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Volume 26(4); December 2011
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Review Articles
Changes in Growth Hormone-Axis Function in Nutrient Excess or Deprivation.
Seungjoon Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):279-284.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.279
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  • 34 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Growth hormone (GH) is produced in a select population of cells, somatotropes, located in the anterior pituitary gland. GH is released into the general circulation where it interacts with multiple peripheral tissues through its receptor, GH receptor, to regulate growth and metabolic function. GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin are the primary positive and negative regulators of GH secretion, respectively. More recently, ghrelin has emerged as an additional stimulatory hormone for GH release. In humans, GH levels decrease in states of nutrient excess, such as obesity, and increase in response to nutrient deprivation, such as fasting, type 1 diabetes, and anorexia nervosa. Considering that GH regulates metabolism of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein, clarifying the mechanisms by which metabolic changes alter pituitary GH synthesis and secretion will increase our knowledge on the pathophysiology and treatment of metabolic diseases. In this review, the effect of nutrient excess and nutrient deficiency on GH-axis function in humans and other mammals will be summarized, with particular emphasis on studies exploring the direct effects of systemic signals, including insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, on somatotrope function. Additionally, new mouse models with somatotrope-specific knockout of IGF-1 and insulin receptors generated by using the Cre/loxP system will be discussed.
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Growth Hormone and Translational Research: From the 'Bench' to the 'Bedside'.
John J Kopchick, Darlene E Berryman, Elahu Gosney, Edward O List
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):285-294.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.285
  • 1,702 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
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Editorial
The Effects of Combination Therapy of Cathepsin K Inhibitor and PTH on Change of Bone Mineral Density in Animal Model of Osteoporosis.
Yumie Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):295-296.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.295
  • 48,578 View
  • 23 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.

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  • Response: The Effects of Combination Therapy of Cathepsin K Inhibitor and PTH on Change in Bone Mineral Density in an Animal Model of Osteoporosis
    Seung Hun Lee, Jung-Min Koh, Young-Sun Lee, Beom-Jun Kim, Je-Yong Choi, Ghi-Su Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2012; 27(1): 107.     CrossRef
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Original Articles
Association between Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Level and Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma in Korean Euthyroid Patients.
Hyun Sook Kim, Seung Joon Lee, Jung Kyu Park, Chang Ho Jo, Ho Sang Shon, Eui Dal Jung
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):297-302.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.297
  • 2,030 View
  • 26 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Thyroid cancer is a common disease and its prevalence is increasing. Recent reports have shown that an elevated thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) level is associated with thyroid cancer risk. However, the association between TSH level and thyroid cancer risk is not yet known for euthyroid patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). METHODS: Our study included 425 patients who underwent thyroid surgery and were diagnosed with PTMC between 2008 and 2009. Control group patients were diagnosed with benign nodules < or = 1 cm in size by US-guided fine needle aspiration. Nodules with one or more suspected malignant-ultrasonographic feature(s) were excluded from this study. Patients who were not euthyroid or who took thyroid medication were also excluded. RESULTS: The mean age of all patients was 48.5 +/- 11.0 years and 88.8% were women. The mean age of those with PTMC was significantly lower than that of the control group. The mean TSH level was 1.78 +/- 0.93 mIU/L, and the mean free T4 level was 15.96 +/- 2.32 pmol/L. There was no difference in TSH level between the PTMC and control groups (1.77 +/- 0.93 mIU/L vs. 1.79 +/- 0.91 mIU/L, P = 0.829). After adjusting for age, TSH level was not correlated with tumor size (r = 0.02, P = 0.678) in the PTMC group. Moreover, the TSH level did not differ between patients with stage I and stage III-IV carcinoma (stage I, 1.77 +/- 0.95 mIU/L; stage III-IV, 1.79 +/- 0.87 mIU/L; P = 0.856). CONCLUSION: TSH levels are not elevated in euthyroid PTMC patients. Thus, further evaluation is needed before serum TSH can be used as a tumor marker for small nodules < or = 1 cm in size in euthyroid patients.

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  • Evaluation of serum thyroid‐stimulating hormone as indicator for fine‐needle aspiration in patients with thyroid nodules
    Ji Soo Choi, Chung Mo Nam, Eun‐Kyung Kim, Hee Jung Moon, Kyung Hwa Han, Jin Young Kwak
    Head & Neck.2015; 37(4): 498.     CrossRef
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The Effects of Combination Therapy of Cathepsin K Inhibitor and PTH on Change in Bone Mineral Density in an Animal Model of Osteoporosis.
Seung Hun Lee, Jung Min Koh, Young Sun Lee, Beom Jun Kim, Je Yong Choi, Ghi Su Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):303-309.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.303
  • 2,194 View
  • 27 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We hypothesized that combination therapy of cathepsin K inhibitor (CTKi) and human parathyroid hormone (1-34) (teriparatide, PTH) would overcome the coupling phenomenon of bone resorption and formation and thus may rapidly increase bone mass. METHODS: We selected a dose of zoledronic acid (ZA) that had shown similar effects with CTKi on body bone mineral density (BMD) change during the preliminary experiment. Female mice were subjected to ovariectomized (OVX control) or a sham operation (SHAM group). The mice were treated with CTKi (CTKi group), ZA (ZA group), PTH (PTH group) or with a combination of PTH with ZA (ZA + PTH group) or CTKi (CTKi + PTH group) for 8 weeks. Total BMD was measured before the operation and at 4 and 8 weeks. RESULTS: In the preliminary results, 10 microg/kg of ZA showed similar BMD changes with CTKi. Compared with the OVX control, BMD in the SHAM, ZA, CTKi, PTH, ZA + PTH, and CTKi + PTH groups was significantly increased after treatment. BMD in the CTKi + PTH group, but not in the ZA + PTH group increased more significantly than in the PTH group at the end of treatment. Compared with the OVX control, changes in BMD in the SHAM, ZA, CTKi, PTH, ZA + PTH, and CTKi + PTH groups increased significantly after 8 weeks of treatment. The change in BMD in the CTKi + PTH group, but not in the ZA + PTH group was more significantly increased than the change in BMD in the PTH group. CONCLUSION: When combined with PTH, CTKi augmented the anabolic action of PTH. Therefore, combination therapy with CTKi and PTH might be a new therapeutic modality capable of overcoming the coupling phenomenon, thereby markedly and rapidly increasing bone mass.

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  • The Effects of Combination Therapy of Cathepsin K Inhibitor and PTH on Change of Bone Mineral Density in Animal Model of Osteoporosis
    Yumie Rhee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2011; 26(4): 295.     CrossRef
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Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness is Associated with Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.
Dong Hyeok Cho, Jin Ook Chung, Dong Jin Chung, Min Young Chung
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):310-316.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.310
  • 19,181 View
  • 29 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Cardiovascular risk is higher among people with diabetic nephropathy than among those with normal renal function. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. However, the relationship between carotid IMT and diabetic nephropathy is not well known. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether carotid IMT is associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We recruited a total of 354 type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. Renal function was evaluated by serum creatinine levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). Carotid IMT was assessed using B-mode ultrasound by measuring generally used parameters. Baseline-to-study end changes in eGFR were calculated, and the yearly change of eGFR (mL/min/yr) was computed. RESULTS: Age, diabetes duration, ACR, and eGFR were significantly correlated with mean or maximal carotid IMT; however, lipid profiles, HbA1c, and blood pressure were not correlated. The mean yearly eGFR change was -4.9 +/- 5.3 mL/min/yr. The yearly eGFR change was negatively correlated with mean and maximal carotid IMT. After adjusting for age and diabetes duration, the mean IMT is an independent predictor of yearly eGFR change. CONCLUSION: Carotid IMT may be a predictor of diabetic nephropathy progression in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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  • Cardiovascular disease and stroke risk assessment in patients with chronic kidney disease using integration of estimated glomerular filtration rate, ultrasonic image phenotypes, and artificial intelligence: a narrative review
    Ankush D. JAMTHIKAR, Anudeep PUVVULA, Deep GUPTA, Amer M. JOHRI, Vijay NAMBI, Narendra N. KHANNA, Luca SABA, Sophie MAVROGENI, John R. LAIRD, Gyan PAREEK, Martin MINER, Petros P. SFIKAKIS, Athanasios PROTOGEROU, George D. KITAS, Andrew NICOLAIDES, Aditya
    International Angiology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Proteinuria as a significant predictive factor for the progression of carotid artery atherosclerosis in non-albuminuric type 2 diabetes
    Young-eun Kim, Minyoung Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-soo Cha, Byung-Wan Lee
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 181: 109082.     CrossRef
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Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Hyperglycemic Emergency State Accompanying Rhabdomyolysis.
Soo Kyoung Kim, Jong Ha Baek, Kyeong Ju Lee, Jong Ryeal Hahm, Jung Hwa Jung, Hee Jin Kim, Ho Su Kim, Sungsu Kim, Soon Il Chung, Tae Sik Jung
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):317-323.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.317
  • 22,687 View
  • 25 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of rhabdomyolysis and its association with both clinical course and prognosis and to evaluate the factors associated with rhabdomyolysis in patients with hyperglycemic emergencies. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of patients with hyperglycemic emergencies who visited our hospital from May 2003 to April 2010. We assessed the clinical characteristics, biochemical profiles and clinical course of patients and analyzed these data according to the presence of rhabdomyolysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of rhabdomyolysis was 29 patients (28.4%) among 102 patients. Mean serum osmolarity, glucose and serum creatinine levels were higher in patients with rhabdomyolysis than those without rhabdomyolysis. Patients with rhabdomyolysis had higher rates of hemodialysis and mortality than those without the condition. The factors associated with rhabdomyolysis in the hyperglycemic emergency state were increased serum osmolarity and APACHE II score on admission (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Rhabdomyolysis commonly occurred in patients with hyperglycemic emergencies and this could aggravate their clinical course and increase mortality.

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  • Acute diabetes complications
    Salvatore Piro, Francesco Purrello
    Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics.2021; 69(4): 269.     CrossRef
  • The Authors Reply: Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Elderly Patients With Hyperglycemic Emergency State at a Single Institution
    Yong Jung Cho
    Annals of Geriatric Medicine and Research.2017; 21(1): 38.     CrossRef
  • Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Elderly Patients With Hyperglycemic Emergency State at a Single Institution
    Yun Jae Shin, Dae In Kim, Dong Won Lee, Beung Kwan Jeon, Jung Geun Ji, Jung Ah Lim, Young Jung Cho, Hong Woo Nam
    Annals of Geriatric Medicine and Research.2016; 20(4): 185.     CrossRef
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Case Reports
A Case of Subacute Thyroiditis Associated with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Takayasu's Arteritis.
Dongwon Yi, Seung Hoon Baek, Seok Man Son, Yang Ho Kang
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):324-329.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.324
  • 1,984 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Subacute thyroiditis is a self-limiting inflammation of the thyroid, presenting with painful thyroid swelling, thyrotoxicosis and low radioactive iodine uptake. The characteristic US findings for this disease are focal ill-defined hypoechoic areas in one lobe or diffuse hypoechoic areas in both lobes. Thyroid carcinomas should be included in the differential diagnosis for a lesion with focal hypoechoic areas and have been rarely reported to coexist with subacute thyroiditis. Takayasu's arteritis is an autoimmune disease that affects the aorta and its branches as well as pulmonary arteries. Subacute thyroiditis associated with Takayasu's arteritis is extremely rare, with only three cases being reported. We report here on the first case with the simultaneous diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis, papillary thyroid carcinoma and Takayasu's arteritis.
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Four Cases of Malignant Pleural Effusion in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Min Ji Jeon, Ji Hye Yim, Eui Young Kim, Won Gu Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):330-334.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.330
  • 40,603 View
  • 31 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Papillary thyroid carcinoma could be a rare cause of malignant pleural effusion. The development of malignant pleural effusion in patients with papillary thyroid cancer is an extremely adverse prognostic indicator. Here, we report four cases that showed development of malignant pleural effusion during the clinical course of the papillary thyroid carcinoma and consider the prognosis. In four patients, the median survival time after the development of malignant pleural effusion was only 17 months.

Citations

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  • Pleural fluid due to papillary thyroid cancer
    Tomohiro Tamura, Toshihiro Shiozawa, Hiroaki Satoh, Koichi Kurishima, Katsunori Kagohashi, Norio Takayashiki, Nobuyuki Hizawa
    Oncology Letters.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Outcome and characteristics of patients with malignant pleural effusion from differentiated thyroid carcinoma
    Chisato Tomoda, Yuna Ogimi, Fumi Saito, Chie Masaki, Junko Akaishi, Kenichi Matsuzu, Akifumi Suzuki, Takashi Uruno, Keiko Ohkuwa, Hiroshi Shibuya, Wataru Kitagawa, Mitsuji Nagahama, Kiminori Sugino, Koichi Ito
    Endocrine Journal.2016; 63(3): 257.     CrossRef
  • A distinctive colour associated with high iodine content in malignant pleural effusion from metastatic papillary thyroid cancer: a case report
    Andrew Rosenstengel, Ee Mun Lim, Michael Millward, YC Gary Lee
    Journal of Medical Case Reports.2013;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Ophthalmopathy Induced by Bilateral Carotid Cavernous Fistula in a Patient with Graves' Disease.
Jong Kun Ha, Ji Hye Suk, A Ra Jo, Chan Woo Jung, Bong Jae Kim, Seong Oh Park, Sang Su Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):335-339.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.335
  • 1,587 View
  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Graves' disease (GD) can lead to specific eye afflictions including proptosis, periorbital swelling, conjunctival injection, chemosis, and opthalmoplegia, which then become a condition called Graves' ophthalmopathy or thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). A carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal vascular communication between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. The clinical signs of CCF are very similar to TAO and should be considered as a differential diagnosis of TAO. We would like to present an interesting case of a bilateral ophthalmopathy induced by CCF in a GD patient. A 54-year-old man with a 6-year history of GD presented with bilateral exophthalmos and conjunctival injection for two months. The orbital CT scan findings were consistent with CCF, and an angiography revealed bilateral CCF. He received a bilateral coil embolization for the CCF and his ophthalmic signs were immediately improved. We recommend orbital imaging to exclude other coexisting diseases in patients who are suspected of TAO, especially when the diagnosis is uncertain or when determining whether medical or surgical intervention is appropriate.
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Laparoscopically Resected Composite Pheochromocytoma-Ganglioneuroma.
Na Rae Kim, Taeeun Kim, Jeong Nam Lee, Young Sil Eom, Dong Hae Chung, Sanghui Park, Hyun Yee Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):340-344.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.340
  • 2,015 View
  • 24 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma is one of the mixed neuroendocrine-neural tumors composed of pheochromocytoma and other neural crest derivatives. To date, less than 50 cases of composite pheochromocytoma have been reported, and about 70% of the accompanying tumors were ganglioneuromas. Here, we describe six cases of composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuromas in five men and one woman, aged 33 to 64. The size of the tumors ranged from 3.0 to 11.0 cm, and four out of the six presented with intermittent onset of hypertension, palpitation, or dizziness. Microscopically, each tumor was composed of large pleomorphic shaped chromaffin cells arranged in the Zellballen patterns characteristic of pheochromocytoma, and they were mixed with clusters of mature ganglion cells and bundles of spindle-shaped Schwann cells characteristic of ganglioneuroma of variable proportions. All were successfully treated laparoscopically, and none were associated with multiple endocrine neoplasm syndrome or neurofibromatosis. Preoperative diagnosis of a composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma is impossible because of the low incidence rate, and the radiological findings and symptoms are similar to those of typical pheochromocytomas. Although the significance of microscopic detection of the nonpheochromocytoma component from pheochromocytoma has not yet been clarified, microscopic identification of the composite pheochromocytoma-ganglioneuroma is important because cumulative cases are used in an effort to predict the behavior of this composite tumor.

Citations

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  • Imaging of rare medullary adrenal tumours in adults
    C.A. Maciel, Y.Z. Tang, G. Coniglio, A. Sahdev
    Clinical Radiology.2016; 71(5): 484.     CrossRef
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Hyperprolactinemia-Associated Breast Uptake of Radioiodine Following 131I Postablation Scan in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.
Jae Hee Ahn, Sun Young Kim, Ye Ji Kim, Suk Young Lee, Jae Hyoung Lee, Seung Hun Kang, Ho Cheol Hong, Sae Jeong Yang, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Hae Yoon Choi
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):345-347.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.345
  • 2,055 View
  • 22 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Scanning with whole-body 131I scintigraphy after surgery has been a valuable diagnostic modality in the surveillance of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Radioiodine uptake is rarely observed in non-lactating breast tissue, which mimics thyroid cancer metastasis. We now report a case of a 45-year-old female thyroid cancer patient who underwent radioiodine therapy, and in whom breast uptake of radioiodine was observed on a post-therapy whole body scan. Her serum prolactin level was elevated to 328 ng/mL at the time of the radioiodine uptake, and the hyperprolactinemia was induced by her antipsychotic medications. Six months after she discontinued that medication, her serum prolactin level was normalized to 12.6 ng/mL and breast uptake of iodine was no longer present in a follow-up whole body scan.

Citations

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  • Incidental Findings of Intense Radioiodine Uptake in Struma Ovarii and Bilateral Nonlactating Breasts Simultaneously on Postablation 131I SPECT/CT for Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    Hye-kyung Shim, Mi Ra Kim
    Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.2016; 50(4): 353.     CrossRef
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A Case of Cushing's Disease in Pregnancy.
Jeong Tae Kim, Mun Hyuk Sung, Woo Ri Park, Jeong Ho Han, Hye Suk Han, Young Kwang Sim, Tae Gun Oh, Hyun Jeong Jeon
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):348-354.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.348
  • 1,965 View
  • 29 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Developing Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy is rare because menstruation is irregular and hypercortisolism causes infertility. Developing Cushing's disease during pregnancy is very rare because there is even less ovulation than those with the adrenal adenoma. The clinical manifestations of Cushing's syndrome may easily be missed during pregnancy as the features of weight gain, hypertension, and hyperglycemia overlap with those that occur during a pregnancy. Diagnosing Cushing's syndrome during a pregnancy is complex because the biochemical features are obscured by the natural changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that occur during pregnancy. Having Cushing's syndrome during a pregnancy results in increased fetal and maternal complications, so early diagnosis and treatment are critical. We report the clinical and endocrine findings of a pregnant women with Cushing's disease who underwent transsphenoidal surgery after delivery.
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Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated with Emphysematous Gastritis: A Case Report.
Young Min Choi, Jun Won Seo, Woo Jin Lee, Hyeong Jin Park, Ji Hye Shin, Seung Bum Kang, Jun Lee, Jin Hwa Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Hak Yeon Bae
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):355-359.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.355
  • 22,898 View
  • 30 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious and demanding medical emergency for the field of endocrinology, and the identification and correction of the precipitating factors is equally important. Many patients of diabetic ketoacidosis show gastrointestinal symptoms as an initial presentation, and coincidental gastrointestinal diseases can be neglected or misdiagnosed. Emphysematous gastritis is a rare and lethal disease in which gas bubbles form in the stomach wall. The predisposing factors include ingestion of corrosive substances, alcohol abuse, diabetes, and immunosuppressive therapy. Thus, it may be difficult to detect emphysematous gastritis early, especially when it is developed in conjunction with diabetic ketoacidosis. We report a case of diabetic ketoacidosis associated with emphysematous gastritis in a young male without medical history.
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A Case of the Type B Insulin Resistance Syndrome with Chronic Hepatitis B.
Hyun Seok Choi, Byoung Ho Choi, Seok Hoo Jeong, Shung Han Choi, Dong Su Shin, Sei hyun Kim, Young Sil Eom, Sihoon Lee, Yeun Sun Kim, Ie Byung Park, Ki Young Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(4):360-363.   Published online December 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.4.360
  • 2,110 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Type B insulin resistance syndrome is rare autoimmune disease that is characterized by various abnormalities of glycemic homeostasis, from hyperglycemia caused by extreme insulin resistance to fasting hypoglycemia. It can combine with other autoimmune diseases, most commonly systemic lupus erythematosus. It usually occurs in women and accompanies acanthosis nigricans, hyperandrogenism, and, in many cases, ovary dysfunction. The diagnosis of type B insulin resistance syndrome is based largely on the presence of insulin receptor autoantibodies and hyperglycemia, or hypoglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In some cases, patients with the type B insulin resistance have been successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy and plasmapheresis. We experienced type B insulin resistance syndrome in a patient with chronic hepatitis B and used only plasmapheresis for treatment. The immunosuppressive therapy was omitted due to the state of activation of chronic hepatitis B. We present this case with a review of relevant literature.
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