classification of Thyroid Neoplasms: A Review of the World Health Organization Classification
Yanhua Bai, Kennichi Kakudo, Chan Kwon Jung
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(4):696-715.   Published online December 2, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.807
  • 16,540 View
  • 1,275 Download
  • 40 Web of Science
  • 42 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Advances in medical sciences and evidence-based medicine have led to momentous changes in classification and management of thyroid neoplasms. Much progress has been made toward avoiding overdiagnosis and overtreatment of thyroid cancers. The new 2017 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of thyroid neoplasms updated the diagnostic criteria and molecular and genetic characteristics reflecting the biology and behavior of the tumors, and newly introduced the category of borderline malignancy or uncertain malignant potential. Some neoplasms were subclassified, renamed, or redefined as a specific entity. This review introduces changes in the fourth edition WHO classification of thyroid tumors and updates the contemporary diagnosis and classification of thyroid tumors. We also discuss several challenges with the proposal of new diagnostic entities, since they have unique histopathologic and molecular features and clinical relevance.

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    Turkish Journal of Internal Medicine.2022; 4: 88.     CrossRef
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    Chan Kwon Jung, Andrey Bychkov, Kennichi Kakudo
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    Faridul Haq, Andrey Bychkov, Chan Kwon Jung
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    Eun Kyung Lee, Young Joo Park
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    Kennichi Kakudo, Zhiyan Liu, Yanhua Bai, Yaqiong Li, Naomi Kitayama, Shinya Satoh, Masahiro Nakashima, Chan Kwon Jung
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    Michał Kunc, Alexandra Kamieniecki, Grzegorz Walczak, Tomasz Nowicki, Bartosz Wasąg, Bogusław Mikaszewski, Dominik Stodulski, Wojciech Biernat
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Close layer
Original Articles
Clinical Study
Clinical Outcomes after Early and Delayed Radioiodine Remnant Ablation in Patients with Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Propensity Score Matching Analysis
Jonghwa Ahn, Meihua Jin, Eyun Song, Min Ji Jeon, Tae Yong Kim, Jin-Sook Ryu, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong, Ji Min Han, Won Gu Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(4):830-837.   Published online November 18, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.747
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The clinical outcomes of delayed radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) therapy in patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are unclear. We aimed to evaluate the clinical impact of the interval between total thyroidectomy (TT) and RRA therapy in patients with low-risk PTC.
Methods
We included 526 patients who underwent TT and RRA for low-risk PTC with a primary tumor size of >1 cm between 2000 and 2012. Patients were divided into the early (<90 days) and the delayed (≥90 days) RRA groups based on the interval between TT and RRA. The results of diagnostic whole-body scan (DxWBS), ongoing risk stratification (ORS; response to therapy), and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated before and after propensity score matching (PSM).
Results
Among the 526 patients, 75 (14.3%) patients underwent delayed RRA; they had more cervical lymph node metastasis and received a higher RRA dose than those who underwent early RRA. The median follow-up period was 9.1 years after initial therapy, and the structural recurrence rate was 1.9%. In DxWBS, 60 patients had focal iodine uptake limited in operative bed, with no significant difference between groups. According to ORS, 78%, 20%, 1%, and 1% patients were classified into excellent, indeterminate, biochemical incomplete, and structural incomplete response groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in ORS or DFS between groups before and after PSM.
Conclusion
The timing of the first RRA had no clinical impact in patients with low-risk PTC. Thus, the clinical decision for RRA can be determined >3 months after TT considering other prognostic factors.

Citations

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    Erika Abelleira, Fernando Jerkovich
    Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders.2024; 25(1): 79.     CrossRef
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    S.M. Cherenko, A.Yu. Glagolieva, D.E. Makhmudov
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    J. Wadsley, N. Armstrong, V. Bassett-Smith, M. Beasley, R. Chandler, L. Cluny, A.J. Craig, K. Farnell, K. Garcez, N. Garnham, K. Graham, A. Hallam, S. Hill, H. Hobrough, F. McKiddie, M.W.J. Strachan
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    Fang Cheng, Juan Xiao, Fengyan Huang, Chunchun Shao, Shouluan Ding, Canhua Yun, Hongying Jia
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Close layer
Endocrine Research
Liver X Receptor β Related to Tumor Progression and Ribosome Gene Expression in Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Seonhyang Jeong, In-Kyu Kim, Hyunji Kim, Moon Jung Choi, Jandee Lee, Young Suk Jo
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(3):656-668.   Published online August 20, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.667
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  • 8 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Intracellular lipid deposition has been reported in thyroid glands in obese animal and human. To understand the regulatory mechanism of lipid metabolism in thyroid cancer, we investigated the expression status of liver X receptor (LXR) and analyzed its clinicopathological characteristics and molecular biological features.
Methods
Expression status of LXR and its transcriptional targets in human cancers were analyzed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The gene-sets related to high LXRβ expression was investigated by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) signaling pathways and gene ontology biologic process. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed in thyroid cancer samples using our validation cohort.
Results
In contrast to low expression of LXRα, LXRβ was highly expressed in thyroid cancer compared to the other types of human cancers. High LXRβ expression was correlated with the expression of LXRβ transcriptional targets genes, such as apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1), APOC2, apolipoprotein E (APOE), ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 8 (ABCG8), sterol regulatory elementbinding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and SPOT14. Furthermore, High LXRβ expression group indicated poor clinicopathological characteristics and aggressive molecular biological features independently from the drive mutation status. Mechanistically, high LXRβ expression was coordinately related to ribosome-related gene sets.
Conclusion
The mechanistic link between LXRβ and ribosomal activity will be addressed to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic targets in thyroid cancers.

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Development and Validation of a Risk Scoring System Derived from Meta-Analyses of Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Sunghwan Suh, Tae Sik Goh, Yun Hak Kim, Sae-Ock Oh, Kyoungjune Pak, Ju Won Seok, In Joo Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(2):435-442.   Published online June 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.2.435
Correction in: Endocrinol Metab 2023;38(2):287
  • 5,666 View
  • 130 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
The aim of this study was to develop a scoring system to stratify the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and to select the proper management.
Methods
We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE and Embase. Data regarding patients’ prognoses were obtained from the included studies. Odds ratios (ORs) with statistical significance were extracted from the publications. To generate a risk scoring system (RSS), ORs were summed (RSS1), and summed after natural-logarithmic transformation (RSS2). RSS1 and RSS2 were compared to the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system and the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
Results
Five meta-analyses were eligible for inclusion in the study. Eight variables (sex, tumour size, extrathyroidal extension, BRAF mutation, TERT mutation, histologic subtype, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis) were included. RSS1 was the best of the analysed models.
Conclusion
We developed and validated a new RSS derived from previous meta-analyses for patients with PTC. This RSS seems to be superior to previously published systems.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Investigating 18F-FDG PET/CT Parameters as Prognostic Markers for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review
    Hongxi Wang, Hongyuan Dai, Qianrui Li, Guohua Shen, Lei Shi, Rong Tian
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    Joohyun Woo, Hyeonkyeong Kim, Hyungju Kwon
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Close layer
Clinical Study
Subclinical Hypothyroidism Affects the Long-Term Outcomes of Patients Who Undergo Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery but Not Heart Valve Surgery
Hana Kim, Sung Hye Kong, Jae Hoon Moon, Sang Yoon Kim, Kay-Hyun Park, Jun Sung Kim, Joong Haeng Choh, Young Joo Park, Cheong Lim
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(2):308-318.   Published online June 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.2.308
  • 6,609 View
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  • 9 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The aim of this study was to determine the associations between subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and long-term cardiovascular outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or heart valve surgery (HVS).
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed and compared all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular events in 461 patients who underwent CABG and 104 patients who underwent HVS.
Results
During a mean±standard deviation follow-up duration of 7.6±3.8 years, there were 187 all-cause deaths, 97 cardiovascular deaths, 127 major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), 11 myocardial infarctions, one unstable angina, 70 strokes, 30 hospitalizations due to heart failure, 101 atrial fibrillation, and 33 coronary revascularizations. The incidence of all-cause mortality after CABG was significantly higher in patients with SCH (n=36, 55.4%) than in euthyroid patients (n=120, 30.3%), with a hazard ratio of 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 2.63; P=0.018) after adjustment for age, sex, current smoking status, body mass index, underlying diseases, left ventricular dysfunction, and emergency operation. Interestingly, low total triiodothyronine (T3) levels in euthyroid patients who underwent CABG were significantly associated with increased risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and MACE, but those associations were not observed in HVS patients. Both free thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels in euthyroid patients were not related with any cardiovascular outcomes in either the CABG or HVS group.
Conclusion
SCH or low total T3 might be associated with a poor prognosis after CABG, but not after HVS, implying that preoperative thyroid hormonal status may be important in ischemic heart disease patients.

Citations

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  • Subclinical hypothyroidism and clinical outcomes after cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Michele Dell’Aquila, Camilla S. Rossi, Tulio Caldonazo, Gianmarco Cancelli, Lamia Harik, Giovanni J. Soletti, Kevin R. An, Jordan Leith, Hristo Kirov, Mudathir Ibrahim, Michelle Demetres, Arnaldo Dimagli, Mohamed Rahouma, Mario Gaudino
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    Hiba Masri-Iraqi, Yaron Rudman, Carmel Friedrich Dubinchik, Idit Dotan, Talia Diker-Cohen, Liat Sasson, Tzipora Shochat, Ilan Shimon, Eyal Robenshtok, Amit Akirov
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    Dong Zhao, Wei Zhao, Chuangshi Wang, Fei Xu, Wei Zhao, Xieraili Tiemuerniyazi, Hao Ma, Wei Feng
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    Olena K. Gogayeva, Anatoliy V. Rudenko, Vasyl V. Lazoryshynets, Serhii A. Rudenko, Tetiana A. Andrushchenko
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Close layer
Clinical Study
Epidemiology and Prognosis of Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma in Korea: A Nationwide Study Based on the National Health Insurance Service
Jung Hee Kim, Hyemi Moon, Junghyun Noh, Juneyoung Lee, Sin Gon Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(1):157-164.   Published online March 19, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.1.157
  • 7,388 View
  • 180 Download
  • 27 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare endocrine tumors originating from chromaffin cells. PPGLs are associated with a high mortality rate and several complications. To date, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on PPGLs in Asia. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and prognosis of PPGLs in Korea using nationwide data.

Methods

Using the National Health Insurance Service Database, subjects with a principal diagnosis of PPGLs on two or more occasions between 2003 and 2014 who satisfied the operational definition of PPGLs were included. Incidence, prevalence, complications, metastasis, and mortality were investigated.

Results

In total, 1048 subjects with a mean age of 47.6±16.1 years were included. There was no sex preponderance. The overall prevalence of PPGLs was 2.13 per 100,000 persons, and the overall age-standardized incidence rate was 0.18 per 100,000 person-years. Malignant PPGLs accounted for 17.7% (185 of 1,048) of cases, and 94 subjects exhibited metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Among initially non-metastatic PPGLs, 9.5% (nine of 954) eventually metastasized after a mean duration of 78.1±41.4 months. The 5-year survival rates for non-metastatic and metastatic PPGLs at diagnosis were 97% and 84%, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for covariates showed that metastatic PPGLs were associated with a 2.40-fold higher risk of mortality than non-metastatic PPGLs (95% confidence interval, 1.38 to 4.17; P=0.002).

Conclusion

PPGLs are rare in Korea, and the prognosis of these endocrine tumors varies depending on whether they are benign or malignant. This epidemiological study paves the way for further research on PPGLs.

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Close layer
Review Article
Thyroid
Unmet Clinical Needs in the Treatment of Patients with Thyroid Cancer
Won Bae Kim, Min Ji Jeon, Won Gu Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Young Kee Shong
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(1):14-25.   Published online March 19, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.1.14
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  • 14 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   

The increased incidence of thyroid cancer is a worldwide phenomenon; however, the issue of overdiagnosis has been most prominent in South Korea. The age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer in Korea steeply increased from 1985 to 2004 (from 0.17 per 100,000 to 0.85 per 100,000), and then decreased until 2015 to 0.42 per 100,000, suggesting that early detection reduced mortality. However, early detection of thyroid cancer may be cost-ineffective, considering its very high prevalence and indolent course. Therefore, risk stratification and tailored management are vitally important, but many prognostic markers can only be evaluated postoperatively. Discovery of preoperative marker(s), especially for small cancers, is the most important unmet clinical need for thyroid cancer. Herein, we discuss some such factors that we recently discovered. Another unmet clinical need is better treatment of radioiodine-refractory (RAIR) differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and undifferentiated cancers. Although sorafenib and lenvatinib are available, better drugs are needed. We found that phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, a critical enzyme for serine biosynthesis, could be a novel therapeutic target, and that the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio is a prognostic marker of survival in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma or RAIR DTC. Deeper insights are needed into tumor-host interactions in thyroid cancer to improve treatment.

Citations

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Close layer
Original Articles
Clinical Study
Protein Expression of Cyclin B1, Transferrin Receptor, and Fibronectin Is Correlated with the Prognosis of Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma
Sun Joon Moon, Jung Hee Kim, Sung Hye Kong, Chan Soo Shin
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(1):132-141.   Published online March 19, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.1.132
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer with a variable prognosis. Several prognostic factors of ACC have been previously reported, but a proteomic analysis has not yet been performed. This study aimed to investigate prognostic biomarkers for ACC using a proteomic approach.

Methods

We used reverse-phase protein array data from The Cancer Proteome Atlas, and identified differentially expressed proteins in metastatic ACCs. Multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted by age and staging was used for survival analysis, and the C-index and category-free net reclassification improvement (cfNRI) were utilized to evaluate additive prognostic value.

Results

In 46 patients with ACC, cyclin B1, transferrin receptor (TfR1), and fibronectin were significantly overexpressed in patients with distant metastasis. In multivariate models, high expression of cyclin B1 and TfR1 was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 6.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 36.7; and HR, 6.59; 95% CI, 1.14 to 38.2; respectively), whereas high fibronectin expression was not (HR, 3.92; 95% CI, 0.75 to 20.4). Combinations of high cyclin B1/high TfR1, high cyclin B1/high fibronectin, and high TfR1/high fibronectin were strongly associated with mortality ([HR, 13.72; 95% CI, 1.89 to 99.66], [HR, 9.22; 95% CI, 1.34 to 63.55], and [HR, 18.59; 95% CI, 2.54 to 135.88], respectively). In reclassification analyses, cyclin B1, TfR1, fibronectin, and combinations thereof improved the prognostic performance (C-index, 0.78 to 0.82–0.86; cfNRI, all P values <0.05).

Conclusion

In ACC patients, the overexpression of cyclin B1, TfR1, and fibronectin and combinations thereof were associated with poor prognosis.

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Close layer
Thyroid
Associations between Hashimoto Thyroiditis and Clinical Outcomes of Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Shinje Moon, Hye Soo Chung, Jae Myung Yu, Hyung Joon Yoo, Jung Hwan Park, Dong Sun Kim, Young Joo Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2018;33(4):473-484.   Published online November 30, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2018.33.4.473
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  • 59 Web of Science
  • 57 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) development. Other studies, however, have reported a protective role of HT against PTC progression. Through this updated meta-analysis, we aimed to clarify the effects of HT on the progression of PTC.

Methods

We searched citation databases, including PubMed and Embase, for relevant studies from inception to September 2017. From these studies, we calculated the pooled odds ratios (ORs) of clinicopathologic features and the relative risk (RR) of PTC recurrence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Additionally, the Higgins I2 statistic was used to test for heterogeneity.

Results

The meta-analysis included 71 published studies with 44,034 participants, among whom 11,132 had HT. We observed negative associations between PTC with comorbid HT and extrathyroidal extension (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.81), lymph node metastasis (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.94), distant metastasis (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.76), and recurrence (RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.61).

Conclusion

In this meta-analysis, PTC patients with HT appeared to exhibit more favorable clinicopathologic characteristics and a better prognosis than those without HT.

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Thyroid
Prognosis of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma with Initial Distant Metastasis: A Multicenter Study in Korea
Hosu Kim, Hye In Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Jaehoon Jung, Min Ji Jeon, Won Gu Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Hee Kyung Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang, Ji Min Han, Yoon Young Cho, Tae Hyuk Kim, Jae Hoon Chung
Endocrinol Metab. 2018;33(2):287-295.   Published online June 21, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2018.33.2.287
  • 5,553 View
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  • 31 Web of Science
  • 28 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

Most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have a favorable prognosis. However, patients with DTC and initial distant metastasis have not been commonly found, and their clinical characteristics have seldom been reported. In this study, we analyzed the clinical features and prognosis of patients with DTC and initial distant metastasis in Korea.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 242 patients with DTC and initial distant metastasis treated from 1994 to 2013, collected from five tertiary hospitals in Korea.

Results

The patients' median age was 51 years, and 65% were women. They were followed for a median of 7 years. Lung was the most common site of distant metastasis: only lung 149 patients (62%), only bone 49 (20%), other single site one (pleura), and combined sites 43 (40 were lung and bone, two were bone and other site, and one was lung and other site). At the time of diagnosis, 50 patients (21%) had non-radioactive iodine (RAI) avidity. Five-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 85% and 10-year DSS was 68%, which were better than those in previous studies. After multivariate analysis, old age, male sex, metastatic site, and histologic type (follicular type) were significant factors for poor prognosis. However, negative RAI avidity status was not a significant prognostic factor after adjusting for other variables.

Conclusion

The prognosis of Korean patients with DTC and initial distant metastasis was better than in previous studies. Old age, male sex, metastasis site, and histologic type were significant prognostic factors.

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Clinical Study
Usefulness of Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Antibody at the Time of Antithyroid Drug Withdrawal for Predicting Relapse of Graves Disease
Hyemi Kwon, Won Gu Kim, Eun Kyung Jang, Mijin Kim, Suyeon Park, Min Ji Jeon, Tae Yong Kim, Jin-Sook Ryu, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(2):300-310.   Published online April 25, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.2.300
  • 5,092 View
  • 88 Download
  • 20 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Hyperthyroidism relapse in Graves disease after antithyroid drug (ATD) withdrawal is common; however, measuring the thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) at ATD withdrawal in order to predict outcomes is controversial. This study compared measurement of thyroid stimulatory antibody (TSAb) and thyrotropin-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) at ATD withdrawal to predict relapse.

Methods

This retrospective study enrolled patients with Graves disease who were treated with ATDs and whose serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were normal after receiving low-dose ATDs. ATD therapy was stopped irrespective of TRAb positivity after an additional 6 months of receiving the minimum dose of ATD therapy. Patients were followed using thyroid function tests and TSAb (TSAb group; n=35) or TBII (TBII group; n=39) every 3 to 6 months for 2 years after ATD withdrawal.

Results

Twenty-eight patients (38%) relapsed for a median follow-up of 21 months, and there were no differences in baseline clinical characteristics between groups. In the TSAb group, relapse was more common in patients with positive TSAb at ATD withdrawal (67%) than patients with negative TSAb (17%; P=0.007). Relapse-free survival was shorter in TSAb-positive patients. In the TBII group, there were no differences in the relapse rate and relapse-free survivals according to TBII positivity. For predicting Graves disease relapse, the sensitivity and specificity of TSAb were 63% and 83%, respectively, whereas those of TBII were 28% and 65%.

Conclusion

TSAb at ATD withdrawal can predict the relapse of Graves hyperthyroidism, but TBII cannot. Measuring TSAb at ATD withdrawal can assist with clinical decisions making for patients with Graves disease.

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