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Original Articles
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
Metabolic Impacts of Discontinuation and Resumption of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment during the Transition Period in Patients with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency
Yun Jeong Lee, Yunha Choi, Han-Wook Yoo, Young Ah Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Han Saem Choi, Ho-Seong Kim, Jae Hyun Kim, Jung Eun Moon, Cheol Woo Ko, Moon Bae Ahn, Byung-Kyu Suh, Jin-Ho Choi
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(2):359-368.   Published online April 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1384
  • 4,557 View
  • 186 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Discontinuing growth hormone (GH) treatment during the transition to adulthood has been associated with adverse health outcomes in patients with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CO-GHD). This study investigated the metabolic changes associated with interrupting GH treatment in adolescents with CO-GHD during the transition period.
Methods
This study included 187 patients with CO-GHD who were confirmed to have adult GHD and were treated at six academic centers in Korea. Data on clinical parameters, including anthropometric measurements, metabolic profiles, and bone mineral density (BMD) at the end of childhood GH treatment, were collected at the time of re-evaluation for GHD and 1 year after treatment resumption.
Results
Most patients (n=182, 97.3%) had organic GHD. The median age at treatment discontinuation and re-evaluation was 15.6 and 18.7 years, respectively. The median duration of treatment interruption was 2.8 years. During treatment discontinuation, body mass index Z-scores and total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels increased, whereas fasting glucose levels decreased. One year after GH treatment resumption, fasting glucose levels, HDL cholesterol levels, and femoral neck BMD increased significantly. Longer GH interruption (>2 years, 60.4%) resulted in worse lipid profiles at re-evaluation. The duration of interruption was positively correlated with fasting glucose and non-HDL cholesterol levels after adjusting for covariates.
Conclusion
GH treatment interruption during the transition period resulted in worse metabolic parameters, and a longer interruption period was correlated with poorer outcomes. GH treatment should be resumed early in patients with CO-GHD during the transition period.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Ghrelin regulating liver activity and its potential effects on liver fibrosis and Echinococcosis
    Jiang Zhu, Tanfang Zhou, Meng Menggen, Kalibixiati Aimulajiang, Hao Wen
    Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Composición de la microbiota en pacientes con déficit de hormona de crecimiento antes y después de recibir tratamiento
    Patricia García Navas, María Yolanda Ruíz del Prado, Pablo Villoslada Blanco, Emma Recio Fernández, María Ruíz del Campo, Patricia Pérez Matute
    Anales de Pediatría.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Relationship between the Stimulated Peak Growth Hormone Level and Metabolic Parameters in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency
    Seong Yong Lee
    The Ewha Medical Journal.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dyslipidaemia and growth hormone deficiency – A comprehensive review
    Matthias Hepprich, Fahim Ebrahimi, Emanuel Christ
    Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 37(6): 101821.     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
Risk and Risk Factors for Postpartum Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Korean Nationwide Cohort Study
Mi Jin Choi, Jimi Choi, Chae Weon Chung
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(1):112-123.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1276
  • 4,275 View
  • 173 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
There are differences in risk and risk factor findings of postpartum type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after gestational diabetes depending on study design and subjects of previous studies. This study aimed to assess these risk and risk factors more accurately through a population-based study to provide basic data for prevention strategies.
Methods
This open retrospective cohort included data of 419,101 women with gestational diabetes and matched 1,228,802 control women who delivered between 2004 and 2016 from the South Korea National Health Information Database of the National Health Insurance Service. Following 14 (median 5.9) years of follow-up, the incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of postpartum T2DM were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional regression models.
Results
The incidence and HR of postpartum T2DM in women with gestational diabetes (compared to women without gestational diabetes) after the 14-year follow-up was 21.3% and 2.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.74 to 2.82), respectively. Comorbid obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) increased postpartum T2DM risk 7.59 times (95% CI, 7.33 to 7.86). Significant risk factors for postpartum T2DM were fasting glucose level, BMI, age, family history of diabetes, hypertension, and insulin use during pregnancy.
Conclusion
This population-based study showed higher postpartum T2DM risk in women with gestational diabetes than in those without, which was further increased by comorbid obesity. BMI and fasting glucose level were important postpartum risk factors. The management of obesity and glycemic control may be important strategies to prevent the incidence of diabetes after delivery.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Antenatal factors and risk of postpartum hyperglycemia in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: A central India prospective cohort study
    Nilajkumar Bagde, Madhuri Bagde, Vijayalakshmi Shanbhag, Pragati Trigunait, Nagma Sheikh, Sarita Agrawal
    Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care.2024; 13(1): 59.     CrossRef
  • Integration of nutrigenomics, melatonin, serotonin and inflammatory cytokines in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-specific urinary incontinence in women with gestational diabetes mellitus
    Danielle Cristina Honorio França, Eduardo Luzía França, Luis Sobrevia, Angélica Mércia Pascon Barbosa, Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França, Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease.2023; 1869(6): 166737.     CrossRef
  • Risk factors associated with early postpartum glucose intolerance in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Zhe Liu, Qianghuizi Zhang, Leyang Liu, Weiwei Liu
    Endocrine.2023; 82(3): 498.     CrossRef
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Brief Report
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Growth in Children with HLA-Conferred Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes
Liisa Saare, Aleksandr Peet, Vallo Tillmann
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(1):175-179.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1262
  • 2,500 View
  • 93 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing throughout the world. This trend may be explained by the accelerator hypothesis. Our study investigated growth, its biochemical markers, and their associations with the development of diabetes-associated autoantibodies (DAAB) in 219 children with genetic risk for T1D. Subjects were divided into risk groups based on their human leukocyte antigen genotype. Children in the moderate- to high-risk group were significantly taller when corrected to mid-parental height and had a lower insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 binding protein (IGFBP-3) molar ratio than those in the low-risk group (corrected height standard deviation score 0.22±0.93 vs. –0.04±0.84, P<0.05; molar ratio 0.199±0.035 vs. 0.211+0.039, P<0.05). Children with DAAB tended to be taller and to have a higher body mass index than those with no DAAB. Our results suggest that the accelerator hypothesis explaining the increasing incidence of T1D may not solely be dependent on environmental factors, but could be partially genetically determined.
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Original Articles
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
Cardiovascular Outcomes of Obesity According to Menopausal Status: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
Bo Kyung Koo, Sang-Hyun Park, Kyungdo Han, Min Kyong Moon
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(5):1029-1041.   Published online October 21, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1197
  • 3,786 View
  • 117 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We estimated the effect of obesity on the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in women according to menopausal status.
Methods
Women aged 40 to 69 years under routine health check-ups provided by the National Health Insurance Service in 2009 were followed up till 2018 (n=2,208,559).
Results
In premenopausal women, a significant increment of mortality rate was found in underweight and obesity class II (hazard ratio [HR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 1.67; and HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.39) compared to normal body mass index (BMI); overweight and obesity class I did not affect mortality rate. In postmenopausal women, obesity as well as overweight status reduced the risk of mortality compared to normal BMI (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.88; and HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.86). By contrast, there was a linear association between CVD and BMI above the normal range irrespective of menopausal status, which was attenuated in diabetic women.
Conclusion
The current study replicated the J-shaped relationship between BMI and mortality, being more prominent in the postmenopausal group. The risk of CVD was linearly increased as BMI was increased above the normal range irrespective of menopausal status.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Biosocial predictors and blood pressure goal attainment among postmenopausal women with hypertension
    Geetha Kandasamy, Thangamani Subramani, Gigi Sam, Mona Almanasef, Tahani Almeleebia, Eman Shorog, Asma M. Alshahrani, Amjad Hmlan, Atheer Y. Al Suhaym, Kousalya Prabahar, Vinoth Prabhu Veeramani, Palanisamy Amirthalingam
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A nationwide cohort study on diabetes severity and risk of Parkinson disease
    Kyungdo Han, Bongsung Kim, Seung Hwan Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
    npj Parkinson's Disease.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular Outcomes according to Comorbidities and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Min Kyong Moon, Junghyun Noh, Eun-Jung Rhee, Sang Hyun Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Byung Jin Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Seonghoon Choi, Jin Oh Na, Young Youl Hyun, Bum Joon Kim, Kyung-Do Han, In-Kyung Jeong
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 45.     CrossRef
  • The effect of menopause on cardiovascular risk factors according to body mass index in middle-aged Korean women
    Do Kyeong Song, Young Sun Hong, Yeon-Ah Sung, Hyejin Lee, Aysha Almas
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(3): e0283393.     CrossRef
  • Low‐quality muscle mass rather than normal‐quality muscle mass determines fibrosis progression in biopsy‐proven NAFLD
    Yun Kyu Lee, Bo Kyung Koo, Sae Kyung Joo, Dong Hyeon Lee, Heejoon Jang, Jee Won Chai, Myoung Seok Lee, Si Won Jang, Young Ho So, Jeong Hwan Park, Mee Soo Chang, Won Kim
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics.2023; 58(3): 322.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes severity is strongly associated with the risk of active tuberculosis in people with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide cohort study with a 6-year follow-up
    Ji Young Kang, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
    Respiratory Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of exercise initiation and smoking cessation after new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus on risk of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Bongsung Kim, Jinyoung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Non-pharmacologic treatment for obesity
    Bo Kyung Koo
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(7): 400.     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Changes in Insulin Resistance Index and the Risk of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease without Diabetes: Kangbuk Samsung Health Study
Dae-Jeong Koo, Mi Yeon Lee, Inha Jung, Sun Joon Moon, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(5):1016-1028.   Published online October 21, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1110
  • 4,269 View
  • 129 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Fibrosis is the most important prognostic factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Insulin resistance plays a key role of fibrosis progression. We evaluated the association between changes in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and changes in fibrosis status in NAFLD.
Methods
We analyzed the data of 15,728 participants with NAFLD (86% men, mean age 40.5 years) who had no diabetes at baseline and visited our centers for health check-ups both in 2012 and 2016. The participants were classified into four groups according to the degree of change in HOMA-IR values from baseline to the end of follow-up: G1 (<0), G2 (0–0.50), G3 (0.51–1.00), and G4 (>1.00). NAFLD was assessed by ultrasonography, and fibrosis status was evaluated by the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI).
Results
After the 4-year follow-up, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for progression of fibrosis probability increased with increasing HOMA-IR values (OR, 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87 to 2.71 for NFS; and OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 2.05 to 3.18 for APRI, G4). This tendency remained consistent throughout the subgroup analyses, except in those for female sex and a body mass index <25 kg/m2. The OR for regression of fibrosis probability decreased with increasing HOMA-IR values (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.43 for NFS, G4).
Conclusion
Changes in HOMA-IR values were associated with changes in fibrosis status in patients with NAFLD without diabetes, which underscores the role of insulin resistance in liver fibrosis.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Insulin Resistance/Sensitivity Measures as Screening Indicators of Metabolic-Associated Fatty Liver Disease and Liver Fibrosis
    Mohammad E. Khamseh, Mojtaba Malek, Soodeh Jahangiri, Sohrab Nobarani, Azita Hekmatdoost, Marieh Salavatizadeh, Samira Soltanieh, Haleh Chehrehgosha, Hoda Taheri, Zeinab Montazeri, Fereshteh Attaran, Faramarz Ismail-Beigi, Fariba Alaei-Shahmiri
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences.2024; 69(4): 1430.     CrossRef
  • Association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction: A 7-year retrospective cohort study of 3,380 adults using serial echocardiography
    Gyuri Kim, Tae Yang Yu, Jae Hwan Jee, Ji Cheol Bae, Mira Kang, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2024; 50(3): 101534.     CrossRef
  • Factors Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    Yu Luo, Cuiyu Wang, Tian Zhang, Xiaoyu He, Jianan Hao, Andong Shen, Hang Zhao, Shuchun Chen, Luping Ren
    International Journal of General Medicine.2023; Volume 16: 293.     CrossRef
  • Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance in Adults: A before and after Pandemic Lockdown Longitudinal Study
    Ángel Arturo López-González, Bárbara Altisench Jané, Luis Masmiquel Comas, Sebastiana Arroyo Bote, Hilda María González San Miguel, José Ignacio Ramírez Manent
    Nutrients.2022; 14(14): 2795.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic Score for Insulin Resistance Is Inversely Related to Incident Advanced Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    Jun-Hyuk Lee, Yu-Jin Kwon, Kyongmin Park, Hye Sun Lee, Hoon-Ki Park, Jee Hye Han, Sang Bong Ahn
    Nutrients.2022; 14(15): 3039.     CrossRef
  • Machine learning models including insulin resistance indexes for predicting liver stiffness in United States population: Data from NHANES
    Kexing Han, Kexuan Tan, Jiapei Shen, Yuting Gu, Zilong Wang, Jiayu He, Luyang Kang, Weijie Sun, Long Gao, Yufeng Gao
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The crosstalk between insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease: a culprit or a consequence?
    Dae-Jeong Koo, Won-Young Lee
    Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy.2022; 4(4): 132.     CrossRef
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Review Article
Obesity and Metabolism
Food Preferences and Obesity
Sara Spinelli, Erminio Monteleone
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(2):209-219.   Published online April 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.105
  • 6,394 View
  • 283 Download
  • 20 Web of Science
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Obesity is a multifactorial disease with several potential causes that remain incompletely understood. Recent changes in the environment, which has become increasingly obesogenic, have been found to interact with individual factors. Evidence of the role of taste responsiveness and food preference in obesity has been reported, pointing to a lower taste sensitivity and a higher preference and intake of fat and, to a lesser extent, sweet foods in obese people. Studies in the last decades have also suggested that individual differences in the neurophysiology of food reward may lead to overeating, contributing to obesity. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. In fact, only a limited number of studies has been conducted on large samples, and several studies were conducted only on women. Larger balanced studies in terms of sex/gender and age are required in order to control the confounding effect of these variables. As many factors are intertwined in obesity, a multidisciplinary approach is needed. This will allow a better understanding of taste alteration and food behaviours in obese people in order to design more effective strategies to promote healthier eating and to prevent obesity and the related chronic disease risks.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Phytochemical composition, toxicological profiling and effect on pup birth weight of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract in rats: Implications for fetal macrosomia control
    Onyinye Mkpola Ukpai, Solomon Nnah Ijioma, Kingsley Kanu, Daniel Orieke, Peace Amarachi Chinedu-Ndukwe, Kingsley Chijioke Ugwuanyi, Eziuche Amadike Ugbogu
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology.2024; 319: 117170.     CrossRef
  • Sex Differences in Effects of Mood, Eating-Related Behaviors, and BMI on Food Appeal and Desire to Eat: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study
    Kristina T. Legget, Marc-Andre Cornier, Lauren Sarabia, Eve M. Delao, Susan K. Mikulich-Gilbertson, Crystal Natvig, Christina Erpelding, Tessa Mitchell, Allison Hild, Eugene Kronberg, Jason R. Tregellas
    Nutrients.2023; 15(3): 762.     CrossRef
  • Estimation of Free Sugars in the Filipino Food Composition Table and Evaluation of Population-Level Intake
    Fabio Mainardi, Vanessa Caroline Campos, Richard Gaston Côté, Nele Kristin Silber, Roko Plestina, Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa
    Nutrients.2023; 15(6): 1343.     CrossRef
  • Genetic Obesity in Pregnant Ay Mice Does Not Affect Susceptibility to Obesity and Food Choice in Offspring
    Elena Makarova, Anastasia Dubinina, Elena Denisova, Antonina Kazantseva
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(6): 5610.     CrossRef
  • How Food Choices Impact College Going Students' Health in Urban Settings
    Nikita Yadav, Ms. Rhitika Sharma, Ms. Divyanshi Kapoor, Dr. Payal Mahajan
    International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology.2023; : 774.     CrossRef
  • Mediators of the association between maternal body mass index and breastfeeding duration in 3 international cohorts
    Madeline Keyes, Chloe Andrews, Vishal Midya, Paula Carrasco, Mònica Guxens, Alba Jimeno-Romero, Mario Murcia, Cristina Rodriguez-Dehli, Dora Romaguera, Loreto Santa-Maria, Marina Vafeiadi, Lida Chatzi, Emily Oken, Martine Vrijheid, Damaskini Valvi, Sarbat
    The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2023; 118(1): 255.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of Determinants of Food Preferences in a Polish Population-Based Sample of Primary School Adolescents: Diet and Activity of Youth during COVID-19 (DAY-19) Study
    Aleksandra Kołota, Dominika Głąbska
    Nutrients.2023; 15(11): 2504.     CrossRef
  • Is obesity associated with taste alterations? a systematic review
    Beatriz Rodrigues Risuenho Peinado, Deborah Ribeiro Frazão, Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt, Renata Duarte de Souza-Rodrigues, Maria Tereza Campos Vidigal, Douglas Teixeira da Silva, Luiz Renato Paranhos, Marcela Baraúna Magno, Nathalia Carolina Fernandes F
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Relationship between Dietary Intake and Adiposity in South African Female Adolescents: A Systematic Review
    Nokuthula Vilakazi, Sithabile Mathunjwa, Heather Legodi, Pedro Terrence Pisa
    Applied Sciences.2023; 13(19): 10813.     CrossRef
  • Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 (A/T) polymorphism and food preference in obese people with low-calorie intake and non-obese individuals with high-calorie intake
    Mehran Rahimlou, Bijan Ghobadian, Ali Ramezani, Ehsan Hejazi, Saeideh Mazloomzadeh, Jalal Hejazi
    BMC Nutrition.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Lolita Matiashova, Anouk Lisa Hoogkamer, Katharina Timper
    Metabolites.2023; 14(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • Taste of Fat and Obesity: Different Hypotheses and Our Point of View
    Laurent Brondel, Didier Quilliot, Thomas Mouillot, Naim Akhtar Khan, Philip Bastable, Vincent Boggio, Corinne Leloup, Luc Pénicaud
    Nutrients.2022; 14(3): 555.     CrossRef
  • Long-Term Consumption of a Sugar-Sweetened Soft Drink in Combination with a Western-Type Diet Is Associated with Morphological and Molecular Changes of Taste Markers Independent of Body Weight Development in Mice
    Barbara Lieder, Jozef Čonka, Agnes T. Reiner, Victoria Zabel, Dominik Ameur, Mark M. Somoza, Katarína Šebeková, Peter Celec, Veronika Somoza
    Nutrients.2022; 14(3): 594.     CrossRef
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    Virginia Eickelberg, Kai Lüersen, Stefanie Staats, Gerald Rimbach
    Biomolecules.2022; 12(2): 221.     CrossRef
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    Uijeong An, Xiaofen Du, Wanyi Wang
    Foods.2022; 11(10): 1434.     CrossRef
  • Sex as an independent variable in the measurement of satiation: a retrospective cohort study
    Maria D. Hurtado, Lizeth Cifuentes, Alejandro Campos, Alan De La Rosa, Ekta Kapoor, Stephanie S. Faubion, Donald D. Hensrud, Michael Camilleri, Andres Acosta
    International Journal of Obesity.2022; 46(12): 2156.     CrossRef
  • Associations between Overweight and Obesity and Common Mental Disorders and Eating Behaviors of Adult Women
    Ana Clara Justino Valencio, Andressa Bueno Antunes, Lilian Fonseca, Julia Araujo, Maria Clara Goyer Silva, Marcia Costa, Juliana Gomes e Silva Czermainski, Carolina Böettge Rosa, Chaline Caren Coghetto, Randhall Bruce Carteri
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    Laura Contu, Christopher J. Heath, Cheryl A. Hawkes
    Nutrients.2022; 14(23): 5161.     CrossRef
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    Beverly J Tepper
    The Journal of Nutrition.2021; 151(9): 2503.     CrossRef
  • The Same Metabolic Response to FGF21 Administration in Male and Female Obese Mice Is Accompanied by Sex-Specific Changes in Adipose Tissue Gene Expression
    Elena Makarova, Antonina Kazantseva, Anastasia Dubinina, Tatiana Jakovleva, Natalia Balybina, Konstantin Baranov, Nadezhda Bazhan
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2021; 22(19): 10561.     CrossRef
  • Influence of leptin administration to pregnant female mice on obesity development, taste preferences, and gene expression in the liver and muscles of their male and female offspring
    E. I. Denisova, M. M. Savinkova, E. N. Makarova
    Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding.2021; 25(6): 669.     CrossRef
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Original Articles
Clinical Study
Association of Body Mass Index with the Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and All-Cause Mortality: A Community-Based Prospective Study
Ji Cheol Bae, Nam H. Cho, Jae Hyeon Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Sang-Man Jin, Moon-Kyu Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(2):416-424.   Published online June 24, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.2.416
  • 8,192 View
  • 157 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the most important sequelae of obesity and the leading cause of death. We evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes, CVD, and all-cause mortality in a prospective study of a Korean population.
Methods
The shapes of the associations were modeled by restricted cubic splines regression analysis. After categorizing all subjects (n=8,900) into octiles based on their BMI levels, we estimated the hazard ratio (HR) for the association of categorized BMI levels with the risk of incident CVD and type 2 diabetes using a Cox’s proportional hazard analysis.
Results
The mean age of participants was 52 years and 48% were men. Of the subjects at baseline, 39.0% of men and 45.6% of women were classified as obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2). Over a mean follow-up of 8.1 years, CVD events occurred in 509 participants; 436 died; and 1,258 subjects developed type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of incident diabetes began to be significant at BMI 23 to 24 kg/m2 in both sexes (HR, 1.8). For CVD events, the risk began to increase significantly at BMI 26 to 28 kg/m2 (HR, 1.6). We found a reverse J-shaped relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality, with an increased risk among individuals with BMI values in lower range (BMI <21 kg/m2).
Conclusion
These results suggest that the BMI cut-off points for observed risk were varied depending on the diseases and that the BMI classification of obesity need to be revised to reflect differential risk of obesity-related diseases.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of obesity with cardiovascular disease in the absence of traditional risk factors
    Hui Luo, Yesong Liu, Xue Tian, Yuhan Zhao, Lulu Liu, Zemeng Zhao, Lili Luo, Yanmin Zhang, Xiaozhong Jiang, Yeqiang Liu, Yanxia Luo, Anxin Wang
    International Journal of Obesity.2024; 48(2): 263.     CrossRef
  • Clinical characteristics and degree of cardiovascular risk factor control in patients with newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes in Catalonia
    Anna Ramírez-Morros, Josep Franch-Nadal, Jordi Real, Queralt Miró-Catalina, Magdalena Bundó, Bogdan Vlacho, Didac Mauricio
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Research Progress on the Association and Mechanism between Obesity and Prostate Cancer
    娜古丽·艾海提 热
    Advances in Clinical Medicine.2024; 14(04): 1941.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic status indicators and influencing factors in non-obese, non-centrally obese nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Zhipeng Huang, Donghong Wei, Xueping Yu, Zicheng Huang, Yijie Lin, Wenji Lin, Zhijun Su, Jianjia Jiang
    Medicine.2023; 102(6): e32922.     CrossRef
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    Xin Luo, Jijia Sun, Hong Pan, Dian Zhou, Ping Huang, Jingjing Tang, Rong Shi, Hong Ye, Ying Zhao, An Zhang, Yee Gary Ang
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Close layer
Insulin Resistance, Body Fat Distribution, and Sex Hormones in Healthy Men and Premenopausal Women.
Seong Yeon Kim, Kyung Soo Park, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Chan Soo Shin, Chang Soon Koh, Tae Geun Oh, Woon Bae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):366-374.   Published online November 6, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
It is well known that obesity central obesity is associated with insulin resistance and some studies reported that sex hormones were associated with insulin resistance. Recently, low levels of sex-hormone binding globulin(SHBG), an indirect index of androgenicity, have been observed to predict the development of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM) in women and SHBG has been proposed as a marker for insulin resistance. In contrast to findings in women, decreased SHBG did not predict the occurrence of NIDDM in men, so it is suggested that sex hormones may have a different role for insulin resistance between men and women. To investigate the difference of the associations among the body fat distribution, sex hormone and insulin sensitivity index in men and women, we measured body-mass index(BMI) and waist to hip circumference ratio(WHR) and concentrations serum SHBG, total testosterone, free testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate(DHEA-S) concentrations in 29 healthy adults(men:19, women:10) who showed normal glucose tolerance. Insulin sensitivity index(M/I) was measured by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. There were no differences in age, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and free fatty acid levels between men and women. WHR of men is higher than that of women(0.82+-0.01 vs. 0.73+-0.01, p=0.002). Insulin sensitivity index(M/I) is similar in men and women(7.80+-0.71 mg/kg/min/uU/ml X 100 vs. 9.74+-0.89 mg/kg/min/uU/ml X 100, p=0.196).In Pearson's correlation, M/I was significantly correlated with BMI(r=-0.69, p<0.01) and WHR(r=-0.68, p<0.01) in men and DHEA-S(r=-0.68, p<0.05) and SHBG(r=0.61, p=0.056) concentrations in women.In multiple regression analysis, M/I had the most significant association with BMI(R^2=0.484, beta=-0.696, p<0.001) in men and DHEA-S(R^2=0.471, beta=-0.686, p<0.05) concentration in women.Conclusively, we found that sex hormones were significantly associated with insulin resistance and the effects of sex hormones on insulin resistance may be different in men and women.
Close layer
Clinical Study
Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study
Jongsin Park, Eun Seo Lee, Da Young Lee, Jihyun Kim, Se Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Won-Young Lee, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Eun-Jung Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):559-566.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.559
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  • 30 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults.

Methods

Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: <23 kg/m2 (normal), 23 to 25 kg/m2 (overweight), and >25 kg/m2 (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0.

Results

When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]).

Conclusion

Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI.

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Association between Obesity and Bone Mineral Density by Gender and Menopausal Status
Mohammad Reza Salamat, Amir Hossein Salamat, Mohsen Janghorbani
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):547-558.   Published online November 4, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.547
  • 5,628 View
  • 66 Download
  • 62 Web of Science
  • 62 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We investigated whether there were gender differences in the effect of obesity on bone mineral density (BMD) based on menopausal status.

Methods

We assessed 5,892 consecutive patients 20 to 91 years old who were referred for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. All subjects underwent a standard BMD scan of the hip (total hip and femoral neck) and lumbar spine (L1 to L4) using a DXA scan and body size assessment. Body mass index was used to categorize the subjects as normal weight, overweight, and obese.

Results

BMD was higher in obese and overweight versus normal weight men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. Compared to men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women with normal weight, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07 to 0.56) and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.51) for obese men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women. Corresponding summaries for osteoporosis were 0.26 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.64) and 0.15 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.20), respectively. Compared to men <50 years and premenopausal women with normal weight, the age-adjusted odds ratio of low bone mass was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.45) and 0.16 (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.26) for obese men <50 years and premenopausal women, respectively.

Conclusion

Obesity is associated with BMD of the hip and lumbar spine and overweight and obese individuals have similar degrees of osteoporosis. This result was not significantly different based on gender and menopausal status, which could be an important issue for further investigation.

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Association of Waist-Height Ratio with Diabetes Risk: A 4-Year Longitudinal Retrospective Study
Yoon Jeong Son, Jihyun Kim, Hye-Jeong Park, Se Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Won-Young Lee, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Eun-Jung Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(1):127-133.   Published online March 16, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.1.127
  • 4,470 View
  • 37 Download
  • 26 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is an easy and inexpensive adiposity index that reflects central obesity. In this study, we examined the association of various baseline adiposity indices, including WHtR, with the development of diabetes over 4 years of follow-up in apparently healthy Korean individuals.

Methods

A total of 2,900 nondiabetic participants (mean age, 44.3 years; 2,078 men) in a health screening program, who repeated the medical check-up in 2005 and 2009, were recruited. Subjects were divided into two groups according to development of diabetes after 4 years. The cut-off values of baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and WHtR for the development of diabetes over 4 years were calculated. The sensitivity, specificity, and mean area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) of each index were assessed. The odds ratio (OR) for diabetes development was analyzed for each of the three baseline adiposity indices.

Results

During the follow-up period, 101 new cases (3.5%) of diabetes were diagnosed. The cut-off WHtR value for diabetes development was 0.51. Moreover, WHtR had the highest AUROC value for diabetes development among the three adiposity indices (0.716, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.669 to 0.763; 0.702, 95% CI, 0.655 to 0.750 for WC; 0.700, 95% CI, 0.651 to 0.750 for BMI). After adjusting for confounding variables, the ORs of WHtR and WC for diabetes development were 1.95 (95% CI, 1.14 to 3.34) and 1.96 (95% CI, 1.10 to 3.49), respectively. No significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding BMI.

Conclusion

Increased baseline WHtR and WC correlated with the development of diabetes after 4 years. WHtR might be a useful screening measurement to identify individuals at high risk for diabetes.

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Characterization of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes according to Body Mass Index: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2011
Dong-Hwa Lee, Kyong Yeun Jung, Kyeong Seon Park, Kyoung Min Kim, Jae Hoon Moon, Soo Lim, Hak Chul Jang, Sung Hee Choi
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(4):514-521.   Published online December 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.4.514
  • 3,656 View
  • 42 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The present study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean adults according to body mass index (BMI) and to analyze the association with cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2011. A total of 3,370 patients with T2DM were divided into categories according to BMI. We conducted a comparison of the T2DM patient population composition by BMI category between different countries. We investigated the prevalence of awareness, treatment, and target control of T2DM according to BMI.

Results

Patients with T2DM had a higher BMI, and were more likely to have a history of CVD than healthy controls. For Korean adults with T2DM, 8% had BMI ≥30 kg/m2. By contrast, the population of patients with T2DM and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 was 72% in patients in the USA and 56% in the UK. The rate of recognition, treatment, and control has worsened in parallel with increasing BMI. Even in patients with BMI 25 to 29.9 kg/m2, the prevalence of CVD or high risk factors for CVD was significantly higher than in patients with BMI 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m2 (odds ratio, 2.07).

Conclusion

Korean patients with T2DM had lower BMI than those in Western countries. Higher BMI was associated with lower awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes, and a positive association was observed between CVD or high risk factors for CVD and BMI, even for patients who were overweight but not obese.

Citations

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Close layer
Adrenal gland
Association between the Growth Hormone Receptor Exon 3 Polymorphism and Metabolic Factors in Korean Patients with Acromegaly
Hye Yoon Park, In Ryang Hwang, Jung Bum Seo, Su Won Kim, Hyun Ae Seo, In Kyu Lee, Jung Guk Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(3):312-317.   Published online January 5, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.3.312
  • 3,962 View
  • 35 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This study investigated the association between the frequency of growth hormone receptor (GHR) exon 3 polymorphism (exon 3 deletion; d3-GHR) and metabolic factors in patients with acromegaly in Korea.

Methods

DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 30 unrelated patients with acromegaly. GHR genotypes were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction and correlated with demographic data and laboratory parameters.

Results

No patient had the d3/d3 genotype, while four (13.3%) had the d3/fl genotype, and 26 (86.7%) had the fl/fl genotype. Body mass index (BMI) in patients with the d3/fl genotype was significantly higher than in those with the fl/fl genotype (P=0.001). Age, gender, blood pressure, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth hormone, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels showed no significant differences between the two genotypes.

Conclusion

The d3-GHR polymorphism may be associated with high BMI but not with other demographic characteristics or laboratory parameters.

Citations

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    Ghadeer Falah, Lital Sharvit, Gil Atzmon
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    Xiaotian Chen, Chunlan Liu, Song Yang, Yaming Yang, Yanchun Chen, Xianghai Zhao, Weiguang Zhu, Qihui Zhao, Chuan Ni, Xiangyuan Huang, Weili Yan, Chong Shen, Harvest F. Gu
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    J. Pontes, M. Madeira, C. H. A. Lima, L. L. Ogino, F. de Paula Paranhos Neto, L. M. C. de Mendonça, M. L. F. Farias, L. Kasuki, M. R. Gadelha
    Journal of Endocrinological Investigation.2020; 43(2): 163.     CrossRef
  • MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Lessons from growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice: are there benefits of endocrine defects?
    Reetobrata Basu, Yanrong Qian, John J Kopchick
    European Journal of Endocrinology.2018; 178(5): R155.     CrossRef
  • MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Clinical and pharmacogenetic aspects of the growth hormone receptor polymorphism
    Cesar L Boguszewski, Edna J L Barbosa, Per-Arne Svensson, Gudmundur Johannsson, Camilla A M Glad
    European Journal of Endocrinology.2017; 177(6): R309.     CrossRef
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Obesity and Metabolism
The Impact of Different Anthropometric Measures on Sustained Normotension, White Coat Hypertension, Masked Hypertension, and Sustained Hypertension in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Baris Afsar
Endocrinol Metab. 2013;28(3):199-206.   Published online September 13, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2013.28.3.199
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Many studies have aimed to determine whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), or waist to hip ratio (WHR) best predicts hypertension in diabetic patients, with conflicting results. However, no study has examined the specific relationship between these anthropometric parameters with sustained normotension (SNT), white coat hypertension (WCHT), masked hypertension (MHT), and sustained hypertension (SHT) based on office and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements in these patients.

Methods

Patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes underwent the following procedures: history taking, measurements of anthropometric parameters, office and ambulatory BP measurements, physical examination, laboratory analysis, and random and 24-hour urine analysis.

Results

In total, there were 65 dippers and 37 nondipper patients. None of the anthropometric parameters were different between the dippers and the nondippers. There were 25 patients with SNT, 32 with WCHT, seven with MHT, and 38 with SHT. A comparison of anthropometric parameters between these four groups of patients showed that WC (P=0.016) and WHR (P=0.015) were different among all groups. According to regression analysis, only BMI was independently related with MHT (odds ratio [OR], 1.373, P=0.022), whereas only WC has been associated with SHT (OR, 1.321, P=0.041).

Conclusion

Among anthropometric parameters, only WC and WHR were different in SNT, WCHT, MHT, and SHT in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes.

Citations

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  • Masked arterial hypertension: what is known and what expected to be learned?
    A.Yu. Gorshkov, A.A. Fedorovich, O.M. Drapkina
    Profilakticheskaya meditsina.2020; 23(6): 143.     CrossRef
  • Association of the conicity index with diabetes and hypertension in Brazilian women
    Mirelli Dantas Andrade, Maria Camila Pruper de Freitas, Alyne Mayumi Sakumoto, Caroline Pappiani, Samantha Caesar de Andrade, Viviane Laudelino Vieira, Nágila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno
    Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism.2016; 60(5): 436.     CrossRef
  • Brief Review of Articles in 'Endocrinology and Metabolism' in 2013
    Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2014; 29(3): 251.     CrossRef
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Determining the Factors that Influence the Insulin Requirements in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Jin Ook Chung, Dong Hyeok Cho, Dong Jin Chung, Min Young Chung
Endocrinol Metab. 2010;25(2):110-118.   Published online June 1, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2010.25.2.110
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  • 28 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The initial insulin dose is often determined by clinical experience or with a formula using the body weight. However, it may be difficult to determine the initial insulin dose because various factors such as insulin sensitivity and the glycemic status can influence the insulin requirement. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that influence the initial insulin requirement in insulin naive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total 128 patients who were admitted for glycemic control were investigated. The patients were managed with long-acting insulin glargine and rapid-acting insulin lispro. RESULTS: The basal insulin requirement was positively correlated with waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), the HbA1C, AST, ALT, fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour postprandial glucose levels and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), but it was negatively correlated with age and the stimulated C-peptide level. The daily insulin requirement was positively correlated with waist circumference, BMI, the HbA1C, AST, ALT, triglyceride, fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour postprandial glucose level and HOMA-IR, but it was negatively correlated with age. On the multiple linear regression analysis, the basal insulin requirement was independently associated with BMI (beta = 0.507, p < 0.001), the 2-hour postprandial glucose level (beta = 0.307, p < 0.001), the ALT level (beta = 0.214, P = 0.015) and the meal-stimulated C-peptide level (beta = -0.209, P = 0.010). The daily insulin requirement was independently associated with BMI (beta = 0.508, p < 0.001) and the 2-hour postprandial glucose level (beta = 0.404, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results show that the BMI and 2-hour postprandial glucose level are useful predictors of the initial insulin requirement in insulin naive type 2 diabetic patients. It may be prudent to consider the other various factors that influence the insulin requirement together when insulin therapy is required.

Citations

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  • Effects of Sunsik Prepared through Steaming-Drying Cycles on Blood Glucose and Inflammatory Marker in Rats Fed High Fat
    Kyung-Hee Hwang
    Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life.2015; 25(1): 111.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Chungkukjang Powder Supplements on the Regulation of Blood Glucose and Inflammation in Diabetic Rats
    Kyung-Mi Yang
    Korean journal of food and cookery science.2015; 31(2): 118.     CrossRef
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