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Volume 23(1); February 2008
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Review Articles
Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Diabetes.
Mi Kyung Kim, Keun Gyu Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):1-8.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.1
  • 1,812 View
  • 51 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.

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Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress
    Myeong Jun Song
    The Korean Journal of Medicine.2021; 96(2): 92.     CrossRef
  • Molecular and Functional Interaction of the Myokine Irisin with Physical Exercise and Alzheimer’s Disease
    Yunho Jin, Dewan Sumsuzzman, Jeonghyun Choi, Hyunbon Kang, Sang-Rae Lee, Yonggeun Hong
    Molecules.2018; 23(12): 3229.     CrossRef
  • Chronic Alcohol Consumption Results in Greater Damage to the Pancreas Than to the Liver in the Rats
    Seong-Su Lee, Oak-Kee Hong, Anes Ju, Myung-Jun Kim, Bong-Jo Kim, Sung-Rae Kim, Won-Ho Kim, Nam-Han Cho, Moo-Il Kang, Sung-Koo Kang, Dai-Jin Kim, Soon-Jib Yoo
    The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology.2015; 19(4): 309.     CrossRef
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Endocrine Disorders and Dyslipidemia.
Young Sun Hong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):9-14.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.9
  • 1,793 View
  • 31 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.

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  • Comparison of Health Behaviors and Nutritional Status related to Dyslipidemia in Korean Middle-Aged Adults - From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2007~2010 -
    Myung-Gon Shin, Ki-Hong Yoon, Mi-Young Song
    The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition.2016; 29(5): 724.     CrossRef
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Editorial
Naloxone Increases the Anorexic Effect of Melanocortin II.
Seungjoon Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):15-17.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.15
  • 1,443 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
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Original Articles
Naloxone Increases the Anorexic Effect of MTII in OLETF Rats.
Jang Ho Bae, Yong Hoon Park, Sung Ho Kim, So Young Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Jo Young Son, Jung Yoon Huh, Kyu Chang Won, Yong Woon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):18-26.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.18
  • 2,019 View
  • 18 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, inhibits obesity in lean subjects, but is not widely used because of leptin resistance. Thus, circumventing the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, the site responsible for leptin resistance, has been evaluated for treatment of obesity. However, chronic treatment of melanotan II (MTII), a synthetic agonist of the melanocortin 3/4 receptor, induces tachyphylaxis. Here, we evaluated whether naloxone, a non-specific agouti-related peptide (AgRP) antagonist, increases the anorexic effect of MTII in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. METHODS: We measured food intake following intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of MTII and/or naloxone in OLETF rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were used as a normal control group. RESULTS: The anorexic effect of i.c.v. MTII infusion decreased with time in OLETF rats, indicating the development of tachyphylaxis. In normal control rats, naloxone alone decreased AgRP expression in the hypothalamus but failed to induce anorexia. Moreover, there was no additional anorexic effect with co-treatment of naloxone and MTII. In OLETF rats, naloxone alone did not show an anorexic effect despite increased POMC expression in the hypothalamus. However, naloxone sensitized the anorexic effect of MTII when treated together. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that naloxone augmented the anorexic effect of MTII when treated together in OLETF rats, but had no effect alone. These results suggest that a combination therapy of naloxone and a melanocortin receptor activator would be an effective modality for treatment of obesity.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Naloxone Increases the Anorexic Effect of Melanocortin II
    Seungjoon Park
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2008; 23(1): 15.     CrossRef
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Effects of Alpha-lipoic Acid on SREBP-1c Expression in HepG2 Cells.
Tae Sung Yun, Ae Kyung Min, Nam Kyung Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Ho Chan Cho, Hye Soon Kim, Jae Seok Hwang, Seong Yeol Ryu, Keun Gyu Park, In Kyu Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):27-34.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.27
  • 2,300 View
  • 46 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is common in patients with insulin resistance. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is a member of a family of transcription factors that have been recognized as key regulators for lipid accumulation in the liver that activate enzymes involved in the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. This study was designed to evaluate whether alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) inhibits insulin-stimulated SREBP-1c expression. METHODS: We investigated the effects of ALA on insulin-stimulated SREBP-1c expression in a human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells) using Northern and Western blot analysis. We also examined the effect of ALA on the promoter activity of the SREBP-1c gene to examine whether ALA can affect SREBP-1c expression at the transcriptional level. To discern the mechanism by which ALA inhibits SREBP-1c expression, we examined the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). RESULTS: Insulin increased the expression of SREBP-1c mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells in a dose depended manner. Co-treatment with ALA inhibited the insulin increased SREBP-1c expression in a dose-dependent manner. ALA also inhibited insulin-stimulated activation of the SREBP-1c promoter activity, indicating that ALA inhibited SREBP-1c expression at the transcriptional level. ALA increased phosphorylation of AMPK in HepG2 cells. Inhibition of the AMPK activity by compound C markedly reversed the inhibitory effects of ALA for insulin-stimulated SREBP-1c expression. These results suggest that ALA-induced suppression of SREBP-1c expression is at least in part mediated via AMPK activation. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that ALA has an inhibitory effect on insulin-stimulated SREBP-1c expression. Therefore, further studies on the effects of ALA on hepatic steatosis in an animal model need to be performed.

Citations

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  • Effects of an aqueous extract of purple sweet potato on nonalcoholic fatty liver in high fat/cholesterol-fed mice
    You Jin Lee, Yoon Kyoung Yang, You Jin Kim, Oran Kwon
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2015; 48(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Effects of an aqueous extract of purple sweet potato on nonalcoholic fatty liver in high fat/cholesterol-fed mice
    You Jin Lee, Yoon Kyoung Yang, You Jin Kim, Oran Kwon
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2015; 48(1): 1.     CrossRef
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Trends Analysis of Characteristics of Thyroid Cancer Patients in One Medical Center.
Seung Hun Lee, Tae Yong Kim, Jin Sook Ryu, Gyungyub Gong, Won Bae Kim, Seong Chul Kim, Suck Joon Hong, Young Kee Shong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):35-43.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.35
  • 2,294 View
  • 26 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The incidence of thyroid cancer is rapidly increasing. The aim of this study is to examine time trends in the characteristics of thyroid cancer and to determine the cause of the increase of thyroid cancer. METHODS: We evaluated 4,646 patients that underwent surgery at the Asan Medical Center for thyroid cancer between 1995 and 2006. Patients were evaluated concerning the histology, size of the primary tumor, sex, and age at the time of surgery. RESULTS: Surgically treated case of thyroid cancer increased from 91 in 1995 to 960 in 2006-a 10.5-fold increase during the 12-year period. Based on the histological categories, the proportion of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) increased from 79.1% to 94.5% during the 12-year period. According to the primary tumor size in the PTCs, the proportion of PTCs measuring 1 cm or smaller increased from 14% to 56% during the 12-year period. Whereas the proportion of PTCs measuring from 1 cm to 2 cm were similar (between 31% and 41% during the 12-year period), the proportion of PTC measuring from 2 cm to 4 cm decreased from 51% to 11% during the 12-year period. Thyroid cancer affected women more often than men by a ratio of 3.7. PTC was most common in patients in their forties, especially among women. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing number of surgically treated cases of thyroid cancer is predominantly due to an increase of papillary thyroid cancer measuring 1 cm or less. These trends suggest that the increase in surgically treated cases of thyroid cancer reflects increased detection of occult thyroid cancer due to advances in medical surveillance of impalpable nodules rather than a true increase in the number of thyroid cancers.

Citations

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  • A Case Report on Papillary Thyroid Cancer Patients after Thyroidectomy Treated with Korean Medicine and Immunotherapy
    Eun-Bi Ko, Kwon-Jun Jang, Jung-min Yang, Jae-sung Oh
    The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine.2021; 42(5): 746.     CrossRef
  • Public perceptions of changing the terminology for low-risk thyroid cancer: a qualitative focus group study
    Brooke Nickel, Caitlin Semsarian, Ray Moynihan, Alexandra Barratt, Susan Jordan, Donald McLeod, Juan P Brito, Kirsten McCaffery
    BMJ Open.2019; 9(2): e025820.     CrossRef
  • Study Protocol of Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study of Active Surveillance on Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma (MAeSTro)
    Jae Hoon Moon, Ji-hoon Kim, Eun Kyung Lee, Kyu Eun Lee, Sung Hye Kong, Yeo Koon Kim, Woo-jin Jung, Chang Yoon Lee, Roh-Eul Yoo, Yul Hwangbo, Young Shin Song, Min Joo Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Su-jin Kim, Eun Jae Jung, June Young Choi, Chang Hwan Ryu, You Jin Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2018; 33(2): 278.     CrossRef
  • Temporal Trends in the Presentation, Treatment, and Outcome of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: An Israeli Multicenter Study
    Dania Hirsch, Orit Twito, Sigal Levy, Gideon Bachar, Eyal Robenshtok, David J. Gross, Haggi Mazeh, Carlos Benbassat, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg
    Thyroid.2018; 28(3): 369.     CrossRef
  • Strong association of relatively low and extremely excessive iodine intakes with thyroid cancer in an iodine-replete area
    Hye Jeong Kim, Na Kyung Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Dong Won Byun, Kyoil Suh, Myung Hi Yoo, Yong-Ki Min, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung
    European Journal of Nutrition.2017; 56(3): 965.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Analysis of Elderly Thyroid Cancer Patients Following Thyroidect
    Keun Hee Lee, Hak Hoon Jun, Jong Woo Kim, Seung Ki Kim, Jin Hyung Heo
    Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery.2016; 16(4): 89.     CrossRef
  • Use of CD56 and cyclin D1 in differentiating thyroid hyperplasia from papillary thyroid carcinoma
    Maha E. Salama, Wael S. Ibrahim
    Egyptian Journal of Pathology.2016; 36(1): 39.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Analysis of Elderly Thyroid Cancer Patients Following Thyroidect
    Keun Hee Lee, Hak Hoon Jun, Jong Woo Kim, Seung Ki Kim, Jin Hyung Heo
    Korean Journal of Endocrine Surgery.2016; 16(4): 89.     CrossRef
  • A Closer Look at Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
    Won Bae Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2015; 30(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Korea's Thyroid-Cancer “Epidemic” — Screening and Overdiagnosis
    Hyeong Sik Ahn, Hyun Jung Kim, H. Gilbert Welch
    New England Journal of Medicine.2014; 371(19): 1765.     CrossRef
  • Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010
    Yun Mi Choi, Tae Yong Kim, Eun Kyung Jang, Hyemi Kwon, Min Ji Jeon, Won Gu Kim, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2014; 29(4): 530.     CrossRef
  • The Association Between the Socioeconomic Status and Thyroid Cancer Prevalence; Based on the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011
    Seong-Woo Choi, So-Yeon Ryu, Mi-ah Han, Jong Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2013; 28(12): 1734.     CrossRef
  • Burden of cancer in Korea during 2000–2020
    Jae-Hyun Park, Kwang-Sig Lee, Kyu-Sik Choi
    Cancer Epidemiology.2013; 37(4): 353.     CrossRef
  • Changes in the Clinicopathological Characteristics and Outcomes of Thyroid Cancer in Korea over the Past Four Decades
    Bo Youn Cho, Hoon Sung Choi, Young Joo Park, Jung Ah Lim, Hwa Young Ahn, Eun Kyung Lee, Kyung Won Kim, Ka Hee Yi, June-Key Chung, Yeo-Kyu Youn, Nam Han Cho, Do Joon Park, Chang-Soon Koh
    Thyroid.2013; 23(7): 797.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic value of decreased expression of CD56 protein in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland
    Won Young Park, Seong Muk Jeong, Jung Hee Lee, Hyun Jeong Kang, Dong Hun Sin, Kyung Un Choi, Do Youn Park, Gi Yeong Huh, Mee Young Sol, Chang Hun Lee
    Basic and Applied Pathology.2009; 2(2): 63.     CrossRef
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Case Reports
A Case of Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia and Cutaneous Nocardiosis Associated with Ectopic ACTH Syndrome.
Hee Sun Jung, Seung Hwan Lee, Hee Yeon Kim, Eun Ho Chu, Kang Woo Lee, Mi Ja Kang, Ji Hyun Kim, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):44-50.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.44
  • 1,799 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Cushing's syndrome is characterized by hypercortisolism and impairment of cell-mediated immune function, increasing the risk of opportunistic infection, as occurs in other immunocompromised groups such as organ transplant recipients, patients with lymphoreticular malignancy, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman who was affected with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) 8 years ago and cutaneous nocardiosis this year. The patient was diagnosed with ectopic ACTH syndrome 8 years ago, but no ectopic ACTH secreting focus was found in radiologic imaging studies. She recovered from PCP and cutaneous nocardiosis after antibiotic (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) administration. After the infection resolved, she underwent laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy and was not longer hypercortisolemic.
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A Case of Unilateral Exophthalmos Caused by a Dural Arteriovenous Malformation in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
Sun Ryoung Choi, Seong Jin Lee, Hae Ri Lee, Jun Goo Kang, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Chul Sik Kim, Byung Wan Lee, Eun Gyung Hong, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):51-55.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.51
  • 2,035 View
  • 20 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is associated with thyroid dysfunction, particularly Graves' disease, and is manifested as eye signs, including proptosis. In cases of unilateral exophthalmos with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, other causes such as orbital neoplasm, carotid-cavernous fistula, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and dural arteriovenous malformation (AVM) should be excluded. Dural AVM, an abnormal dural arteriovenous connection, is a rare neurovascular entity that mimics thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. When eye involvement is unilateral or asymmetric, dural AVM can be considered in the differential diagnosis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. A twenty-six year-old woman presented with unilateral exophthalmos in Graves' disease. By orbital magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral angiography, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and dural AVM were diagnosed. The unilateral exophthalmos improved after coil embolization of the dural AVM. In summary, we report the first case of a dural AVM with Graves' disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Proptosis as a Primary Symptom of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation
    Jong Eun Lee, Jin Sook Yoon, Keun Young Park
    Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery.2020; 36(2): e53.     CrossRef
  • Ophthalmopathy Induced by Bilateral Carotid Cavernous Fistula in a Patient with Graves' Disease
    Jong Kun Ha, Ji Hye Suk, A Ra Jo, Chan Woo Jung, Bong Jae Kim, Seong Oh Park, Sang Su Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2011; 26(4): 335.     CrossRef
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A Case Report of an Aldosterone-producing Adrenocortical Carcinoma.
You Hong Lee, Tae Jin Park, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Kwan Woo Lee, Myung Wook Kim, Jang Hee Kim, Tae Hi Lee, Yoon Sok Chung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):56-61.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.56
  • 1,862 View
  • 28 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Primary aldosteronism is a syndrome characterized by hypokalemic alkalosis and hypertension. Aldosterone-producing adenomas and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia are common causes of this syndrome. An aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma is a very rare cause of primary aldosteronism. Recently we experienced a case of an aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma. A 41-year-old female was admitted for evaluation of a retroperitoneal mass. Because of hypokalemia and a history of hypertension, we evaluated the patient for primary aldosteronism. The high ratio of plasma aldosterone to renin activity suggested the possibility of the presence of primary aldosteronism. We performed adrenal vein sampling for differential diagnosis of an aldosterone-producing tumor from a retroperitoneal mass. The adrenal vein sampling showed that the primary aldosteronism was due to an aldosterone-producing tumor from the left adrenal gland. Surgical findings indicated that the retroperitoneal mass originated from the left adrenal gland and the pathological diagnosis for the mass was an adrenocortical carcinoma. In conclusion, the results from the adrenal vein sampling, as well as the surgical and pathological findings demonstrate that this case was an aldosterone-producing adrenocortical carcinoma.

Citations

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  • Bone Mineral Density Reference of 10-20 year-old Korean Children and Adolescents - Based on Hologic DXA from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys -
    Hyeon Jeong Lee, Bong sub Song, Dong Hwan Kim, Seung Youn Kim, Joong Bum Cho, Dong Ho Kim, Jun Ah Lee, Jung Sub Lim
    Journal of Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology.2011; 16(2): 92.     CrossRef
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A Case of an Adrenal Hemangioma Mimicking a Pancreatic Tail Tumor.
Yun kyong Jeon, Ji Ryang Kim, Yong Seong An, Ji Hae Kwon, Yang Ho Kang, Seok Man Son, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):62-65.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.62
  • 1,675 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Adrenal hemangiomas are rare non-functioning tumors that originate from the retroperitoneal organs. They are generally asymptomatic, and are usually discovered at autopsy. In 1955, Johnson and Jeppensen reported the first case of a surgically removed adrenal hemangioma. We report a case of adrenal hemangioma that mimicked a pancreatic tail tumor, as detected by computed tomography. We made a diagnosis of an adrenal hemangioma from endoscopic ultrasonography and confirmed the diagnosis following a laparascopic adrenalectomy. If one is suspicious of an adrenal hemangioma, one needs to assess the lesion from every aspect. With the advancement of diagnostic techniques in arteriography, ultrasound, and computed tomography, the frequency of preoperative recognition and diagnosis is on the increase. Still, it is difficult to diagnose an adrenal hemangioma just from an imaging study. One should consider performing surgery for removal of the tumor to rule out a malignancy, and to prevent traumatic rupture. With the case presentation, we review the clinical, radiographic, and pathological features of adrenal hemangiomas.
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Retractions of Publication
Retraction: 2-Bromopropane as a New Etiology of Primary Ovarian Failure.
Chul Hee Kim, Ghi Su Kim, Jung Min Ko, Eun Sug Sin, Hyo Jung Kim, Young Tak Kim, Kyoung Sik Cho, Ghil Suk Yoon
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):66.   Published online February 1, 2008
  • 1,072 View
  • 17 Download
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Retraction: Relationship between Serum Osteoprotegerin-Receptor Activator of NF-kappaB Ligand Levels and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Men.
Ki Won Oh, Eun Joo Yun, Eun Jung Rhee, Won Young Lee, Ki Hyun Baek, Moo Il Kang, Cheol Young Park, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):67.   Published online February 1, 2008
  • 1,036 View
  • 17 Download
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Retraction: Relationship between Serum Leptin, Adiponectin, Resistin and Ghrelin Levels, and Bone Mineral Density in Men.
Ki Won Oh, Eun Joo Yun, Eun Jung Rhee, Won Young Lee, Ki Hyun Baek, Kun Ho Yoon, Moo Il Kang, Cheol Young Park, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):68.   Published online February 1, 2008
  • 1,072 View
  • 16 Download
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Retraction: Relationship between Circulating Osteoprotegerin and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women.
Ki Won Oh, Eun Joo Yun, Eun Sook Oh, Eun Jung Rhee, Won Young Lee, Ki Hyun Baek, Kun Ho Yoon, Moo Il Kang, Cheol Young Park, Moon Ki Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):69.   Published online February 1, 2008
  • 1,194 View
  • 16 Download
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Retraction: Expression of RET in Thyroid Diseases of a Korean Population.
Si Hoon Lee, Soon Won Hong, Woo Chul Moon, Myoung Ryur Oh, Jin Kyung Lee, Bong Soo Cha, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Rae Kim, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):70.   Published online February 1, 2008
  • 1,145 View
  • 16 Download
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism