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Volume 31(4); December 2016
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Review Articles
Bone Metabolism
Osteoblasts Are the Centerpiece of the Metastatic Bone Microenvironment
Hyo Min Jeong, Sun Wook Cho, Serk In Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):485-492.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.485
  • 3,842 View
  • 46 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The tumor microenvironment is comprised of diverse stromal cell populations in addition to tumor cells. Increasing evidence now clearly supports the role of microenvironment stromal cells in tumor progression and metastasis, yet the regulatory mechanisms and interactions among tumor and stromal cells remain to be elucidated. Bone metastasis is the major problem in many types of human malignancies including prostate, breast and lung cancers, and the biological basis of bone metastasis let alone curative approaches are largely undetermined. Among the many types of stromal cells in bone, osteoblasts are shown to be an important player. In this regard, osteoblasts are a key target cell type in the development of bone metastasis, but there are currently no drugs or therapeutic approaches are available that specifically target osteoblasts. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge on osteoblasts in the metastatic tumor microenvironment, aiming to provide clues and directions for future research endeavor.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Bone marrow adipocytes and lung cancer bone metastasis: unraveling the role of adipokines in the tumor microenvironment
    Jian Li, Jialu Wu, Yanni Xie, Xijie Yu
    Frontiers in Oncology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Circulating biomarkers for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring in bone metastasis
    Min-Kyoung Song, Serk In Park, Sun Wook Cho
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism.2023; 41(3): 337.     CrossRef
  • Mobilization of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells is regulated by PTH1R activation in bone marrow stromal cells
    Eun Jung Lee, Kyoung Jin Lee, Seungpil Jung, Kyong Hwa Park, Serk In Park
    Bone Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • 2E‐Decene‐4,6‐diyn‐1‐ol‐acetate inhibits osteoclastogenesis through mitogen‐activated protein kinase‐c‐Fos‐NFATc1 signalling pathways
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  • The let-7f-5p–Nme4 pathway mediates tumor necrosis factor α-induced impairment in osteogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells
    Ying-Jie Zhao, Zheng-Chao Gao, Xi-Jing He, Jing Li
    Biochemistry and Cell Biology.2021; 99(4): 488.     CrossRef
  • Circulating Osteocalcin-Positive Cells as a Novel Diagnostic Biomarker for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients
    Kyung-Hun Lee, Kyoung Jin Lee, Tae-Yong Kim, Febby Hutomo, Hyun Jin Sun, Gi Jeong Cheon, Serk In Park, Sun Wook Cho, Seock-Ah Im
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research.2020; 35(10): 1838.     CrossRef
  • The Early Results of Vertebral Pathological Compression Fracture of Extra- nodal Lymphoma with HIV-positive Patients Treated by Percutaneous Kyphoplasty
    Sheng Sun, Biao Xu, Qiang Zhang, Chang-song Zhao, Rui Ma, Jie He, Yao Zhang
    Current HIV Research.2020; 18(4): 248.     CrossRef
  • Sema4D expression and secretion are increased by HIF-1α and inhibit osteogenesis in bone metastases of lung cancer
    Wu-gui Chen, Jing Sun, Wei-wei Shen, Si-zhen Yang, Ying Zhang, Xu Hu, Hao Qiu, Shang-cheng Xu, Tong-wei Chu
    Clinical & Experimental Metastasis.2019; 36(1): 39.     CrossRef
  • Dual targeting c-met and VEGFR2 in osteoblasts suppresses growth and osteolysis of prostate cancer bone metastasis
    Changki Lee, Young Mi Whang, Preston Campbell, Patrick L. Mulcrone, Florent Elefteriou, Sun Wook Cho, Serk In Park
    Cancer Letters.2018; 414: 205.     CrossRef
  • Targeting the tumour stroma to improve cancer therapy
    Kenneth C. Valkenburg, Amber E. de Groot, Kenneth J. Pienta
    Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology.2018; 15(6): 366.     CrossRef
  • Bone Microenvironment and Role of Rank-Rankl-Opg in Breast Cancer Metastasis in Bone
    Hongwei Zhang
    Journal of Cancer Prevention & Current Research.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Articles inEndocrinology and Metabolismin 2016
    Won-Young Lee
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Close layer
Thyroid
Clinical Update in Aspects of the Management of Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases
Duncan J. Topliss
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):493-499.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.493
  • 5,172 View
  • 69 Download
  • 25 Web of Science
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Aspects of autoimmune thyroid disease updated in this review include: immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related thyroid disease (Riedel's thyroiditis, fibrosing variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, IgG4-related Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Graves' disease with elevated IgG4 levels); recent epidemiological studies from China and Denmark indicating that excess iodine increases the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hypothyroidism; immunomodulatory agents (ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab) activate immune response by inhibiting T-cell surface receptors which down-regulate immune response, i.e., cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed cell death protein 1 pathways; alemtuzumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody to CD52 which causes immune depletion and thyroid autoimmune disease especially Graves' hyperthyroidism; small molecule ligand (SML) agonists which activate receptors, SML neutral antagonists, which inhibit receptor activation by agonists, and SML inverse agonists which inhibit receptor activation by agonists and inhibit constitutive agonist independent signaling have been identified. SML antagonism of thyroid-stimulating hormone-receptor stimulatory antibody could treat Graves' hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy; and thyroxine treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism can produce iatrogenic subclinical hyperthyroidism with the risk of atrial fibrillation and osteoporosis. The increased risk of harm from subclinical hyperthyroidism may be stronger than the potential benefit from treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism.

Citations

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  • Effects of vitamin D treatment on thyroid function and autoimmunity markers in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis—A meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Hui Jiang, Xiaoluo Chen, Xiaoqin Qian, Shihe Shao
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.2022; 47(6): 767.     CrossRef
  • Immunoglobulin G4-Related Thyroid Disease: A Single-Center Experience and Literature Review
    Meihua Jin, Bictdeun Kim, Ahreum Jang, Min Ji Jeon, Young Jun Choi, Yu-Mi Lee, Dong Eun Song, Won Gu Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(2): 312.     CrossRef
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    Nicole Lafontaine, Scott G Wilson, John P Walsh
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Components of Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults with the Presence of Autoimmune Thyroid Condition in an Iodine-Sufficient Region
    Binyu Pan, Qin Zhang, Hang Zhou, Zheng Feei Ma
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  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis: An update on pathogenic mechanisms, diagnostic protocols, therapeutic strategies, and potential malignant transformation
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    Zhaohui Cui, Zhixiao Wang, Xiaoyun Liu, Yun Cai, Xinyu Xu, Tao Yang
    Journal of Translational Medicine.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The value of preoperative antithyroidperoxidase antibody as a novel predictor of recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma
    Eyun Song, Hye‐Seon Oh, Min Ji Jeon, Ki Wook Chung, Suck Joon Hong, Jin Sook Ryu, Jung Hwan Baek, Jeong Hyun Lee, Won Gu Kim, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong, Tae Yong Kim
    International Journal of Cancer.2019; 144(6): 1414.     CrossRef
  • Sonographic Characteristics of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Coexistent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Conventional Ultrasound, Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging and Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound
    Qinghai Peng, Chengcheng Niu, Meixiang Zhang, Qiang Peng, Sijie Chen
    Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.2019; 45(2): 471.     CrossRef
  • The incidental thyroid nodule
    Sarah B. Fisher, Nancy D. Perrier
    CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians.2018; 68(2): 97.     CrossRef
  • Development of thyroid dysfunction is associated with clinical response to PD-1 blockade treatment in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer
    Hye In Kim, Mijin Kim, Se-Hoon Lee, So Young Park, Young Nam Kim, Hosu Kim, Min Ji Jeon, Tae Yong Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Won Bae Kim, Sang-We Kim, Dae Ho Lee, Keunchil Park, Myung-Ju Ahn, Jae Hoon Chung, Young Kee Shong, Won Gu Kim, Tae Hyuk Kim
    OncoImmunology.2018; 7(1): e1375642.     CrossRef
  • A case report of a novel, integrative approach to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with unexpected results
    Nicole Avard, Suzanne J. Grant
    Advances in Integrative Medicine.2018; 5(2): 75.     CrossRef
  • Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Patients Treated with Alemtuzumab for Multiple Sclerosis: An Example of Selective Anti-TSH-Receptor Immune Response
    Mario Rotondi, Martina Molteni, Paola Leporati, Valentina Capelli, Michele Marinò, Luca Chiovato
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical Implications of Immunoglobulin G4 to Graves' Ophthalmopathy
    Sung Hoon Yu, Jun Goo Kang, Chul Sik Kim, Sung-Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Seong Jin Lee
    Thyroid.2017; 27(9): 1185.     CrossRef
  • Articles inEndocrinology and Metabolismin 2016
    Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2017; 32(1): 62.     CrossRef
  • Correlation of hormonal and cytokines regulation in case of autoimmune thyroiditis
    Victoria V. Zdor
    Clinical and experimental thyroidology.2017; 13(2): 45.     CrossRef
  • Autoimmune Thyroiditis and Myasthenia Gravis
    Angela Lopomo, Sonia Berrih-Aknin
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Age-specific reference interval of serum TSH levels is high in adolescence in an iodine excess area: Korea national health and nutrition examination survey data
    Hyemi Kwon, Won Gu Kim, Min Ji Jeon, Minkyu Han, Mijin Kim, Suyeon Park, Tae Yong Kim, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim
    Endocrine.2017; 57(3): 445.     CrossRef
Close layer
Obesity and Metabolism
Bile Acid Nuclear Receptor Farnesoid X Receptor: Therapeutic Target for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Sun-Gi Kim, Byung-Kwon Kim, Kyumin Kim, Sungsoon Fang
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):500-504.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.500
  • 5,659 View
  • 73 Download
  • 33 Web of Science
  • 33 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the causes of fatty liver, occurring when fat is accumulated in the liver without alcohol consumption. NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in advanced countries. NAFLD is a spectrum of pathology involving hepatic steatosis with/without inflammation and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with accumulation of hepatocyte damage and hepatic fibrosis. Recent studies have revealed that NAFLD results in the progression of cryptogenic cirrhosis that leads to hepatocarcinoma and cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure. The main causes of NAFLD have not been revealed yet, metabolic syndromes including obesity and insulin resistance are widely accepted for the critical risk factors for the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcriptional factors that sense environmental or hormonal signals and regulate expression of genes, involved in cellular growth, development, and metabolism. Several NRs have been reported to regulate genes involved in energy and xenobiotic metabolism and inflammation. Among various NRs, farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is abundantly expressed in the liver and a key regulator to control various metabolic processes in the liver. Recent studies have shown that NAFLD is associated with inappropriate function of FXR. The impact of FXR transcriptional activity in NAFLD is likely to be potential therapeutic strategy, but still requires to elucidate underlying potent therapeutic mechanisms of FXR for the treatment of NAFLD. This article will focus the physiological roles of FXR and establish the correlation between FXR transcriptional activity and the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

Citations

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Close layer
Obesity and Metabolism
How to Begin Molecular Research of Metabolic Diseases
Bo Kyung Yoon, Jae-woo Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):505-509.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.505
  • 28,750 View
  • 33 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Advancing higher education is an important goal within the scientific and medical communities. The Korean Endocrine Society has worked with medical researchers who hope to conduct molecular research in addition to their clinical education. Based on concepts developed at a 2016 educational workshop, this article summarizes the requirement for a strong foundation in the performance of molecular research. Specifically, recent articles in metabolic research are highlighted to provide examples of commonly used techniques in this field of study.

Citations

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Close layer
Obesity and Metabolism
Epidemiology of Childhood Obesity in Korea
Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):510-518.   Published online November 3, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.510
  • 5,960 View
  • 73 Download
  • 42 Web of Science
  • 39 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Over the past several decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically worldwide and is increasing not only in developed countries, but also in developing countries. This increase may lead to an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases throughout the lifespan. In Korean children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity increased from 6.8% in 1998 to 10.0% in 2013. Obesity is a state that more commonly influences children and adolescents of lower socioeconomic status (SES) than those with a higher SES. However, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample of Korean adolescents decreased from 1998 to 2012. According to the Diabetes Fact Sheet of the Korean Diabetes Association, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among children aged 18 years or younger was 153.5 per 100,000 in 2006 and 205.0 per 100,000 in 2013. Obesity is a complex disease influenced by many interacting factors, such as adipocytokines, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, adenovirus 36 infection, birth weight, lifestyle, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Obesity in youth can adversely impact practically every organ system and lead to serious consequences, such as metabolic, gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cardiovascular, and psychosocial complications. Therefore, coordinated efforts by governments, organizations, communities, and individuals are needed to prevent and treat childhood obesity. In particular, a long-term policy to improve the social environment will also be necessary.

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Close layer
Obesity and Metabolism
Brain Regulation of Energy Metabolism
Eun Roh, Min-Seon Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):519-524.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.519
  • 9,802 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

In healthy individuals, energy intake is in balance with energy expenditure, which helps to maintain a normal body weight. The brain's inability to control energy homeostasis underlies the pathology of hyperphagia and obesity. The brain detects body energy excess and deficit by sensing the levels of circulating metabolic hormones and nutrients and by receiving metabolic information from the periphery via the autonomic nervous system. A specialized neuronal network coordinates energy intake behavior and the metabolic processes affecting energy expenditure. Here, we briefly review neuronal mechanisms by which our body maintains energy balance.

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Close layer
Obesity and Metabolism
Current Status of Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery in Korea
Youn-Baik Choi
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):525-532.   Published online November 4, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.525
  • 3,763 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Bariatric surgery is considered to be the most effective treatment modality in maintaining long-term weight reduction and improving obesity-related conditions in morbidly obese patients. In Korea, surgery for morbid obesity was laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy first performed in 2003. Since 2003, the annual number of bariatric surgeries has markedly increased, including adjustable gastric banding (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, mini-gastric bypass, and others. In Korea, AGB is much more common than in others countries. A large proportion of doctors, the public, and government misunderstand the necessity and effectiveness of bariatric surgery, believing that bariatric surgery has an unacceptably high morbidity, and that it is not superior to non-surgical treatments to improve obesity and obesity-related diseases. The effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery have been well demonstrated. The Korean Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery recommend bariatric surgery confining to morbidly obese patients (body mass index ≥40 or >35 in the presence of significant comorbidities).

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Editorials
Obesity and Metabolism
Nonalbuminuric Renal Insufficiency: Can It Be a Novel Category of Diabetic Nephropathy?
Masami Tanaka, Hiroshi Itoh
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):533-534.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.533
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Obesity and Metabolism
Klinefelter Syndrome and Metabolic Disorder
Ji Cheol Bae
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):535-536.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.535
  • 2,840 View
  • 31 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
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Citations

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  • Epicardial fat: the role of testosterone and lipid metabolism in a cohort of patients with Klinefelter syndrome
    S. Granato, G. Barbaro, M.R. Di Giorgio, F.M. Rossi, C. Marzano, F. Impronta, M. Spaziani, A. Anzuini, A. Lenzi, A.F. Radicioni
    Metabolism.2019; 95: 21.     CrossRef
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Original Articles
Clinical Study
Urinary Albumin Excretion Reflects Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women without Diabetes: The 2011 to 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hee Jung Ahn, Do Sik Moon, Da Yeong Kang, Jung In Lee, Da Young Kim, Jin Hwa Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Hak Yeon Bae
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):537-546.   Published online November 3, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.537
  • 3,459 View
  • 30 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in postmenopausal women without diabetes.

Methods

This study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis.

Results

The mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR), 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively) compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding covariates.

Conclusion

Urinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD.

Citations

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    Yoo Jin Kim, Sang Won Hwang, Taesic Lee, Jun Young Lee, Young Uh, Gulali Aktas
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    Jun Ho Lee
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    Won-Young Lee
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Clinical Study
Association between Obesity and Bone Mineral Density by Gender and Menopausal Status
Mohammad Reza Salamat, Amir Hossein Salamat, Mohsen Janghorbani
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):547-558.   Published online November 4, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.547
  • 5,347 View
  • 62 Download
  • 62 Web of Science
  • 62 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We investigated whether there were gender differences in the effect of obesity on bone mineral density (BMD) based on menopausal status.

Methods

We assessed 5,892 consecutive patients 20 to 91 years old who were referred for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. All subjects underwent a standard BMD scan of the hip (total hip and femoral neck) and lumbar spine (L1 to L4) using a DXA scan and body size assessment. Body mass index was used to categorize the subjects as normal weight, overweight, and obese.

Results

BMD was higher in obese and overweight versus normal weight men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women. Compared to men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women with normal weight, the age-adjusted odds ratio of osteopenia was 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07 to 0.56) and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.51) for obese men ≥50 years and postmenopausal women. Corresponding summaries for osteoporosis were 0.26 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.64) and 0.15 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.20), respectively. Compared to men <50 years and premenopausal women with normal weight, the age-adjusted odds ratio of low bone mass was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.45) and 0.16 (95% CI, 0.10 to 0.26) for obese men <50 years and premenopausal women, respectively.

Conclusion

Obesity is associated with BMD of the hip and lumbar spine and overweight and obese individuals have similar degrees of osteoporosis. This result was not significantly different based on gender and menopausal status, which could be an important issue for further investigation.

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Clinical Study
Waist Circumference as a Marker of Obesity Is More Predictive of Coronary Artery Calcification than Body Mass Index in Apparently Healthy Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study
Jongsin Park, Eun Seo Lee, Da Young Lee, Jihyun Kim, Se Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Won-Young Lee, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Eun-Jung Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):559-566.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.559
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We aimed to assess the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) according to groups subdivided by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in apparently healthy Korean adults.

Methods

Thirty-three thousand four hundred and thirty-two participants (mean age, 42 years) in a health screening program were divided into three groups according to BMI: <23 kg/m2 (normal), 23 to 25 kg/m2 (overweight), and >25 kg/m2 (obese). In addition, the participants were divided into two groups according to WC. Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) was measured with multi-detector computed tomography in all participants. Presence of CAC was defined as CACS >0.

Results

When logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence of CAC as the dependent variable, the risk for CAC increased as BMI increased after adjusting for confounding variables (1.102 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.000 to 1.216]; 1.284 [95% CI, 1.169 to 1.410]; in the overweight and obese groups vs. the normal weight group). When the participants were divided into six groups according to BMI and WC, the subjects with BMI and WC in the obese range showed the highest risk for CAC (1.321 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]) and those with BMI in the overweight range and WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC (1.235 [95% CI, 1.194 to 1.461]).

Conclusion

Participants with obesity defined by both BMI and WC showed the highest risk for CAC. Those with BMIs in the overweight range but with WC in the obese range showed the second highest risk for CAC, suggesting that WC as a marker of obesity is more predictive of CAC than BMI.

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Cardiac Dysfunction in Association with Increased Inflammatory Markers in Primary Aldosteronism
Jung Soo Lim, Sungha Park, Sung Il Park, Young Taik Oh, Eunhee Choi, Jang Young Kim, Yumie Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):567-576.   Published online November 3, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.567
Correction in: Endocrinol Metab 2020;35(3):671
  • 5,317 View
  • 42 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Oxidative stress in primary aldosteronism (PA) is thought to worsen aldosterone-induced damage by activating proinflammatory processes. Therefore, we investigated whether inflammatory markers associated with oxidative stress is increased with negative impacts on heart function as evaluated by echocardiography in patients with PA.

Methods

Thirty-two subjects (mean age, 50.3±11.0 years; 14 males, 18 females) whose aldosterone-renin ratio was more than 30 among patients who visited Severance Hospital since 2010 were enrolled. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and MMP-9 were measured. All patients underwent adrenal venous sampling with complete access to both adrenal veins.

Results

Only MMP-2 level was significantly higher in the aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) group than in the bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH). Patients with APA had significantly higher left ventricular (LV) mass and A velocity, compared to those with BAH. IL-1β was positively correlated with left atrial volume index. Both TNF-α and MMP-2 also had positive linear correlation with A velocity. Furthermore, MMP-9 showed a positive correlation with LV mass, whereas it was negatively correlated with LV end-systolic diameter.

Conclusion

These results suggest the possibility that some of inflammatory markers related to oxidative stress may be involved in developing diastolic dysfunction accompanied by LV hypertrophy in PA. Further investigations are needed to clarify the role of oxidative stress in the course of cardiac remodeling.

Citations

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Prevalent Rate of Nonalbuminuric Renal Insufficiency and Its Association with Cardiovascular Disease Event in Korean Type 2 Diabetes
Hye Won Lee, A Ra Jo, Dong Won Yi, Yang Ho Kang, Seok Man Son
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):577-585.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.577
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency is a unique category of diabetic kidney diseases. The objectives of the study were to evaluate prevalent rate of nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency and to investigate its relationship with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) event in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

Laboratory and clinical data of 1,067 subjects with T2DM were obtained and reviewed. Study subjects were allocated into four subgroups according to the CKD classification. Major CVD events were included with coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events.

Results

Nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, when compared with albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group, had shorter diabetic duration, lower concentrations of glycated hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lower prevalent rates of retinopathy and previous CVD, and higher rate of treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers. Nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group showed a greater association with prior CVD events than no CKD group; however, albuminuric stage ≥3 CKD group made addition to increase prevalence of prior CVD events significantly when CKD categories were applied as covariates. Association of prior CVD events, when compared with normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and nonalbuminuria categories, became significant for declined eGFR, which was higher for eGFR of <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, and albuminuria.

Conclusion

The results show that subjects with nonalbuminuric stage ≥3 CKD is significantly interrelated with occurrence of prior CVD events than those with normal eGFR with or without albuminuria. Comparing with normal eGFR and nonalbuminuria categories, the combination of increased degree of albuminuria and declined eGFR is becoming significant for the association of prior CVD events.

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Molecular Diagnosis Using Residual Liquid-Based Cytology Materials for Patients with Nondiagnostic or Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules
Hyemi Kwon, Won Gu Kim, Markus Eszlinger, Ralf Paschke, Dong Eun Song, Mijin Kim, Suyeon Park, Min Ji Jeon, Tae Yong Kim, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):586-591.   Published online November 4, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.586
  • 4,099 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Molecular analysis for common somatic mutations in thyroid cancer can improve diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the nondiagnostic or indeterminate category of thyroid nodules. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of molecular diagnosis from residual liquid-based cytology (LBC) material after cytological diagnosis.

Methods

This prospective study enrolled 53 patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as nondiagnostic, atypia of undetermined significance (AUS), or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) after FNAC. DNAs and RNAs were isolated from residual LBC materials. BRAFV600E and RAS point mutations, PAX8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), RET/PTC1, and RET/PTC3 rearrangements were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing.

Results

All DNAs from 53 residual LBC samples could be analysed and point mutations were detected in 10 samples (19%). In 17 AUS nodules, seven samples (41%) had point mutations including BRAF (n=4), NRAS (n=2), and KRAS (n=1). In 20 FLUS nodules, three samples (15%) had NRAS point mutations. RNA from only one FLUS nodule could be analysed for rearrangements and there was no abnormality.

Conclusion

Molecular analysis for BRAF and RAS mutations was feasible in residual LBC materials and might be useful for diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules.

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