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Volume 16(2); April 2001
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Original Articles
Clinical Course of Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus in Adults.
Hyeon Jeong Jeon, Soon Hee Park, Seong Hee Kwon, Sun Hwa Lee, Kyeong Soo Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):190-198.   Published online April 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus in children or adolescents requires a frequent follow-up regimen using serial brain MRI and CSF examinations especially if an isolated pituitary stalk thickening or loss of a hyperintense signal in the posterior pituitary lobe is observed. Although a detailed description has not been made in adults who had Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus, the clinical course of a Central Diabetes Insipidus in children or in adolescents can not be applied to adults because a follow-up study is so invasive and expensive. In this report, we evaluated the clinical course of Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus in adults. METHODS: The diagnosis of Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus was based on the presenting clinical symptoms, the water deprivation test, biochemical studies and a brain MRI. We measured the urine specific gravity, urine and plasma osmolarity, electrolytes, and daily urine amount and we also performed an anterior pituitary evaluation. Patients had contrast-enhanced MRI and biochemical studies every 4 to 12 months. RESULTS: The patients included 8 females and 4 males. Their ages ranged from 20 to 76 years and their mean age was 45+/-17 years. Tumor markers in the CSF were not detected any of the patients. An anterior pituitary evaluation showed that four patients had hyperprolactinemia, and five patients had impaired secretory responses of Growth Hormone to an insulin induced hypoglycemia. Nine of the 12 patients had thickening of the pituitary stalk, seven had lacked the hyperintense signal of a normal neurohypophysis. The abnormalities of MRI disappeared in 3 patients by the 4th, 27th and 36th month follow up periods, respectively. The follow up duration was between 8 months and 11 years 3 months and the mean follow up duration period was 50.6+/-45.5 months. Clinical symptoms were corrected by DDAVP administration. Other symptoms were absent. CONCLUSION: In our study, of Idiopathic Central Diabetes Insipidus in adults there were no observed germinomas or other disease that were observed. Therefore this disorder may have a benign course.
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Effect of weight loss on cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma Concentrations of NPY, alpha -MSH and leptin in Obese Women.
Su Youn Nam, Kyung Wook Kim, Jun Hee Lee, Soo Jee Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Young Duck Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):199-209.   Published online April 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Although leptin and its principal mediators, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and -melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) are postulated to play a pivotal role in the energy balance in experimental animals, the physiologic roles of leptin and its molecular targets are not fully identified in cases of human obesity. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 16 obese women (mean BMI 35.6 kg/m2) before and after weight loss that was induced by a 2 week-very low caloric diet (800 kcal/day) and 14 normal weight women (who had a mean BMI of 20.4 kg/m2). We evaluated the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leptin, NPY and alpha -MSH levels and their relationship in normal weight and obese women. Additionally, changes of these peptides during a negative energy balance (800 kcal/day) were assessed in causes of human obesity. RESULTS: Obese subjects exhibited a 6.3-fold higher plasma leptin level (21.9+/-1.2 vs 3.5+/-0.4 ng/mL, p<0.05) and a 2.8-fold higher CSF leptin level (0.29+/-0.02 vs 0.10+/-0.01 ng/mL, p<0.05) compared to control subjects. The CSF/plasma leptin ratio in normal weight subjects was 2.3-fold higher than that in obese subjects. After a weight loss in obese subjects, the plasma leptin level decreased by 40% and the CSF level decreased by 51%. The CSF/plasma leptin ratio was slightly lower than the baseline level. There was a positive linear correlation between CSF and plasma leptin level at the baseline in obese subjects (r= 0.74, p<0.05) and a positive logarithmic correlation in normal weight subjects and in obese subjects after a weight loss (r= 0.66, p<0.05). The BMI negatively correlated with the CSF/plasma leptin ratio (r=-0.86, p<0.05) in any subjects. Neither the baseline plasma levels nor the baseline CSF levels of NPY were different between the normal weight subjects and obese subjects. After a weight loss the CSF NPY level decreased significantly compared to the baseline values in obese subjects. The alpha -MSH levels in plasma and CSF did not differ significantly from controls in obese subjects at the baseline or after a weight loss. The baseline CSF leptin level neither correlated with the baseline CSF NPY level nor the baseline CSF alpha -MSH level. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that the efficiency of leptin delivery to the CNS is reduced in human obesity and that the CNS leptin uptake involves the combination of saturable and unsaturable mechanisms. A marked reduction in the CSF leptin levels compared to the plasma level after a weight loss in obese subjects can be a potent stimulus for the body to regain weight. In contrast to the results that were observed in experimental animals, the CSF NPY and alpha -MSH did not differ from the controls in human obesity and there was no significant correlation between the CSF leptin and CSF of these neuropeptides. This could have resulted from leptin resistance in cases of human obesity although the mechanisms for this resistance remain to be determined.
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Effectiveness of Percutaneous Ethanol Injection in Benign Cold Thyroid Nodules: Five Years' Experience.
Seong Jin Lee, Jung Hee Han, Ha Young Kim, Jong Chul Won, Sang Wook Kim, Ho Kyu Lee, Il Min Ahn
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):210-220.   Published online April 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI) which is performed with the guidance of ultrasonography has recently been used in patient who had benign cold thyroid nodules. We performed this study to analyze the long-term effects of PEI on benign cold thyroid nodules. METHOD: From September 1995 to September 2000, we treated 198 outpatients (12 men and 186 women, who had a mean age of 40.8 years, with a range of 15-71) who had benign cold thyroid nodules at the Asan Medical Center. The PEI was performed on 141 patients who had solitary nodules (SN) and on 57 patients who had prominent nodules or Questionable or typing error? multiple nodules (MN). All patients had fine needle aspirations (FNAs) at least twice which resulted in a diagnosis of the presence of a colloid nodule. Thyroid hormone was given to all patients along with TSH measurements. The thyroid hormone dose was titrated to correspond to TSH level of a low normal range. These patients were followed up for mean period of 37.6 months (range 18-60). Patients who were treated with PEI were classified into three groups according to their volume reduction: a complete response (CR, which was above 90% in volume reduction), a partial response (PR, which was a 50-89%) reduction and No Response (which was below 50% or an increased size) groups. RESULTS: The overall pre-treatment volumes of the nodules were 15.7+/-19.8 mL. The overall post-treatment volumes were 2.4+/-2.6 mL and consisted of volume reductions of 70.1+/-17.1%. The results of PEI for all of the patients were: a complete reduction (CR) in 34 cases (17.2%), a partial reduction (PR) in 142 cases (71.7%) and No Response in 22 patients (11.1%). In 141 patients in the SN group, in which there was a mean follow-up duration of 36.7+/-11.2 months, the volume reductions were 68.3+/-18.8%. CR was observed in 20 patients (14.2%), PR in 103 (73.0%) and No Response in 18 (12.8%). In twenty-two of the SN patients (22/141, 15.6%) we were able to discontinue the thyroid hormone suppressive therapy because those nodules had markedly decreased in volume after PEI without any further increase of nodule size during the follow-up period. In 57 patients in the MN group, over a mean follow-up durations of 37.1+/-11.4 months, the volume reductions were 74.3+/-12.1%. CR was observed in 14 patients (24.6%), PR in 39 (68.4%) and No Response occurred in 4 (7.0%). During the follow-up period after PEI, further volume reductions were observed for 36 months after thyroid hormone suppressive therapy in the Response Group. Differences in volume reductions between the SN and MN groups were not statistically significant but the volume reductions in patients who had a pre-treatment volume larger than 15 mL were higher than those in the smaller group (p<0.001). In the cases of the SN and MN groups, volume reductions did not correlate with either the amount of injected ethanol or the pre-treatment volumes, but the pre-treatment volumes correlated with post-treatment volumes in the patients who had SN (p<0.001, r=0.411) and MN (p<0.001, r=0.729). We observed mild, but transient complications in 32 patients (16.2%) during PEI which included a transient neck pain (n=27, 13.6%), a transient unilateral vocal cord palsy (n=4, 2.0%), and an abscess formation (n=1, 0.5%) which was cured. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PEI is a feasible adjunctive therapy to use in thyroid hormone suppressive therapy for benign cold thyroid nodules
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Cyclic Pamidronate Infusion in Primary Osteoporotic Women.
Bong Nam Chae, Eun Gyoung Hong, Seone Kyu Lee, Yoon Sok Chung, Kwan Wook Lee, Hyeon Man Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):221-230.   Published online April 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Bisphosphonates are now well established as successful antiresorptive agents for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. We investigated the effect of cyclic intravenous treatment with an aminobisphosphonate, pamidronate in cases of primary osteoporosis. METHODS: Eighteen patients with primary osteoporosis (bone mineral density BMD t-score < -2.5) received four courses of pamidronate (30 mg with 500 mL normal saline over 2 hours every 3 months). The serum biochemical parameters and bone turnover markers were measured before each treatment. The bone pain score, medication score, and the side effects were also monitored. BMD and simple spine X-ray were performed before and 1 year after of treatment. RESULTS: BMD at the lumbar spine (L2-4) significantly increased from 0.798+/-0.110 g/cm2 to 0.860+/-0.107 g/cm2 after 1 year of treatment with pamidronate: by +8.3+/-9.4% of baseline. BMDs at the femoral neck, Ward s triangle and the trochanter also increased, but not significantly. Serum total alkaline phosphatase (p<0.05) and urine deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (p=0.069) decreased with treatment. Other bone turnover markers were unchanged. The bone pain score decreased significantly. None of the patients experienced a new fracture during treatment. The frequency of the side effects following the first infusion was 61.1% (a transient fever and myalgia with flu-like symptoms in 10 patients and mild phlebitis in 1 patient). However, only two patients complained of flu-like symptoms after second infusion, and no patient complained following the third infusion. CONCLUSION: Cyclic intravenous treatment of pamidronate every three months was effective in increasing BMD and in the decreasing bone turnover rate, and was relatively well tolerated in primary osteoporotic women.
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A Case of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I Presenting with a Watery Diarrhea.
Won Hyeok Choe, Yu Jeong Park, Il Chol Hong, Se Hoon Park, Sung Chul Choi, Hyo Rak Lee, In Kyung Jeong, Jae Hoon chung, yong Ki Min, Myung Shik Lee, Moon Kyu Lee, Kwang Won Kim, Won Seog Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):231-237.   Published online April 1, 2001
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MEN1 is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors of the parathyroids, pancreatic islet cells and the anterior pituitary. Pancreatic islet cell tumors occur in 40% of MEN1 patients. Pancreatic polypeptidomas occur most commonly but they are asymptomatic. Gastrinomas are the second most common type. VIPomas are rare and there has been no report of a case in Korea so far. We encountered a case of pancreatic VIPoma in MEN Type I. A 49 year old man was referred from his local hospital presenting with a sudden onset of an explosive watery diarrhea of 3 months duration. Abnormal findings in his blood chemistry were hypercalcemia and hypokalemia. The 99mTc-sestamibi sintigraphy showed an increased uptake in right lower parathyroid gland. Abdominal CT demonstrated a mass of 6x4 cm in tail of the pancreas and multiple lesions in both hepatic lobes. Serum levels of VIP hormones were elevated. Subtotal parathyroidectomy and subtotal pancreatectomy were done. Postoperatively his symptoms were improved transiently, however the patient showed repetitive attacks of watery diarrhea. So in order to palliate his symptoms, an RF ablation of the metastatic liver masses was performed. After that therapy his clinical symptoms were reduced dramatically. Unfortunately, the patients condition worsened again. Despite of continuous octreotide therapy, interferon and two courses of combination chemotherapy, the hepatic metastases failed to regress and the patient died 10 months after the diagnosis of a metastatic VIPoma. This is the first report of pancreatic VIPoma in MEN type I in Korea.
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Three Cases of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in a Family through Three Generation.
Byoung youp Kim, Min young Lee, In Gyun Oh, DO Hyoung Kim, Hak Chan Kim, Sang Eok Kim, Seung Hae Han, Dong Hoon Shin, Eun Sil Kim, Chong Soon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):238-244.   Published online April 1, 2001
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According to recent studies, the immunogenetic factors are thought to be account for a part of the etiopathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease. In Korea, there was one report on the relationship between HLA DR5, DR8, B13 and autoimmune thyroid disease. There were also several reports on a familial hereditary transmission of autoimmune thyroid disease in other countries but not in Korea. We describe the occurrence of autoimmune thyroid disease that affected three members of a family through three generations. This is the first report on familial hereditary transmission of autoimmune thyroid disease in Korea. We report on an 80-year-old woman who presented with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, her 53-year-old daughter who had Graves' disease, and her 29-year-old grand-daughter who had Graves' disease. In order to identify the immunogenetic influence in these cases, HLA haplotypes & thyroid autoantibody were studied. HLA DRB3*02 was obseved in each of the patents. HLA DQB1*0301, DR11, DQB1*05031 and DR14 were observed in the two cases. However, HLA B13, DR5 and DR8 were not observed. The patients are currently undergoing follow-up using PTU, methimazole and synthyroid medication.
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A Case of Hashimotos Thyroiditis with Anti-Triiodothyronine Autoantibody.
Yun Ey Chung, Jeong Hee Han, Seong Jin Lee, Won Ki Min, Ki Young Park, Kun Ku Park, Dae Hyunk Moon, Il Min Ahn
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):245-251.   Published online April 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Autoantibodies against thyroid hormones can be detected in the sera of patients with both thyroidal and non-thyroidal disorders. These antibodies interfere with the radioimmunoassay of serum total and free thyroid hormone concentrations, resulting in a discrepancy between the measured hormone levels and clinical features. This can in turn lead to an erroneous diagnosis and patients may receive unnecessary treatment from physicians who are unaware of the presence of the autoantibodies. We experienced a woman having Hashimotos' thyroiditis with a spurious elevation of total T3 and free T3 values according to one-step analog-tracer radioimmunoassay who was had been treated as Graves' disease in past. Through the use of a polyethylene glycol precipitation method, she was subsequently revealed to have anti-triiodothyronine autoantibodies. We report this case with a review of related literature.
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Thyroid Dysfunction after Abortion.
Chang Hoon Yim, Hyun Ah Choi, Ho Yeon Chung, Ki Ok Han, Hak Chul Jang, Hyun Ku Yoon, In Kwon Han
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):252-259.   Published online April 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Postpartum thyroiditis is an autoimmune thyroid dysfunction that occurs in the first year after a delivery. Although a postpartum thyroid dysfunction after a full-term pregnancy is well described, little is known about its association with an abortion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratory findings in thyroid dysfunction that develops after abortion and to investigate the differences in the clinical course according to the types of abortion. METHODS: Thirty patients who were proven to have thyroid dysfunction after either spontaneous or an elective abortion were studied. We analyzed their past history, the type of abortion, their clinical features, the laboratory findings and the courses of the disease. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were hypothyroid and 13 were thyrotoxic at the time of the initial thyroid function evaluation. In the thyrotoxic group, the T3 and free T4 were significantly higher but the TSH was lower than in the hypothyroid group. The titers of antimicrosomal and antithyroglobulin antibody were not different between the two groups. In the thyrotoxic group, 3 cases showed normal values, 2 cases were hypothyroid and the remaining 8 cases were persistently thyrotoxic during the 2 months of observation. TSH receptor antibodies were absent in all of the transient thyrotoxic patients, but they were present in 83.3% of the persistent thyrotoxic patients. The clinical manifestations of the thyroid dysfunction were not different according to the type of abortion. CONCLUSION: Reproductive-age women who have an abnormal thyroid function require careful history taking with respect to their history of regarding parturition or abortion in order to evaluate the possibility of a transient thyroid dysfunction after the abortion.
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Case Reports
A Case of Thyroid Storm Due to Thyrotoxicosis Factitia.
Kee Sup Song, Seung Hyun Cho, Byoung Eun Park, Soo Jee Yoon, kyung Wook Kim, Su Youn Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):260-264.   Published online April 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Thyrotoxicosis factitia, a syndrome that results from a surreptitious ingestion of excess thyroid hormone, has generally been diagnosed in young or middle-aged women who have psychopathological disturbances. An 18-year-old female was admitted to the hospital 24 hours after taking an overdose of more than 50 tablets of synthyroid (levothyroxine, 5mg). She had taken 6 to 9 tablets of synthyroid daily for 6 months for the purpose of weight reduction even though she was not overweight. Because of her stuporous mental state and an acute respiratory failure, she was intubated and treated in the intensive care unit. After careful history taking and after her plasma thyroid hormone levels were determined, we diagnosed a thyroid storm that was caused by a thyrotoxicosis factitia. The laboratory results were, T3 430.0 ng/dL, free T4 70.0 ng/dL, TSH 0.05 IU/mL. Her symptoms improved after treatment by steroids and propranolol. She was discharged 8days after admission. Cases of thyrotoxicosis factitia have been reported very infrequently and, there has been no reports of a thyroid storm due to thyrotoxicosis factitia in Korea. We now report a case of a thyroid storm that resulted from thyrotoxicosis factitia that was caused by the ingestion of a massive dose of thyroid hormone that was takan daily for 6 months. We also present a brief review of the relevant literature.
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A Case of Postpregnancy Spinal Osteoporosis.
Ji Young Seo, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Cheol Soo Choi, Doo Man Kim, Sung Hee Lim, Jae Myung Yoo, Moon Gi Choi, Huung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park, Jin Young Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):265-270.   Published online April 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Osteoporosis is a common disease of the elderly and occurs especially in the postmenopausal women. Rarely, it occurs during a pregnancy or shortly thereafter and is accompanied by a substantial bone loss, resulting in fractures. The clinical significance of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis has been noted since the 1950s. Although its etiology is still unknown, it has recently been proposed that PTHrP may be an important causative factor in pregnancy-associated osteoporosis. There are three types of the pregnancy-associated osteoporosis, (1) a transient osteoporosis of the hip pregnancy, (2) a postpregnancy spinal osteoporosis and (3) a lactation-associated osteoporosis. Postpregnancy spinal osteoporosis typically occurs within three months after a first delivery and usually involving the axial skeleton accompanied by back pain, bone loss and a fracture. We present a case of postpregnancy spinal osteoporosis that developed three months after a first delivery. Our patient also showed multiple compression fractures in her lumbar spine and biochemical evidence of increased bone resorption.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism