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Volume 11(4); December 1996
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Original Articles
Growth Retardation.
Duk Hi Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):369-376.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Controversies in the Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules.
Il Min Ahn
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):377-382.   Published online November 7, 2019
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  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Increased Somatostatinergic Activity Induced by Acute Hyperglycemia is Not Mediated by Stimulation of the Beta-adrenergic System.
Seung Jae Hong, In Myung Yang, Gyu Choon Lee, Jeong Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Soung Seol Kim, Young Kil Choi
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):383-390.   Published online November 7, 2019
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  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
The Diagnostic Value of Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Thyroid Nodules.
Yang Hun Koo, Sung Jun Hong, Hwi Choi, Hark Rim, Young Sik Choi, Yo Han Park, Kyung Seung Oh, Hee Kyung Chang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):391-400.   Published online November 7, 2019
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  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Thyroid nodule is a common disease of thymid gland. The incidence of malignant nodule is about 3%, so most of thyroid nodules are benign. Because most thyroid nodule morbidity is related to cancerous lesions, early detection of malignant nodule is important. However, some of these nodules are srnall sized or deep seated which were not detected by physieal exarnination but by ultrasonography incidentally. In these cases the diagnostic approach is difficult with conventional methods but it is easy with ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA). However, the role of ultrasound-guided FNA on the thyroid nodules has been poorly evaluated, so we tried to assess the diagnostic value of high resolution ultrasound-guided FNA in the thyroid nodules. Methods: We examined the medical records retrospectively of all patients who were engaged in high resolution ultrasonography(ATL Ultramark-9, 10 MHz linear transducer) due to thyroid nodules and/or other thyroid abnormalities from September, 1995 to March, 1996. Ultrasound- guided FNA was performed in 137 patients with palpable or nonpalpable(small sized or deep seated) nodules which were detected by high resolution ultrasonography. Results: The mean age of the patients was 45 and most of them were middle aged. Male to female ratio was 1:8.1. Malignant nodules were frequent in patients over 30 yus of age. Of 137 patients 43 were involutional change, 45 hyperplasia, 12 Hashimotos thyroiditis, 12 follicular neoplasm, ll papillary carcinoma, 1 Hurthle cell tumor, 1 medullary carcinoma, and 12 inadequate specimen. In 22 cases thyroid nodules were not detected by physical examinatian but by ultrasonography and in 31 cases additional thyroid nodules were detected by ultrasonography. In the nature of thyroid nodules, 99 cases were solid, 16 cystic, 22 mixed. Malignant nodule were more frequent in the solid nodule, but thete was no significant difference between each group. The size of masses was categorized into four groups. Thirty-one cases measured less than 1cm, 63 between 1cm and 1.9cm, 29 between 2cm to 2.9cm, and 14 over 3cm. The malignant nodule was not palpable in 3 cases and the smallest was 0.7cm in diameter. Most of malignant lesions were between 1cm and 2.9cm, but the difference of incidence rate of rnalignant nodules between each group was not significant. The incidence rate of malignancy was 8.8% in solitary nodule and 8.7% in multiple nodules. Twenty-three cases including 12 malignancies diagnosed by FNA underwent operation. Of those 13 were papillary earcinoma, 1 follicular carcinoma, 1 medullary carcinoma. Upon the correlation of ultrasound-guided FNA cytology with pathologic diagnosis, the sensitivity of ultrasound-guided FNA cytology in differentiating benign and malignant nodule was 80.0%, the specificity 100% and overall diagnostic accuracy was 86.1%. The obtainability of adequate cytologic specimen by ultrasound-guided FNA was 91%. No complication except pain was noted during this study. Conclusion: High resolution ultrasound-guided FNA cytology in the thyroid nodules may be useful in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer especially in the nodules which were small sized or deep seated and also useful in early detection of recurrence of thyroid cancer.
Surgical Findings of Benign Thyroid Nodule, Not Decreased After Thyroxine Suppression Therapy.
Dong Won Byun, Myung Hi Yoo, Kyo Il Suh, Hae Kyung Lee, Guk Bae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):401-408.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Fine needle aspiration and biopsy(FNAB) has known the most accurate test(about 90%) in the preoperative evaluation of patients with a thyroid nodule. The false negative findings of thyroid cancer by FNAB are mainly due to the aspiration of cystic fluid in cystic degeneration of thyroid cancer and the ipossibility of differentiation between follicular adenoma and carcinoma by aspiration or FNAB because of the failure to evaluate the capsule invasion or angioinvasion of the tumor. Actually more than 80% of the nodules are found as benign nodules in aspiration or FNAB and the findings of follieular lesions are found about half of the samples tested, so limiting the cancer incidence in surgically resected samples up to 50% of the surgical resection. Sa reasonable guidelines to manage the benign nodules on aspiration or FNAB are needed which can select the maligna~nt nodules with false negative findings on aspiration or FNAB. We tried to evaluate whether the thyroxine suppression therapy can increase the malignancy rates on thyroidectomy, Methods: We treated the benign thyroid nodules in FNAB with thyroxine for 1 year and cornpared the nodule volume change before and after treatment (every 6 month) with ultrasonogram. We performed thyroidectomy on 1~7 thyroid nodules wbich showed less than 50% decrease of nodule volume after 1 year of thyroxine suppression therapy. Results: The results were as follows. 1) Of all 17 patients, surgical resection revealed malignant thyroid nodule(Group I) in 10 cases (58.82%, papillary cancer. 6 cases, follicular cancer: 4 cases) and benign thyroid nodule(Group II) in 7 cases(41.18%, follicular adenoma: 4 cases, adenomatous goiter: 3 cases). 2) Between group I and II, there was no significant differences in serum T, T and TSH levels before and after thyroxine suppression therapy. Also, there were no significant difference in TSH suppression % between group I and group II(5.60+5.39%, 14.64+11.48%, respectively). 3) Thyroid nodule volume decrease percent before and after thyroxi~ne therapy showed no significant difference between group I and group II (124.80+54.18% vs 159.42+79.82%, p>0.05). Conclusion: Our data suggested that the benign thyroid nodules on aspiration or FNAB which were not suppressed in volume after thyroixine therapy revealed more than 50% incidence of malignancy on surgical resection, so these nodules were highly reeommended to surgical exploration.
Expression of Exon 1 and 6 of Indulin-like Growth Factor - 1 (IGF - 1) Gene in Thyroid Tissues.
Sung Woon Kim, Hyun Ha Chang, In Kyung Jung, Jeong Taek Woo, In Myung Yang, Jin Woo Kim, Soung Seol Kim, Young Kil Choi
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):409-417.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Goiter has been a common problem in the thyroid disease. The exact mechanism of goiter had not been clarified yet, but some goiters were increased with TSH(thyrotropin releasing hormone) dependent manner. TSH might be a major influencing factor for increasing size of goiter(goitrogen) and theres many cofactors those influenced to goiter size. One of the rnost prominent growth factor as a goitrogen is a IGF-I(insulin-like growth factor-I). IGF-I play a great role as a cofactor of goitrogen with TSH. This study, therefore, is aimed to investigate intracellular activation of IGF-I gene promoter in the surgical specimens of thyroid tumor. Methods: We used surgical specimen of various thyroid tissues from normal to malignant along its cell nature. Actually we used normal liver tissue as a IGF-I control tissue, normal thyroid, benign adenoma, and papillary thyroid cancer tissue with its malignat nature. We checked Mrna expression of whole IGF-I and IGF-I exon 6 by Northern blot method, and IGF-I, promoter 1 expression by RT-PCR-transcription method. Autoradiographied signals were analysed with densitometer. Results: We found whole IGF-I mRNAs were expressed with alternate splicing in exon 1, 2 and exon 4, 5 respectively. Striking events of IGF-I transcription were multiple tranascription initiatian in Pl and P2, and 3 sites for polyadenylation in exon 6. Four or more Mrna bands in Northern blot analysis of IGF-I(0.8, 1.4, 4.2, and 7.8kb) were noted. In low molecular weight IGF-I Mrna did not change their signal intensity with tissues, but exan 6(7.8kb) signals were significantly increased to its hepatic expression levels in malignant tissue. IGF-I, exon 1 expression by RT-PCR-T7 transcription was strikingly increased in thyroid cancer tissue, but exon 6 expression was not a great expession. Conclusion: One possible guess for this expression discrepancy of each exon may be originated from different Mrna degradation of each IGF-I signals. We need more preeise experiment for Mrna degradation speed of IGF-I.
A Clinical Analysis of 2,500 Cases of Thyroid Nodules in the Korean People.
Chong Suk Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):418-430.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Thyroid nodules are one of the most clinical problems encounted by physieian. Palpation, radianuclide imaging, and sonography do not deterrnine whether a thyroid nodule is benign and malignant. So, the purpose of this study is to investigate how many thyroid cancer consist in thyroid nodule by using the fine needle aspiration(FNA) technique. Methods: With a disposable #23 gauge needle attached to 5rnl disposable plastic syringe was inserted at the thyroid nodules of the patients after rectinilinear thyroid scanning or ultrasono- graphy. All cells aspirated from the thyroid nodules were smeared on the 3 slide glasses and then, 2 slide glasses were immersed in 95% ethanol for Papanicolaou staining and one slide was air dried m room temperature for Giemsa staining. After complete staining the cytologic diagnosis of all slide glasses were reviewed by general light mi~eroscope. Results: Approximately, three-quarters(73.0%) of thyroid nodules aspirated by FNA were diagnosed as benign or inflammatory nodules, rnalignant neoplasia including follicular neoplasia 12.5%, and indeterminate cases 14.5% of thyroid nodules. Conclusion: Fine needle aspiration(FNA) has become the diagnostic procedure of choiee in the evaluation of the nodular thyroid disease because of its easiness, safety, cost effectiveness, and high diagnostic accuracy. Malignant neopleasia including follicular neopleasia were found 12.5% of thyroid nodules in Korean, aspirated by FNA which was same category in prevalence rate compared to known abroad results(8~20%).
Camprison of Diagnostic and Therapeutic scans in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.
Yoon Sang Choi, Soo Mi Kim, Shin Gon Kim, Don Hyun Shin, Ie Byung Park, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Jae Myung Yu
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):431-437.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Whole body scan using 131-iodine is performed to detect local recurrence or metastasis after thyroidectorny in differenciated thyroid cancer patients. The sensitivity of this procedure is related to the dose of radiopharmaceutical administered. It was reported that 131I posttreatment whole body scan demonstrate foci of tracer uptake not previously observed in diagnostic scan in 10~30% of cases. Posttreatment scans were most likely to reveal new foci in young patients(<45) and patients who had previously received radioactive iodine therapy. Method: We observed the frequency of discordant posttreatment scans and analysed the clicnical significance in 33 differenciated thyroid cancer patients who were admitted for radioiodine ablation from June, 1995 to April, 1996. Results: In 7 cases(21.2%), post treatment scan demonstrated cme or more foci of uptake and revealed less sites of uptake than diagnostic scan in 3 cases(9.1%). In one case with elevated thyroglobulin level and negative diagnostic scan, post treatment scan revealed new uptake sites with thyroid bed and cervical 1ymph node. The sites of discordant uptake were cervical lymph nodes in 4 cases and rnediastinal lymph node in one case, lung in one case, thyroid bed and cervical lymph nodes in one case, 3 cases of 7 pts(43%), demonstrated ane or more foci of uptake in post treatment scan, had history of previous radioiodine treatent. Conclusion: Post treatment scan confirmed uptake into remnant and metaststic tissues identified on the corresponding low dose diagnostic scans. Scanning after high dose radioiodine treatment frequently demonstrated one or more foci of uptake, especially in patients with previous radioiodine treatment, which were not visualized on the diagnostic low dose scan. Treatment scan may be useful for detection of remnant tissue or metastatic lesion in patients with elevated thyroglobulin and negative diagnostic scan.
The Incidence of Thyroid Autoantibody in Subacute Thyroiditis and the Clinical Characteristics of Greeping Thyroiditis.
Jae Seok Jeon, Won Bae Kim, Hae Young Park, Young Joo Park, Hyun Kyung Chung, Sang Jeon Choi, Chan Soo Shin, Kyoung Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Chang Soon Koh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):438-446.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Subacute thyroiditis is a spontaneously resolving inflammatory disorder of thyroid gland, usually associated with painful goiter and short-lived thyrotoxicosis. Although its etiology is yet to be established, much evidence suggests viral infections and genetic factors play important roles. Usually, both lobes of thyroid gland are involved simultaneously, but in some patients one lobe is involved first and the other later(creeping thyroiditis), Thyroid autoantibodies which might appear probably due to inflammatory release of thyroid antigens, are found in a variable number of patients with subacute thyroiditis. However there have been few detailed reports on their incidence in Korean patients with subacute thyroiditis. So, we were to see the elinical characteristics of patients with subacute thyroiditis with special regards to the incidence of thyroid autoantibodies and to the incidence and characteristics of creeping thyroiditis, Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of 85 patients with subacute thyroiditis(7 men and 78 wornen, meam age of 43+9 years) who had visited the thyroid clinic in Seoul National University Hospital between 1986 and 1994. Results: At initial visit, the incidenees of thyroid autoantibodies were as follows: anti- microsomal antibody 7.8%, anti-thyroglobulin antibody 22.1%, and thyratropin binding inhibitor inununglobulin 6.3%. During the follow-up period, thyroid autoantibodies appeared most frequently between the first and the second month after initial visit. Compared to those with non-creeping thyroiditis, the patients with creeping thyroiditis(21.4%) had nonspecific systemic sy~rnptoms more frequently(89% vs. 42%, p<0.05). They required steroid therapy more ftequently(89% vs. 52%, p <0.05), and needed longer duration of treatment(9.3+6.2weeks vs, 4.7+3.7weeks, p<0.05). The incidence of abnormalities in liver function and the incidence of thyroid autoantibodies were higher in non-creeping thyroiditis group. Conclusion: In accordance with previous reports, thyroid autoantibodies were detected in only a small portion of Korean patients with subacute thyroiditis. Rather different clinical manifestations and different incidences of thyroid autoantibodies between ereeping group and non-creeping group suggest differences in the pathogenetic mechanisms between those two groups. However, there is need for further study to validate such observation and to elucidate the mechanisms.
Development of Competitive Enzyme - Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Measurenment of Total Triiodothyronine in Serum.
Myoung Lyeh Park, Youn Kyu Kim, Chang Kyu Kim, Jong Bae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):447-454.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Triiodothyronine(T3) is a hormone secreted from thyroid gland which exerts a stimulating effect on metabolism. The disorder of thyroid system brings about several serious diseases like hypothymidism or hyperthyroidism. Therefore, the determination of T in blood is very important on monitoring thyroid function. Methods: Rabbit anti-T3 antibody was generated by immunization of T-BSA as an immunogen and purified hom antisera using Affi-gel protein A kit. The titer and specificity of purified antibody were characterized. To detect T3, competitive ELISA was performed using anti-T3 antibody and T3-HRP conjugate which was synthesized by glutaraldehyde method. The sensitivity and precision assay wer~e deterrnined and compared with that of RIA. Results: The titer of purified anti-T3 antibody was about 1:100 and the optimal dilution of T3- HRP conjugate was 1:1000. When the standard curve was constructed by ELISA, its sensitivity was about 0.5ng/ml. The eoefficient variations of intra- and inter-assay were 4.9~9.3% and 7.5~13.8%, respectively. The results obtained by ELISA and RIA correlated well with each other(n =50, r= 0.97), The linear regression equation was y= 1.09*0.08(P<0.01). Conclusion: We successfully developed a method for the measurement of T3 on ELISA which was based on competitive reaction between antigen(T3) and enzyme labeled antigen(T3-HRP). These results demonstrated that competitive ELISA is a convenient, fast, reproducible and aecurate method for the determinstion of T in serum and can be used as practical alternative to RIA.
Relationships Among Pubertal Development, Anthropometric Measurement, Bone Mineral Density in Males and Females 7-23 Years of Age.
Hee Ja Lee, In Kyu Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):455-467.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Maximizing peak bone mass is advocated as a way to prevent osteoporosis. As a prerequisite to the elaboration of any preventive program aimed at rnaximizing peak bone mass, it is important to determine how the rate of skeletal growth at elinically relevant sites, such as lumbar spine(LS), femoral neck(FN), proceeds in relation to age and pubertal stages in both sexes. The present study was performed to measure bone mineral density(BMD) of Korean children and adolescents and to assess the influence of age, sex, puberty and body size on bone mineral density (BMD) during the period of bone growth. Method: Lumbar spine(LS), femoral neck(FN) BMD were measured in 199 healthy males and fernales 7~23 years of age using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry(DEXA), Tanner staging(TS) was used to assess stage of puberty. Results: Anthropometric measurements generally increased with tanner stage in both sexes. Sex differences were observed. In males, compared to females there were significantly higher in height(TS1, TS3, TS4, TS5), weight(TS1, TS3, TS5), dorsal hand skinfold thickness(TS1, TS5), and lean body mass(TS1, TS3, TS4, TS5): while in females, compared to males there were significantly higher in BMI(TS4), skinfold thickness except dorsal hand and fat %(TS3-TS5), and total fat mass(TS3, TS4)(p
Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Urinary Estrogen Metabolites and Bone Mineral Density in Korean Postmenopausal Women.
Ji Hyun Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Young Jun Won, Seok Ho Kwon, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):468-478.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Estrogen status is important for maintaining the homeostasis of bone. Estrogen has direct effects on bone cells, through binding to the high-affinity estrogen receptor. Several recent studies suggest that there might be genetically determined variations in biosynthesis and function of estrogen receptor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Also the main cause of postmenopausal osteoporosis is decreased level of serum estrogen, whereas there had been some suggestion that the remaining estrogen have some effect on bone metabolism after menopause. We investigated the relationship between estrogen receptor gene PvulI polymorphism and bone mineral density(BMD), and the relationship between 18 urinary metabolites of estrogen and BMD in Korean postmeno- pausal osteoporosis. Methods: We examined the PvuII polymorphism of the estrogen receptor gene in 5' upstream region and the first intron by restrietion frapnent length polymorphism analysis in 62 postmeno- pausal wornen, BMD was measured by DEXA. The urinary estrogen metabolites were determined by GC/MS(Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry) at Korean Institute of Science and Techno- logy Doping Control Center. Results: BMD of the spine and the femoral neck correlated with body weight, height, body mass index as we expected. There was no polymorphism of PvuII restriction site on 5 upstream region of estrogen receptor gene. Whereas the prevalen~ee of the PP, Pp, pp genotype in the first intron of estrogen receptor was 12.9%, 45.2%, 41.9%, respectively. But, there was no correlation between PvuII genotype and the spinel and femoral neck BMD. 2(OH)E2 among 18 urinary metabolites of estrogen, showed a negative correlation with the spinal and femoral neck BMD(r =-0.2551, p<0.05, and r =-0.3341, p<0.01, respectively), and the ratio of 16a(OH)E2/2(OH)E1> revealed a positive correlation with the spinal BMD(r =0.3057, p<0.05). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, body weight, 2(OH)E2, 16a(OH)E1, 2(Meo)E1 were independent predictors of the spinal bone density, and body weight and 2(OH)E2 were independent predictors of the femoral neck bone density. Conclusion: These results suggested that restrietion fragment length polymorphism analysis of the estrogen receptor gene with PvuII restriction enzyme was not helpful for early detection of patients at risk of developing osteoporosis. However, the ratio of 16-hydroxylation to 2-hydroxylation of estrogen metabolism was reduced in postmenopausal women and high catecholestrogen formation might be a greater risk factor for osteoporosis.
Effect of Dexamethasone and Deflazacort on the Function and Gene Expression of the Primary Cultured Human Osteoblast-Like Cells.
Hyun Koo Yoon, In Myung Yang, Sung Woon Kim, Soung Seol Kim, Young Kil Choi, Ho Yeon Chung, Young Soon Kang, In Gul Moon, Chang Hoon Yim, Sang Woo Kim, Ki Ok Han, Hak Chul Chang, In Kwon Han
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):479-491.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Chronic use of glucocorticoid is known to result in osteoporosis. Deflazacort (DFZ), a synthetic glucocorticoid, has been reported to have bone sparing properties in vivo eompared to dexamethasone(DEX). Not only the direct effect of DFZ on human osteoblast but the mechanism by which the drug spares bone remains unclear. This study, therefore, is aimed to investigate the direct effect of DFZ on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast as well as on the gene expression of osteocalcin and osteoblast as well as on the gene expression of osteocalcin and growth factor produced in osteoblast. Methods: Human osteoblast-like cells were cultured from a piece of the tibia removed during selective orthopedic surgery for patients without metabolic bone diseases. The morphological iden- tification of osteoblast-like cell was performed under the light microscope after alkaline phosphatase staining. Cell proliferation rate was determined by [3H] thymidine incorporation into DNA. Cell differentiation was determined by alkaline phophatase activity. mRNA expression was quanti- tatively measured by the competitive reverse transcription-polymerase ehain reaction(RT-PCR). Results: The cultured cells demonstrated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced increases in alkaline phophatase activity and osteocalcin mRNA expression which are the properties of osteoblast. Twenty six percent of the cultured cells were identified as osteoblast-like cells by alkaline phophatase staining. After 24hr incubation with DEX or DFZ, the [3H) thymidine incorporation was significantly inhibited by 100nM DEX or DFL Alkaine phophatase activity was significantly increased by 100nM DEX. Osteocalcin mRNA was significantly decreased by both glueocorticoids. While DEX significantly suppressed expression of asteocalcin mRNA at 10nM and 100nM, DFZ did so only at 100nM. IGF-I mRNA was significantly decreased by 100nM DEX. Conclusion: These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of DFZ on the cell proliferation and protein synthesis is less than that of DEX, which might be responsible for the bone sparing effect of DFZ in vivo.
The Localization of Microadenoma with Sella Imaging Study and Inferior Petrosal Sinus Sampling in Cushing's Disease.
Jae Seok Jeon, Sang Jeon Choi, Chan Soo Shin, Kyoung Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Chang Soon Koh, Hee Won Jung, Dae Hee Han, Moon Hee Han, Kee Hyun Chang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):492-499.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Inferior petrosal sinus sampling(IPSS) is known to be useful for the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushings syndrome and for the preoperative lateralization of pituitary microadenoma. We tried to analyze the relative value of IPSS in localization of microadenoma as compared with sella imaging study including computerized tomogram(CT) or magnet resonance imaging(MRI) in Cushings disease. Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of 21 patients with Cushings disease who underwent IPSS and the radiologic study such as sella CT or sella MRI preoperatively followed by transsphenoidal microsurgery. By pathologic examination including immunohistochemistry and postoperative clinical and biochemical evaluation we confirmed the diagnosis of Cushings disease due to pituitary microadenoma in all 21 cases. Results: Sella CT or sella MRI detected microadenoma in 57.1% of cases( =12/21), while recently available dynamic MRI did so in 7 out of S cases. With IPSS the diagnosis of Cushings disease was possible in 90.5% of cases(= 19/21), but accurate lateralization of microadenoma was achieved in only 63.2% of cases( =12/19). IPSS precisely localized the pituitary microadenoma in 6 out of 9 cases whose lesion were not detected by the radiologic study. Of 7 cases in which IPSS failed to localize microadenoma, the radiologic study detected the lesion in 6 cases. Of 5 cases in which IPSS and the radiologic study showed a discrepancy in location of microadenoma, the radiologic study correctly localizaed the lesion in 4 cases and IPSS did so in one case. Conclusion: IPSS is not more reliable than sella imaging study for preoperative localization of microadenoma in Cushings disease. However it might have a complementary role, especially when sella imaging study failed to visualize the lesion.
A Study of Point Mutations of Human Insulin-like Growth Factor - 1 (IGF - 1) Promoter Gene in Familial Short Stature (FSS) Patients.
In Myung Yang, Jeong Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Young Seol Kim, Young Kil Choi, Hyun Ha Chang, In Kyung Jung, Tae Kwan Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(4):500-509.   Published online November 7, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
FSS is a normal variants in Korea, but some of them had defect of noctumal GH pulse i.e. neurosecretory dysfunction. Although Korean children had strikingly got higher final height in the last decade. We are interested in what kinds of differences were existed in FSS group. Previous study showed theres no difference of GH related biochemical markers between normal and FSS group, like IGF-I, IGFBP-3 etc. We analyzed molecular difference in FSS group. Methods: We screened 23 FSS patients and 16 normal controls to IGF-I gene prornoter region with PCR-SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphisrn) method and sequenced 1 FSS patients who had abnormal SSCP band. Results: We found 1 out of 23 patients with abnormal SSCP band (none for 16 controls). Their IGF-I promoter gene were sequenced with modified Maxam-Gilbert method. One subject had 2 point mutations(+8 and +74). Conclusion: We found point mutations of IGF-I promoter in FSS group, This position was regarded as HNF(hepatic nuclear factor)-3 binding sites. We needed more study for the detection of its biological function according io linear growth with in vivo and in vitro study.

Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism