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Original Article
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Prognostic Value of Triglyceride and Glucose Index for Incident Type 2 Diabetes beyond Metabolic Health and Obesity
Hwi Seung Kim, Jiwoo Lee, Yun Kyung Cho, Eun Hee Kim, Min Jung Lee, Hong-Kyu Kim, Joong-Yeol Park, Woo Je Lee, Chang Hee Jung
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(5):1042-1054.   Published online October 21, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1184
  • 5,774 View
  • 138 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is metabolically heterogeneous in terms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previously, the triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index has been considered for identifying metabolic health and future risk of T2D. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of incident T2D according to obesity status and metabolic health, categorized by four different criteria and the TyG index.
Methods
The study included 39,418 Koreans without T2D at baseline. The risk of T2D was evaluated based on four different definitions of metabolic health and obesity status and according to the baseline TyG index within each metabolic health and obesity group.
Results
During the median follow-up at 38.1 months, 726 individuals developed T2D. Compared with the metabolically healthy non-obese (MHNO) group with low TyG index, the MHO group with high TyG index showed increased risk of T2D in all four definitions of metabolic health with multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of 2.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.76 to 3.75), 3.72 (95% CI, 2.15 to 6.43), 4.13 (95% CI, 2.67 to 6.38), and 3.05 (95% CI, 2.24 to 4.15), when defined by Adult Treatment Panel III, Wildman, Karelis, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) criteria, respectively.
Conclusion
MHO subjects with high TyG index were at an increased risk of developing T2D compared with MHNO subjects, regardless of the definition of metabolic health. TyG index may serve as an additional factor for predicting the individual risk of incident T2D in MHO subjects.
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Review Articles
Effects of Incretin-Based Therapies on Diabetic Microvascular Complications
Yu Mi Kang, Chang Hee Jung
Endocrinol Metab. 2017;32(3):316-325.   Published online September 18, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2017.32.3.316
  • 4,855 View
  • 57 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The morbidity and mortality associated with diabetic complications impose a huge socioeconomic burden worldwide. Therefore, the ultimate goal of managing diabetes mellitus (DM) is to lower the risk of macrovascular complications and highly morbid microvascular complications such as diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Potential benefits of incretin-based therapies such as glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors on the diabetic macrovascular complications have been recently suggested, owing to their pleiotropic effects on multiple organ systems. However, studies primarily investigating the role of these therapies in diabetic microvascular complications are rare. Nevertheless, preclinical and limited clinical data suggest the potential protective effect of incretin-based agents against DN and DR via their anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic properties. Evidence also suggests that these incretin-dependent and independent beneficial effects are not necessarily associated with the glucose-lowering properties of GLP-1 RAs and DPP-4 inhibitors. Hence, in this review, we revisit the preclinical and clinical evidence of incretin-based therapy for DR and DN, the two most common, morbid complications in individuals with DM. In addition, the review discusses a few recent studies raising concerns of aggravating DR with the use of incretin-based therapies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Efficacy and Safety of the Utilization of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitors in Diabetic Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials
    Moeber Mahzari, Muhannad Alqirnas, Moustafa Alhamadh, Faisal Alrasheed, Abdulrahman Alhabeeb, Wedad Al Madani, Hussain Aldera
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2024; Volume 17: 1425.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(20): 12428.     CrossRef
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    Current Diabetes Reviews.2021; 17(4): 397.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Endocrinology.2020; 2020: 1.     CrossRef
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    Rachel E. Hartman, P.S.S. Rao, Mariann D. Churchwell, Susan J. Lewis
    Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs.2020; 29(11): 1277.     CrossRef
  • Nationwide Trends in Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer Risk Among Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Receiving Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitors
    Minyoung Lee, Jiyu Sun, Minkyung Han, Yongin Cho, Ji-Yeon Lee, Chung Mo Nam, Eun Seok Kang
    Diabetes Care.2019; 42(11): 2057.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors on Renal Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Jae Hyun Bae, Sunhee Kim, Eun-Gee Park, Sin Gon Kim, Seokyung Hahn, Nam Hoon Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2019; 34(1): 80.     CrossRef
  • Serum adipocytokines are associated with microalbuminuria in patients with type 1 diabetes and incipient chronic complications
    Tomislav Bulum, Marijana Vučić Lovrenčić, Martina Tomić, Sandra Vučković-Rebrina, Vinko Roso, Branko Kolarić, Vladimir Vuksan, Lea Duvnjak
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2019; 13(1): 496.     CrossRef
  • Protective Effects of Incretin Against Age-Related Diseases
    Di Zhang, Mingzhu Ma, Yueze Liu
    Current Drug Delivery.2019; 16(9): 793.     CrossRef
  • The role of dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors in management of cardiovascular disease in diabetes; focus on linagliptin
    Annayya R. Aroor, Camila Manrique-Acevedo, Vincent G. DeMarco
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
Close layer
Obesity and Metabolism
Cardiovascular Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists
Yu Mi Kang, Chang Hee Jung
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(2):258-274.   Published online April 25, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.2.258
  • 6,771 View
  • 93 Download
  • 31 Web of Science
  • 33 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a member of the proglucagon incretin family, and GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) have been introduced as a new class of antidiabetic medications in the past decade. The benefits of GLP-1 RAs are derived from their pleiotropic effects, which include glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppressed glucagon secretion, and reduced appetite. Moreover, GLP-1 RAs also exert beneficial roles on multiple organ systems in which the GLP-1 receptors exist, including the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 RAs have been of great interest since the burden from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been unbearably increasing in a diabetic population worldwide, despite strict glycemic control and advanced therapeutic techniques to treat CVD. Preclinical studies have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLP-1 on myocardium and vascular endothelium, and many clinical studies evaluating changes in surrogate markers of CVD have suggested potential benefits from the use of GLP-1 RAs. Data from numerous clinical trials primarily evaluating the antihyperglycemic effects of multiple GLP-1 RAs have also revealed that changes in most CVD risk markers reported as secondary outcomes have been in favor of GLP-1 RAs treatment. However, to date, there is only one randomized clinical trial of GLP-1 RAs (the ELIXA study) evaluating major cardiovascular events as their primary outcomes, and in this study, a neutral cardiovascular effect of lixisenatide was observed in high-risk diabetic subjects. Therefore, the results of ongoing CVD outcome trials with the use of GLP-1 RAs should be awaited to elucidate the translation of benefits previously seen in CVD risk marker studies into large clinical trials with primary cardiovascular outcomes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cardioprotective Actions of a Glucagon‐like Peptide‐1 Receptor Agonist on Hearts Donated After Circulatory Death
    Sachiko Kadowaki, M. Ahsan Siraj, Weiden Chen, Jian Wang, Marlee Parker, Anita Nagy, Chun‐Po Steve Fan, Kyle Runeckles, Jing Li, Junko Kobayashi, Christoph Haller, Mansoor Husain, Osami Honjo
    Journal of the American Heart Association.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Vascular Medicine.2022; 27(1): 77.     CrossRef
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    Jasna Klen, Vita Dolžan
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(7): 3451.     CrossRef
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    Jing Qin, Li Song
    BMC Endocrine Disorders.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Role of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs)/(GPR-120) as an agonists in diabetic wound healing
    Jagat Pal Yadav, Dinesh Kumar Patel, Prateek Pathak, Maria Grishina
    Obesity Medicine.2022; 36: 100466.     CrossRef
  • Protection against stroke with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists: a comprehensive review of potential mechanisms
    Bruno Vergès, Victor Aboyans, Denis Angoulvant, Pierre Boutouyrie, Bertrand Cariou, Fabien Hyafil, Kamel Mohammedi, Pierre Amarenco
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Lauren D. Breite, Mackenzie Steck, Brandon Tate Cutshall, Samarth P. Shah, Brandon E. Cave
    Current Problems in Cardiology.2021; 46(3): 100736.     CrossRef
  • PEGDA/HA mineralized hydrogel loaded with Exendin4 promotes bone regeneration in rat models with bone defects by inducing osteogenesis
    Wei Liu, Xiaowei Jing, Zhiwen Xu, Chong Teng
    Journal of Biomaterials Applications.2021; 35(10): 1337.     CrossRef
  • Metabolite G-Protein Coupled Receptors in Cardio-Metabolic Diseases
    Derek Strassheim, Timothy Sullivan, David C. Irwin, Evgenia Gerasimovskaya, Tim Lahm, Dwight J. Klemm, Edward C. Dempsey, Kurt R. Stenmark, Vijaya Karoor
    Cells.2021; 10(12): 3347.     CrossRef
  • PPG neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract modulate heart rate but do not mediate GLP-1 receptor agonist-induced tachycardia in mice
    Marie K. Holt, Daniel R. Cook, Daniel I. Brierley, James E. Richards, Frank Reimann, Alexander V. Gourine, Nephtali Marina, Stefan Trapp
    Molecular Metabolism.2020; 39: 101024.     CrossRef
  • A glycosylated Fc‐fused glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonist exhibits equivalent glucose lowering to but fewer gastrointestinal side effects than dulaglutide
    In Bok An, Mi Sun Byun, Sang In Yang, Yuri Choi, Jung Won Woo, Hak Chul Jang, Young Chul Sung
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2020; 22(8): 1455.     CrossRef
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    Elodie M. Varin, Brent A. McLean, Julie A. Lovshin
    Canadian Journal of Diabetes.2020; 44(1): 68.     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular outcomes trials with incretin-based medications: a critical review of data available on GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors
    Alexandros Sachinidis, Dragana Nikolic, Anca Pantea Stoian, Nikolaos Papanas, Omer Tarar, Ali A. Rizvi, Manfredi Rizzo
    Metabolism.2020; 111: 154343.     CrossRef
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    Chemico-Biological Interactions.2020; 332: 109252.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Diabetes Research.2019; 2019: 1.     CrossRef
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    Obesity and metabolism.2019; 15(4): 22.     CrossRef
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    Yu Mi Kang, Yun Kyung Cho, Jiwoo Lee, Seung Eun Lee, Woo Je Lee, Joong-Yeol Park, Ye-Jee Kim, Chang Hee Jung, Michael A. Nauck
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(4): 410.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes, Incretin Therapy and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm – What Does the Evidence Show?
    Camilla Krizhanovskii , Anders Franco-Cereceda
    Current Vascular Pharmacology.2019; 17(5): 432.     CrossRef
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    Current Diabetes Reports.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Lawrence J. Lesko
    Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics.2018; 103(2): 253.     CrossRef
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    Lishuai Feng, Jianbo Wang, Xu Ma
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2018; 103: 290.     CrossRef
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    Wojciech Garczorz, Enrique Gallego‐Colon, Agnieszka Kosowska, Agnieszka Kłych‐Ratuszny, Michał Woźniak, Wiesław Marcol, K.J. Niesner, Tomasz Francuz
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    Heart Failure Reviews.2018; 23(3): 363.     CrossRef
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    Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2017; 32(1): 62.     CrossRef
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    Rafael Simó, Cristina Hernández
    Diabetes.2017; 66(6): 1453.     CrossRef
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    Diabetes & Metabolism.2017; 43: 2S13.     CrossRef
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    Yu Mi Kang, Chang Hee Jung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2017; 32(3): 316.     CrossRef
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Close layer
Original Articles
Clinical Study
Effects of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors on Hyperglycemia and Blood Cyclosporine Levels in Renal Transplant Patients with Diabetes: A Pilot Study
Jaehyun Bae, Min Jung Lee, Eun Yeong Choe, Chang Hee Jung, Hye Jin Wang, Myoung Soo Kim, Yu Seun Kim, Joong-Yeol Park, Eun Seok Kang
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(1):161-167.   Published online March 16, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.1.161
  • 5,930 View
  • 59 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors is increasing among renal transplant patients with diabetes. However, the glucose-lowering efficacies of various DPP-4 inhibitors and their effects on blood cyclosporine levels have not been fully investigated. We compared the glucose-lowering efficacies of DPP 4 inhibitors and evaluate their effects on the blood levels of cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients with diabetes.

Methods

Sixty-five renal allograft recipients who received treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors (vildagliptin, sitagliptin, or linagliptin) following kidney transplant were enrolled. The glucose-lowering efficacies of the DPP-4 inhibitors were compared according to the changes in the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels after 3 months of treatment. Changes in the trough levels of the cyclosporine were also assessed 2 months after treatment with each DPP-4 inhibitor.

Results

HbA1c significantly decreased in the linagliptin group in comparison with other DPP-4 inhibitors (vildagliptin –0.38%±1.03%, sitagliptin –0.53%±0.95%, and linagliptin –1.40±1.34; P=0.016). Cyclosporine trough levels were significantly increased in the sitagliptin group compared with vildagliptin group (30.62±81.70 ng/mL vs. –24.22±53.54 ng/mL, P=0.036). Cyclosporine trough levels were minimally changed in patients with linagliptin.

Conclusion

Linagliptin demonstrates superior glucose-lowering efficacy and minimal effect on cyclosporine trough levels in comparison with other DPP-4 inhibitors in kidney transplant patients with diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Ngoc-Yen T. Pham, Diego Cruz, Luis Madera-Marin, Raja Ravender, Pablo Garcia
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(3): 793.     CrossRef
  • International consensus on post-transplantation diabetes mellitus
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    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation.2024; 39(3): 531.     CrossRef
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    Lee-Moay Lim, Jer-Ming Chang, Hung-Tien Kuo
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    Clinical Transplantation.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Close layer
Clinical Study
Effect of Pitavastatin Treatment on ApoB-48 and Lp-PLA2 in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: Substudy of PROspective Comparative Clinical Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of PITavastatin in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome
Hyo-Sun Lee, Chang Hee Jung, Sung Rae Kim, Hak Chul Jang, Cheol-Young Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(1):120-126.   Published online March 16, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.1.120
  • 3,787 View
  • 36 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Apolipoprotein (Apo) B-48 is an intestinally derived lipoprotein that is expected to be a marker for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is a vascular-specific inflammatory marker and important risk predictor of CVD. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of pitavastatin treatment and life style modification (LSM) on ApoB-48 and Lp-PLA2 levels in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients at relatively low risk for CVD, as a sub-analysis of a previous multi-center prospective study.

Methods

We enrolled 75 patients with MS from the PROPIT study and randomized them into two treatment groups: 2 mg pitavastatin daily+intensive LSM or intensive LSM only. We measured the change of lipid profiles, ApoB-48 and Lp-PLA2 for 48 weeks.

Results

Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and ApoB-100/A1 ratio were significantly improved in the pitavastatin+LSM group compared to the LSM only group (P≤0.001). Pitavastatin+LSM did not change the level of ApoB-48 in subjects overall, but the level of ApoB-48 was significantly lower in the higher mean baseline value group of ApoB-48. The change in Lp-PLA2 was not significant after intervention in either group after treatment with pitavastatin for 1 year.

Conclusion

Pitavastatin treatment and LSM significantly improved lipid profiles, ApoB-100/A1 ratio, and reduced ApoB-48 levels in the higher mean baseline value group of ApoB-48, but did not significantly alter the Lp-PLA2 levels.

Citations

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Case Report
A Case of Malignant Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Inverted Takotsubo-Like Cardiomyopathy.
Jung Eun Jang, Hyuk Hee Kwon, Min Jung Lee, Chang Hee Jung, Sung Jin Bae, Hong Kyu Kim, Woo Je Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2012;27(1):98-104.   Published online March 1, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2012.27.1.98
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or stress induced cardiomyopathy is characterized by acute transient left ventricular apical ballooning without significant coronary artery disease. The pathophysiology of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy remains unclear, but it has been suggested that the stress related neurohumoral factors, especially catecholamines, play an important role. Recently, several reports have described an inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by the dysfunction of the basal and mid-ventricular segments sparing the apex of the heart. In this report, we present a case of a 50-year-old female with a transient left ventricular dysfunction in an inverted Takotsubo pattern, that later was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism