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Volume 10(1); March 1995
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Review Article
Growth Hormone-Releasing Hexapeptide (GHRP-6).
Sei Won Yang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(1):1-9.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 17 Download
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No abstract available.
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Editorial
The Role of Cytokines in the Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases.
Myung Hi Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(1):10-12.   Published online November 6, 2019
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  • 16 Download
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No abstract available.
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Original Articles
Analysis of Cytokine Gene Expression in Thyroid Aspirates and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell and in vitro Production of Interferon - Gamma by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Culture.
Sung Rae Cho, Keun Yong Park, Young June Jeon, Hong Suk Song, Ki Young Kwon, Yun Nyun Kim, Seung Beom Han, In Kyu Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(1):13-25.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Cytokine production was studied in thyroid fine needle aspirates and peripheral blood and the production of interferon-gamma by peripheral blood mononuclear cell(PBMC) culture in response to interleukin-2(IL-2) stimulation was also studied from patients with hyperthyroidism, non toxic goiter, thyroid nodule. The expression of glycer aldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GAPDH), interleukin-1beta(IL-1beta), IL-2, interleukin-8(IL-8), platelet- derived growth factor-A(PDGF-A) and interferon-gamma(IFN-gamma) chain was assessed by RT-PCR(reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) in fine needle aspirates of thyroid and peripheral blood mononuclear cell : the samples were obtained from 7 patients with hyperthyroidism, 6 patients with non toxic goiter, 7 patients with thyroid nodule. A dose of IL-2(25 U/ml) was utilized to induce IFN-gamma production by PBMC from all patients.The results were as follows:1) In case of cytokine expression of fine-needle aspirates, GAPDH and IL-1beta, IL-8 were expressed highly but IFN-gamma, IL-2 were not expressed in hyperthyroidism and non-toxic goiter, thyroid nodule. PDGF-A was expressed in hyperthyroidism and thyroid nodule but not in non toxic goiter. 2) In case of cytokine expression of PBMC, GAPDH, IL-1beta were expressed in hyperthyroidism and non toxic goiter, thyroid nodule and highly expressed after IL-2 stimulation than before. But PDGF-A was more expressed in non toxic goiter and thyroid nodule than hyperthyroidism. Also, IFN-gamma was less expressed in thyroid nodule than hyperthyroidism and non toxic goiter. 3) The incremental increase in IFN-gamma value in supernatants of PBMC culture was significantly higher in patients with non toxic goiter than that in PBMC from hyperthyroidism and thyroid nodule(p<0.05).Therefore it seems that the cytokine production was found in hyperthyroidism and non toxic goiter and thyroid nodule. There were variability in their distribution each other, in general, higher expressed in hyperthyroidism than non toxic goiter. And RT-PCR Method that employed should be sufficiently sensitive to permit the analysis of cytokine gene expression in fine needle aspiration biopsies from patients with thyroid disease.
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Immunohistochemical Study of c - Myc, c - Fos and c - Jun Oncoprotein Expression in the Human Pheochromocytoma.
Jae Wha Jo, Eun Jig Lee, Moon Suk Nam, Kyung Rae Kim, Su Youn Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Yong Hye Lee, Tae Seung Kim, Kwan Woo Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(1):26-34.   Published online November 6, 2019
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A large number of studies for genes involved in oncogenesis have been done during last decade. Over 20 oncogenes have been isolated characterized, and the oncogene expressions in human tumors have been examined. The proto-oncogenes of c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun, which modulate the transcription factors, have overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. Immunohistochemical method was used in this study to examine c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun oncoprotein expression in 31 patients with human pheochromocytoma 28(90.0%) were benign and 3(10.0%) malignant. C-Myc oncoprotein immunoreactivity was found in 24 cases(77.4%), c-Fos in 29(93.5%), and c-Jun in 25(80.6%). Twenty-one(67.7%) showed positive immunoreactivity for all these oncoproteins, six(19.4%) for 2 oncoproteins, 3 for one oncoprotein. Only 1 case showed negative immunoreactivity for all 3 oncoproteins. The oncoprotein immunoreactivity did not correlate with the amount of 24 hour urinary catecholamine excretion. Although the number of malignant pheochromocytomsa was not so many, most of them showed that the immunoreactivity for oncoprotein was more than 30 percent of tumor cells.The expression of c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun oncoprotein were frequently found in human pheochromocytoma. These results suggest that the oncoprotein expression may play an important role in tumorogenesis and proliferation of human pheochromocytoma.
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Relationship between Blood Pressure and Insulin Level or Red Cell Membrane Na+ Transport in Acromegaly.
Seong Yeon Kim, Hyun Kyu Kim, Kyung Soo Park, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Chang Soon Koh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(1):35-44.   Published online November 6, 2019
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To test the hypothesis that hyperinsulinemia and/or abnormalities of red cell membrane Na^+ transport are concerned in the pathogenesis of hypertension, we investigated the relationship between blood pressure, insulin level and red cell membrane Na^+ transport in patients with acromegaly which is frequently associated with hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and abnormalities of red cell membrane Na^+ transport.The results were as follows;1) BMI and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in patients with acromegaly than in control subjects.2) Fasting glucose and insulin levels were higher, and both serum glucose and insulin responses after a 75g glucose load were significantly increased in patients with acromegaly as compared with control subjects.3) Vmax of Na^+-Li^+ countertransport were significantly higher in patients with acromegaly than in control subjects while red cell Na^+ concentration and Vmax of Na^+, K^+ ATPase were similar in the two groups.4) In multiple stepwise regression analysis, age was directly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in acromegaly. On the other hand both insulin level and red cell membrane Na^+ transport showed little correlation with either systolic or diastolic pressure. 5) Prevalence of hypertension in acromegaly was 39%(9 out of 23) and only age except for blood pressure was significantly higher in hypertensive acromegalic patients than in normotensive acromegalic patients while GH level, insulin levels and red cell membrane Na^+ transport were similar in the two groupsThese results suggest that hyperinsulinemia or abnormalities of red cell membrane Na^+ transport are not causally related to hypertension in patients with acromegaly.
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Changes of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in Sera of Patients with Graves' Diease before and after Treatment with Antithyroid Drug.
Chi Un Song, Bong Soo Ahn, Jun Sik Jeon, Jin Hong Lee, Mee Ae Ahn, Min Ho Shong, Heung Kyu Ro
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(1):45-51.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM-1) plays an important role in a variety of inflammatory and immune-mediated mechanisms, including lymphocyte recruitment and targeting, antigen presentation and recognition, and lymphocyte cytotoxicity.In order to study the changes of soluble ICAM-1 and relationship to the immune mechanism of Graves' disease, we performed the measurement of a soluble form of ICAM-1 in sera from patients with Graves' disease before and after treatment with antithyroid drugs using a highly sensitive ELISA method.Our results were as followed.1) The serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 in patients with Graves' disease before treatment were significantly elevated than normal controls(p<0.001).2) The serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 in patients with Graves' disease after treatment significantly decreased after treatment(p<0.001) but not as low as normal controls. 3) The serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 molecule in patients with ophthalmopathy were not elevated compared to patients with no ophthalmopathy(p>0.2).4) The serum levels of soluble ICAM-1 showed no significant correlation with serum titers of anti-thyroperoxidase antibody and anti-thyroglobulin antibody, serum T_3, T_4, TSH and goiter size in patients with Graves' disease.In conclusion, the soluble ICAM-1 levels reflect the activity of autoimmune reaction and might be used as a index of efficacy of antithyroid drug treatment of Graves' disease.
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Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Hyperthyroidism.
Ju Yong Lee, Chang Ho Song, Byeung Su Yu, Choon Hee Chung, Yoon Sok Chung, Hyeon Man Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(1):52-57.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Hyperthyroidism is a well known cause of atrial fibrillation. It is also known that control of hyperthyroidism can usually curb thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation and restore sinus rhythm. In this study, 282 patients with hyperthyroidism were investigated to quantify the incidence of atrial fibrillation, and to identify the vulnerable groups. In addition, we compared two groups of subjects with atrial fibrillation-one group with hyperthyroidism and the other group without - to study their reversion rate to sinus rhythm. Lastly, we investigated the factors affecting reversion to sinus rhythm in patients with thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation.The results were follows;1) Among 282 patients with hyperthyroidism, 35 cases(12.4%) had atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillations were more prevalent among male patient(19.4%) and elderly patients(42.9%) than female patients(10.0%) and young patients(10.0%).2) Reversion to normal sinus rhythm in patients with thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation(39.3%) was significantly higher than that in patients without hyperthyroidism(17.4%, p<0.001).3) Reversion to normal sinus rhythm was achieved within 28 weeks from the beginnig of antithyroid treatment in patients with thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation. Although there were no significant differences in mean age, sex ratio, and initial and follow-up thyroid hormone levels between the reversion group and non-reversion group, associated heart diseases were more prevalent in the latter group(18.2% vs. 47.1%).It can be concluded that thyrotoxic atrial fibrillations were more common in male patient and elderly patient groups, and could be frequently reverted to normal sinus rhythm by antithyroid treatment. We also suggest that the duration of artrial fibrillation(from intial onset of the condition), and associated heart diseases, may be important predictive factors for the reversion of atrial fibrillation in patients with hyperthyroidism.
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Case Reports
Two Cases of Cryptococcosis in Patients with Cushing's Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus.
Jong Kyu Lee, Hee Kyung Chun, Je Ho Han, Hyun Sik Son, Kun Ho Yoon, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Ku Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(1):58-64.   Published online November 6, 2019
  • 1,227 View
  • 25 Download
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Although cryptococcosis complicated with steroid therapy is well described, cryptococcosis has been rarely reported in the presence of Cushing's syndrome characterized by endogenous steroid excess. We experienced two cases of cryptococcosis in patients with Cushing's syndrome and diabetes mellitus. We describe a case of cryptococcal meningitis complicatiog Cushing's syndrome, secondary to pituitary adenoma. And another case of cryptococcal pneumonia complicatiog Cushing's syndrome, secondary to bilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia. Before Cryptococcosis, two patients were suffered from diabetes mellitus, and they have got both adrenalectomy.
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A Case of Non - Islet Cell Tumor Hypoglycemia.
Moon Hee Lee, Seung Sik Kang, Jin Lee, Sung Hee Ihm, Jae Myung Yoo, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(1):65-69.   Published online November 6, 2019
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The association between non-islet cell tumors and fasting hypoglycemia has been recognized since 1929. The humoral mediator of this non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia(NICTH) is now known as IGF-II. Hypoglycemia develops commonly in the course of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), mostly late in the course and usually mild to moderate in severity. Rarely, severe hypoglycemia occurs early in the course of HCC, suggesting NICTH. We report a case of HCC in which hypoglycemic coma due to NICTH was the presenting symptom.A 52-year-old man developed mental confusion and seizures in the early morning. At emergency room, he was found to have severe hypoglycemia. Circulating levels of insulin, C-peptide, insulinlike growth factor-I(IGF-I) and growth hormone were reduced during hypoglycemia. Diagnostic work-up revealed that he had unresectable HCC. During admission, infusion of more than 400g of dextrose per day in addition to meals was required to prevent hypoglycemia. Because the chemotherapy was refused, he was transferred to a local hospital to receive infusions of dextrose.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism