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Volume 9(2); June 1994
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Review Articles
IGF-1 as a Nutritional Index.
Jeh Hoon Shin
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):67-72.   Published online November 6, 2019
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No abstract available.
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The Evolution of Insulin - like Growth Factor Binding Proteins Family.
Dae Yeol Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):73-81.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 16 Download
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No abstract available.
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Original Articles
In Situ Hybridization Analysis of Human Growth Hormone and Prolactin Secreting Pitultary Adenomas.
Jae Wha Jo, Eun Jig Lee, Moon Suk Nam, Kyung Rae Kim, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Tae Seung Kim, Sun Ho Kim, Joong Uhn Choi, Kyu Chang Lee, Hyun Joo Jung, Sang Seop Chung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):82-92.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 29 Download
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A non-isotopic in situ hybridization method with biotin-labelled oligonucleotide probes was used to examine growth hormone(GH) and prolactin(PRL) gene expression in 32 patients with pituitary adenomas; 13 were prolactinomas, 8 GH secreting adenomas, and 11 mixed GH and PRL secreting adenomas.Positive immunostaining for GH was found in all patients with GH secreting adenomas, and mixed GH and PRL secreting adenomas. Positive immunostaining for PRL was found in all patients with prolactinomas and 9(81.8%) of 11 mixed GH and PRL secreting adenomas, 5(62.5%) of 8 GH secreting adenomas. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 13 were lactotrope adenomas, 5 somatotrope adenomas, and 14 GH and PRL cell adenomas.In situ hybridization revealed that GH mRNA expression was found in all the patients with somatotrope adenomas and GH and PRL cell adenomas, and 6(46.1%) of 13 lactotrope adenomas. PRL mRNA expression was 100% in lactotrope and GH and PRL cell adenomas, and 4(80.0%) of 5 somatotrope adenomas.The patients with a clinical diagnosis of acromegaly had detectable PRL mRNA in their neoplasm and it is suggested that the PRL cells in the adenomas did not result from dedifferentiation, but from the neoplastic stimulus for some mixed tumors probably occurred in cells previously committed to produce PRL and GH. In lactotrope adenomas, the PRL cells of the patients without expression of GH mRNA may be arised from cells programmed to secrete PRL or precussor PRL cells rather than from mixed GH-PRL cells. The finding that some patients produced mRNA detectable by in situ hybridization, but no hormone detectable by immunohistochemistry within tumor was suggested of a silent adenoma.These observations indicated that in situ hybridization studies may improve the classification of pituitary adenomas and may provide a precise knowledge of the biology of these neoplasms.
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The Responses of Pituitary Hormones to the Combined Pituitary Stimulation Test in Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.
In Myung Yang, Jeong Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Young Seol Kim, Young Kil Choi, Eun Kyung Park, Kyu Jeong Ahn
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):93-107.   Published online November 6, 2019
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To classify the causes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in Korean patients, and to improve the endocrinologic evaluation for the disease, we retrospectively studied the clinical findings and result of combined pituitary stimulation test in 35 patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The following results were obtained.1) The ratio of male to female was 1.3:1, and the 50% of male patients was under 20 years of age and the 20% of female patients in 30th decades. 2) The chief complaints of male patients on the admission were the failure of secondary sexual characteristics(95.0%) and loss of hair(5.0%), those of female patients were amenorrhea(46.7%), infertility(26.7%), failure of secondary characteristics(13.3%) and loss of hair(13.3%). 3) The causes of male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were craniopharyngioma(35.0%), idiopathic(30.0%), Kallmann's syndrome(15.0%), pituitary adenoma(10.0%) and germinoma(5.0%), and those of female hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were prolactinoma(13.3%), Sheehan's syndrome(26.6%), pituitary adenoma(6.7%), tuberculous granuloma(6.7%), germinoma(6.7%), idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism(40.0%).4) The responses of LH and FSH to GnRH test were absent or markedly blunted in diffuse pituitary diseases such as pituitary tuberculous granuloma, pituitary macroadenomas, Sheehan's syndrome. However those were also absent or blunted in Cushing's disease and hypothalamic disease such as Kallmann's syndrome, germinoma, craniopharyngioma, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. 5) The responses of LH, FSH increased after repeated injection of GnRH in a patient with germinoma. 6) In diffuse destructive pituitary diseases such as Sheehan's syndrome, nonfunctioning macroadenomas, tuberculous granuloma, large prolactinoma, the combined deficiency of pituitary hormones other than gonadotropins was observed. 7) In many cases with hypothalamic diseases, the combined defects of pituitary hormone response were also seen.These data suggest that GnRH test is not always useful to localize the lesion between pituitary and hypothalamus, and combined pituitary stimulation test revealed defects of pituitary hormones other than gonadotropin in various hypothalamic diseases.Therefore repeated GnRH test would be useful for the differential diagnosis, and CRH test and GRH test would be necessary to demonstrate whether pituitary abnormality is present.
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Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretory Function in Hyperthyroid Patients.
Dae Ho Lee, Min Young Chung, Yeon Jin Jang, Sang Sun Park, Eun Jin Choi, Ho Cheol Kang, Jae Hyun Cho, Tai Hee Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):108-114.   Published online November 6, 2019
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The impairement of glucose metabolism is frequently associated in hyperthyroidism. The present study was performed to determine the effect of the thyroid hormone excess on insulin sensitivity and on insulin secretory function in vivo. Ten newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients and fifteen healthy control subjects were subjected to frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests(FSIGT) after an overnight fast. Insulin sensitivity, represented by the insulin sensitivity index(S_1), was assessed by minimal model analysis of FSIGT data. Insulin secretion was measured by the total area under the insulin curve after glucose load.The results were as follows.1) The K_G values, which represent glucose tolerance, were not different between the hyperthyroid patients and the normals(2.2+-0.3 vs. 2.5+-0.3%/min, p>0.05).2) S_1 was significantly decreased in the hyperthyroid patients in comparison to the normals(7.5+-1.4 vs. 2.6+-0.3X10^-4 min^-1/uU/ml, p<0.05).3) The basal insulin concentration was higher in the hyperthyroid patients than in the normals(8.3+-2.4 vs. 4.6+-0.4 uU/ml, p=0.07). In addition, the insulin secretory response to a glucose load was increased in the hyperthyroid patients as evidenced by the peak plasma insulin level(168.2+-30.4 vs. 89.2+-13.9 uU/ml, p<0.05) and by the total area under the insulin curve(2641.1+-443.2 vs. 1696.7+-204.3 min uU/ml, p<0.05).These results clearly demonstrated that insulin sensitivity was impaired in these newly diagnosed hyperthyroid patients. However, glucose tolerance was maintained by the increased insulin secretion.
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A Clinical study on the diagnesis and Treatment of Cushing's Disease - The significance of bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling -.
Seong Yeon Kim, Kyung Soo Park, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Jae Seok Jeon, Hyeong Kyu Park, Chang Soon Koh, Hun Ki Min, Heu Won Jeong, Dae Hee Han, Moon Hee Han, Kee Hyun Jang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):115-120.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling(IPSS) is known to be useful for the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome and for the preoperative localization of pituitary microadenomas.To evaluate the usefulness of IPSS, we performed the procedure in the 17 cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome including 2 cases of macroadenomas, 6 of them with CRH stimulation test. A inferior petrosal sinus-to-peripheral ACTH ratio of 2:1 or greater(3:1 after CRH stimulation) indicates a pituitary source of ACTH hypersecretion, and a ratio of the ACTH level in one inferior petrosal sinus to the ACTH level in the other of 1:4 or greater lateralizes the microadenomas to that half of the pituitary gland.With these criteria, we diagnosed Cushing's disease in 15 of 17 cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and localized the lesion in 8 of 13 cases of microadenoma.In conclusion, IPSS with CRH stimulation has high diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome, but still has the limitations on the localization of microadenoma.
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Seasonal Variation in Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in The Elderly in Korean.
Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Choon Hee Chung, Sung Kil Lim, Yoon Sok Chung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):121-127.   Published online November 6, 2019
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The seasonal variations in the parameters of calcium metabolism including 25-hydroxyvitamin D were analyzed in 19 free-living elderly subjects (mean age:68.7±6.7 yr) in Seoul. Mean serum total calcium concentration was 9.0±0.3 mg/dl in March and had risen to 9.3±0.3mg/dl in the following September(p<0.001). Despite their comparable calcium intake. Serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not show any seasonal variations, whereas serum PTH concentrations were significantly lower in September than in March(20.1±8.6 vs. 32.5±8.4 pg/ml, p<0.001). Seasonal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were also found between the value(17.3±6.9 ng/ml) in March and that (28.5±7.4 ng/ml) in September(p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between seasonal increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and seasonal reduction in serum PTH/Cr(r=-0.5394, p<0.05). This study suggests that the winter minimum of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and the elevated PTH may be a contributing risk factor for the development of osteopenia especially in the elderly individuals. When exposure to sunlight is reduced, as in the case of nursing home population, an additional exogenous form of the vitamin D may be advisable.
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Parathyroid Cysts.
Sung Kil Lim, Jin Sub Choi, Cheong Soo Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):128-135.   Published online November 6, 2019
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The parathyroid cyst is a relatively uncommon disease and usually identified during the operation for a presumed thyroid mass. Thirteen cases of parathyroid cyst (2 males, 11 females) treated from 1981 to 1993 were reviewed. Ages ranged from 17 to 59 years(mean, 41 years). Gross measurement of the tumor size varied from 1.0 to 10.0 cm in diameter with a mean of 4.8cm. All of the 13 patients presented with a chief complaint of painless anterior cervical mass. Only one complained of mild symptom of dyspnea and voice change due to huge cyst in paratracheal space. No functional cyst was identified. Diagnostic studies included ^99mTc thyroid scan (n=11), ultrasonography (n=10), computerized tomography (n=4) and fine needle aspiration(FNA) (preoperative, n=4; intraoperative, n=3). All diagnostic precedures but needle aspiration were nonspecific. Cysts were found in right inferior parathyroid(n=4), left inferior parathyroid (n=7), or anterior superior mediastinum (n=2). The FNA of the cyst contents revealed watery clear fluid with elevated parathyroid hormone level and was diagnostic in each cases. Four patients were treated initially with needle aspiration, of which only one patient was successful, and 3 patients who were unsuccessful to needle aspiration and the remaining 9 were effectively treated with surgical extirpation. Our experience suggested that needle aspiration may be of significant help in diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cyst, but most of the patient could be treated successfully by surgical extirpation with an excellent chance for curability.
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Cushing's Disease Due to ACTH Producing Pituitary Carcinoma.
Young Kee Shong, Joong Yeol Park, Ghi Su Kim, Won Kyoung Cho, Jung Kyo Lee, Ghee Young Choe, Mun Ho Lee, Ki Up Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):136-140.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Primary carcinoma of the pituitary is only rarely reported. About half of the reported cases are nonfunctional. It is generally agreed that the presence of distant metastasis is required to clearly establish the diagnosis of pituitary carcinoma. We have experienced a case of ACTH-producing pituitary carcinoma causing Cushing's syndrome which could be diagnosed by histologic features only without evidence of distant metastasis. A 35-year-old female with Cushingoid appearance was diagnosed as Cushing's disease after biochemical and neuroradiological evaluation. Near total removal of the pituitary tumor was performed. By histopathologic examination, the tumor revealed evidences of histological malignancy such as prominent nuclear pleomorphism, frequent mitoses and extensive tumor necrosis. Pseudosarcomatous components were also noted. By immunohistochemical studies, the tumor cells expressed ACTH. However, there was no evidence of distant metastasis at the initial operation. She was diagnosed as having ACTH producing pituitary carcinoma by histologic feature only. One month later, she complained progressive nausea and vomiting, and follow-up brain MRI revealed regrowing pituitary mass. She was reoperated and near total tumor bulk was removed again followed by radiotherapy with 5580 rads. Four month after the second operation, she developed generalized tonic clonic seizure. Brain CT showed multiple enhancing nodules on left temporal and frontal lobes, and around falx cerebri. She refused further treatment and was managed only with anticonvalsants. About month after discharge she died at home.
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Case Reports
A Case of Primary Hyperparathyroidism Associated with Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Postoperative Hungry Bone Syndrome.
Je Ho Han, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Kwang Woo Lee, Hae Ok Jung, Chang Sup Kim, Moo Il Kang, Chul Soo Cho, Ho Yun Kim, Sung Koo Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):141-149.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 37 Download
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Primary hyperparathyroidism is a generalezed disorder of calcium, phosphorus and bone metabolism due to an increased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Single parathyroid adenoma is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Because parathyroid hormone has been proposed as an important inhibitor of renal bicarbonate reabsorption of proximal tubule, proximal renal tubular acidosis is not rare in primary hyperparaphyroidism. After parathyroid resection, significant hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia requiring prolonged medical management may develop, termed hungery bone syndrome. We experienced a case of primary hyperparathyroidism associated with proximal renal tubular acidosis, and severe hungry bone syndrome after resection of the adenoma of parathyroid gland.
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A Case of Malignant Insulinoma Treated with Streptozotocin after Surgery.
Yun Chang Jun, Byung Hun Lim, Bong Jung Son, Byung Ik Kim, Man Ho Lee, Sang Jong Lee, Won Kil Pae, Myung Suk Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):150-155.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Insulinoma is clinically characterized by fasting hypoglycemia, various neuropsychiatric symptoms, and these caused by secondary to hypoglycemia.Of patients with insulinoma, 80 percent have single benign tumors, 11 percent have multiple benign tumors, 6 percent have single malignant tumors, and the remainder have multiple malignant tumors or islet hyperplasia according to Service's statement.A 42 year-old male chemical engineer who had insulinoma associated with regional lymph node metastasis has been successfully performed with curative resection and consecutive postoperative therapy with streptozotocin.He entered to this hospital because of frequent occasion of bizarre behavior and language, transient unconsiousness and syncopal episode, and sweating associated with hypoglycemia especially in night four months prior to addmission in November 1992. Those symptoms and hypoglycemia were controlled by intravenous glucose injection and/or oral feeding of glucose riched stuffs.No physical abnormalities were found except neuropsychiatric symptoms. On admission the fasting blood glucose level was 10 mg/dl, plasma immunoreactive plasma insulin level was 125.23 uU/ml, and plasma C-peptide level was 10.24 ng/ml, respectively.Abdominal CT was suggestive of retroperitoneal tumor just behind the pancreas. Selective celiac axis angiography demonstrated hypervascular mass supplied by dorsal pancreatic artery which was compatible with insulinoma. Surgical intervention including distal pancreatectomy, as well as splenectomy and parital omental resection were performed successfully. Consecutive postoperative treatment of streptozotocin was done without any side effects.His condition is very good and enjoyed his life with full activity to date.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism