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Young Min Cho  (Cho YM) 24 Articles
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Incretin and Pancreatic β-Cell Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Chang Ho Ahn, Tae Jung Oh, Se Hee Min, Young Min Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(1):1-9.   Published online February 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.103
  • 3,006 View
  • 337 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
To maintain normal glucose homeostasis after a meal, it is essential to secrete an adequate amount of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. However, if pancreatic β-cells solely depended on the blood glucose level for insulin secretion, a surge in blood glucose levels would be inevitable after the ingestion of a large amount of carbohydrates. To avoid a deluge of glucose in the bloodstream after a large carbohydrate- rich meal, enteroendocrine cells detect the amount of nutrient absorption from the gut lumen and secrete incretin hormones at scale. Since insulin secretion in response to incretin hormones occurs only in a hyperglycemic milieu, pancreatic β-cells can secrete a “Goldilocks” amount of insulin (i.e., not too much and not too little) to keep the blood glucose level in the normal range. In this regard, pancreatic β-cell sensitivity to glucose and incretin hormones is crucial for maintaining normal glucose homeostasis. In this Namgok lecture 2022, we review the effects of current anti-diabetic medications on pancreatic β-cell sensitivity to glucose and incretin hormones.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Initial Combination Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes
    Ji Yoon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2024; 39(1): 23.     CrossRef
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Miscellaneous
In Memoriam: Remembering Professor Hun-Ki Min (1928–2021)
Young Min Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(2):207-208.   Published online April 20, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.204
  • 2,912 View
  • 151 Download
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Diabetes
Peptidyl and Non-Peptidyl Oral Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists
Hun Jee Choe, Young Min Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(1):22-29.   Published online February 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.102
  • 27,248 View
  • 628 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are efficacious glucose-lowering medications with salient benefits for body weight and cardiovascular events. This class of medications is now recommended as the top priority for patients with established cardiovascular disease or indicators of high risk. Until the advent of oral semaglutide, however, GLP-1 receptor agonists were available only in the form of subcutaneous injections. Aversion to needles, discomfort with self-injection, or skin problems at the injection site are commonly voiced problems in people with diabetes, and thus, attempts for non-invasive delivery strategies have continued. Herein, we review the evolution of GLP-1 therapy from its discovery and the development of currently approved drugs to the unprecedented endeavor to administer GLP-1 receptor agonists via the oral route. We focus on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the recently approved oral GLP-1 receptor agonist, oral semaglutide. Small molecule oral GLP-1 receptor agonists are currently in development, and we introduce how these chemicals have addressed the challenge posed by interactions with the large extracellular ligand binding domain of the GLP-1 receptor. We specifically discuss the structure and pharmacological properties of TT-OAD2, LY3502970, and PF-06882961, and envision an era where more patients could benefit from oral GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Sulfobetaine modification of poly (D, l-lactide-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles enhances mucus permeability and improves bioavailability of orally delivered liraglutide
    Zhenyu Zhao, Ruihuan Ding, Yumei Wang, Ranran Yuan, Houqian Zhang, Tianyang Li, Wei Zheng, Entao Chen, Aiping Wang, Yanan Shi
    Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology.2024; : 105437.     CrossRef
  • Physiology and pharmacology of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor
    D. V. Kurkin, D. A. Bakulin, E. I. Morkovin, V. I. Petrov, A. V. Strygin, K. N. Koryanova, Yu. V. Gorbunova, Yu. A. Kolosov, O. V. Ivanova, E. V. Pavlova, M. A. Dzhavakhyan, A. V. Zaborovsky, V. B. Saparova, I. E. Makarenko, R. I. Drai, A. N. Chumachenko
    Pharmacy & Pharmacology.2024; 11(4): 347.     CrossRef
  • Opportunities and challenges of incretin-based hypoglycemic agents treating type 2 diabetes mellitus from the perspective of physiological disposition
    Yaochen Xie, Qian Zhou, Qiaojun He, Xiaoyi Wang, Jincheng Wang
    Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B.2023; 13(6): 2383.     CrossRef
  • Advances in GLP-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
    Shurui Hong, J. Xiao, Y. He
    BIO Web of Conferences.2023; 61: 01006.     CrossRef
  • Safety and efficacy of the new, oral, small-molecule, GLP-1 receptor agonists orforglipron and danuglipron for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Paschalis Karakasis, Dimitrios Patoulias, Konstantinos Pamporis, Panagiotis Stachteas, Konstantinos I. Bougioukas, Aleksandra Klisic, Nikolaos Fragakis, Manfredi Rizzo
    Metabolism.2023; 149: 155710.     CrossRef
  • A review of glucoregulatory hormones potentially applicable to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: mechanism and brain delivery
    Reeju Amatya, Kyoung Ah Min, Meong Cheol Shin
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation.2022; 52(2): 195.     CrossRef
  • Anti-Obesity Medications and Investigational Agents: An Obesity Medicine Association (OMA) Clinical Practice Statement (CPS) 2022
    Harold E. Bays, Angela Fitch, Sandra Christensen, Karli Burridge, Justin Tondt
    Obesity Pillars.2022; 2: 100018.     CrossRef
  • Structural basis of peptidomimetic agonism revealed by small-molecule GLP-1R agonists Boc5 and WB4-24
    Zhaotong Cong, Qingtong Zhou, Yang Li, Li-Nan Chen, Zi-Chen Zhang, Anyi Liang, Qing Liu, Xiaoyan Wu, Antao Dai, Tian Xia, Wei Wu, Yan Zhang, Dehua Yang, Ming-Wei Wang
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Improved Split TEV GPCR β-arrestin-2 Recruitment Assays via Systematic Analysis of Signal Peptide and β-arrestin Binding Motif Variants
    Yuxin Wu, Isabelle von Hauff, Niels Jensen, Moritz Rossner, Michael Wehr
    Biosensors.2022; 13(1): 48.     CrossRef
  • GLP-1 Receptor Agonists: Beyond Their Pancreatic Effects
    Xin Zhao, Minghe Wang, Zhitong Wen, Zhihong Lu, Lijuan Cui, Chao Fu, Huan Xue, Yunfeng Liu, Yi Zhang
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Recent developments in GLP‐1RA therapy: A review of the latest evidence of efficacy and safety and differences within the class
    Evie K. Bain, Stephen C. Bain
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2021; 23(S3): 30.     CrossRef
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Erratum: Correction of Figure. Clinical Implications of Various Criteria for the Biochemical Diagnosis of Insulinoma
Chang Ho Ahn, Lee-Kyung Kim, Jie Eun Lee, Chan-Hyeon Jung, Se-Hee Min, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Young Min Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2017;32(2):306.   Published online June 23, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2017.32.2.306
  • 2,756 View
  • 30 Download
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Clinical Study
1,5-Anhydro-D-Glucitol Could Reflect Hypoglycemia Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Receiving Insulin Therapy
Min Kyeong Kim, Hye Seung Jung, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(2):284-291.   Published online May 27, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.2.284
  • 4,203 View
  • 40 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The identification of a marker for hypoglycemia could help patients achieve strict glucose control with a lower risk of hypoglycemia. 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol (1,5-AG) reflects postprandial hyperglycemia in patients with well-controlled diabetes, which contributes to glycemic variability. Because glycemic variability is related to hypoglycemia, we aimed to evaluate the value of 1,5-AG as a marker of hypoglycemia.

Methods

We enrolled 18 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving insulin therapy and assessed the occurrence of hypoglycemia within a 3-month period. We measured 1,5-AG level, performed a survey to score the severity of hypoglycemia, and applied a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS).

Results

1,5-AG was significantly lower in the high hypoglycemia-score group compared to the low-score group. Additionally, the duration of insulin treatment was significantly longer in the high-score group. Subsequent analyses were adjusted by the duration of insulin treatment and mean blood glucose, which was closely associated with both 1,5-AG level and hypoglycemia risk. In adjusted correlation analyses, 1,5-AG was negatively correlated with hypoglycemia score, area under the curve at 80 mg/dL, and low blood glucose index during CGMS (P=0.068, P=0.033, and P=0.060, respectively).

Conclusion

1,5-AG level was negatively associated with hypoglycemia score determined by recall and with documented hypoglycemia after adjusting for mean glucose and duration of insulin treatment. As a result, this level could be a marker of the risk of hypoglycemia in patients with well-controlled T2DM receiving insulin therapy.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Mobile Healthcare System Provided by Primary Care Physicians Improves Quality of Diabetes Care
    Tae Jung Oh, Jie-Eun Lee, Seok Kim, Sooyoung Yoo, Hak Chul Jang
    CardioMetabolic Syndrome Journal.2021; 1(1): 88.     CrossRef
  • Effects of mobile phone application combined with or without self‐monitoring of blood glucose on glycemic control in patients with diabetes: A randomized controlled trial
    Yuan Yu, Qun Yan, Huizhi Li, Hongmei Li, Lin Wang, Hua Wang, Yiyun Zhang, Lei Xu, Zhaosheng Tang, Xinfeng Yan, Yinghua Chen, Huili He, Jie Chen, Bo Feng
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2019; 10(5): 1365.     CrossRef
  • Articles inEndocrinology and Metabolismin 2016
    Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2017; 32(1): 62.     CrossRef
  • A Diet Diverse in Bamboo Parts is Important for Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Metabolism and Health
    Hairui Wang, Heju Zhong, Rong Hou, James Ayala, Guangmang Liu, Shibin Yuan, Zheng Yan, Wenping Zhang, Yuliang Liu, Kailai Cai, Zhigang Cai, He Huang, Zhihe Zhang, De Wu
    Scientific Reports.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Low and exacerbated levels of 1,5-anhydroglucitol are associated with cardiovascular events in patients after first-time elective percutaneous coronary intervention
    Shuhei Takahashi, Kazunori Shimada, Katsumi Miyauchi, Tetsuro Miyazaki, Eiryu Sai, Manabu Ogita, Shuta Tsuboi, Hiroshi Tamura, Shinya Okazaki, Tomoyuki Shiozawa, Shohei Ouchi, Tatsuro Aikawa, Tomoyasu Kadoguchi, Hamad Al Shahi, Takuma Yoshihara, Makoto Hi
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Clinical Study
Clinical Characteristics of Subjects with Sulfonylurea-Dependent Type 2 Diabetes
Se Hee Min, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(4):509-513.   Published online December 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.4.509
  • 4,278 View
  • 64 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Even though several oral anti-diabetic drugs (OAD) with various modes of action are replacing sulfonylurea (SU), some patients seem to be dependent on SU for adequate glycemic control. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of such patients.

Methods

We selected the patients with type 2 diabetes who met following criteria from 2009 to 2014 at Seoul National University Hospital: glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was maintained below 7.5% for at least 6 months under small dose of SU (glimepiride ≤2 mg/day or equivalent dose); after discontinuation of SU, HbA1c increased ≥1.2% within 3 months or ≥1.5% within 6 months; and after resuming SU, HbA1c reduction was ≥0.8% or reduction of fasting plasma glucose was ≥40 mg/dL within 3 months. Patients with impaired hepatic or renal function, and steroid users were excluded.

Results

Nineteen subjects were enrolled: after averaged 4.8±1.5 months of SU-free period, HbA1c increased from 6.7%±0.4% to 8.8%±0.8% even though adding other OAD such as gliptins. However, HbA1c decreased to 7.4%±0.7% after resuming SU within 2.4±0.8 months. There was no sexual predominance. Despite their old age (67±11 years) and long duration of diabetes (18±10 years), fasting C-peptide was relatively well-reserved (3.9±2.6 ng/mL), and nephropathy was not observed (albumin-creatinine ratio 21.2±16.6 mg/g and estimated glomerular filtration rate 75.8±18.0 mL/min/1.73 m2). Strong family history was also noted (73.7%).

Conclusion

Despite hypoglycemia risk of SU, it seemed indispensable for a subset of patients with regard to insulin secretion. Genetic influences would be evaluated.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Incident Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk in Patients Treated with a Sulfonylurea: A Nationwide, Nested, Case-Control Study
    Ji-Yeon Lee, Suk-Yong Jang, Chung Mo Nam, Eun Seok Kang
    Scientific Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Eugene Han, Hye Sun Park, Obin Kwon, Eun Yeong Choe, Hye Jin Wang, Yong-ho Lee, Sang-Hak Lee, Chul Hoon Kim, Lee-Kyung Kim, Soo Heon Kwak, Kyong Soo Park, Chul Sik Kim, Eun Seok Kang
    Medicine.2016; 95(44): e5155.     CrossRef
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Obesity and Metabolism
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Increases Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Function in INS-1 Rat Insulinoma Cells
Mi Yeon Kang, Tae Jung Oh, Young Min Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(2):216-220.   Published online June 30, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.2.216
  • 3,796 View
  • 41 Download
  • 40 Web of Science
  • 38 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut-derived incretin hormone that increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Since mitochondrial function is crucial to insulin secretion, we hypothesized that GLP-1 may increase mitochondrial biogenesis in pancreatic β-cells. We treated INS-1 rat insulinoma cells with GLP-1 or exendin-4 for 48 hours and measured mitochondrial mass and function. Both GLP-1 and exendin-4 increased mitochondrial mass by approximately 20%. The mitochondria/cytosol ratio was increased from 7.60±3.12% to 10.53±2.70% by exendin-4. In addition, GLP-1 increased the mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption. Proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α expression was increased approximately 2-fold by GLP-1 treatment. In conclusion, the present study presents evidence for a new mechanism of action by which GLP-1 improves pancreatic β-cell function via enhanced mitochondrial mass and performance.

Citations

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    Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
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    Pharmacological Research.2020; 152: 104611.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(13): 4805.     CrossRef
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    Xin Chen, Giuseppe Gumina, Kristopher G. Virga
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    The Lancet.2017; 390(10103): 1664.     CrossRef
  • Alogliptin, a Dipeptidyl Peptidase‐4 Inhibitor, Alleviates Atrial Remodeling and Improves Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis in Diabetic Rabbits
    Xiaowei Zhang, Zhiwei Zhang, Yungang Zhao, Ning Jiang, Jiuchun Qiu, Yajuan Yang, Jian Li, Xue Liang, Xinghua Wang, Gary Tse, Guangping Li, Tong Liu
    Journal of the American Heart Association.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Potential therapeutic interventions for chronic kidney disease‐associated sarcopenia via indoxyl sulfate‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction
    Yuki Enoki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Riho Arake, Rui Fujimura, Kana Ishiodori, Tadashi Imafuku, Kento Nishida, Ryusei Sugimoto, Saori Nagao, Shigeyuki Miyamura, Yu Ishima, Motoko Tanaka, Kazutaka Matsushita, Hirotaka Komaba, Masafumi Fukagawa, Masaki Otagiri, To
    Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.2017; 8(5): 735.     CrossRef
  • The pancreas: Bandmaster of glucose homeostasis
    Nathalie Jouvet, Jennifer L. Estall
    Experimental Cell Research.2017; 360(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP) receptor as a therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease: mechanisms of action
    Dilan Athauda, Thomas Foltynie
    Drug Discovery Today.2016; 21(5): 802.     CrossRef
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    Long Jin, Sun Woo Lim, Jian Jin, Byung Ha Chung, Chul Woo Yang
    Translational Research.2016; 174: 122.     CrossRef
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    Tae Jung, Kyung Choi
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2016; 17(2): 192.     CrossRef
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Obesity and Metabolism
Mitochondrial Complexes I and II Are More Susceptible to Autophagy Deficiency in Mouse β-Cells
Min Joo Kim, Ok Kyong Choi, Kyung Sil Chae, Min Kyeong Kim, Jung Hee Kim, Masaaki Komatsu, Keiji Tanaka, Hakmo Lee, Sung Soo Chung, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(1):65-70.   Published online March 27, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.1.65
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Damaged mitochondria are removed by autophagy. Therefore, impairment of autophagy induces the accumulation of damaged mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction in most mammalian cells. Here, we investigated mitochondrial function and the expression of mitochondrial complexes in autophagy-related 7 (Atg7)-deficient β-cells.

Methods

To evaluate the effect of autophagy deficiency on mitochondrial function in pancreatic β-cells, we isolated islets from Atg7F/F:RIP-Cre+ mice and wild-type littermates. Oxygen consumption rate and intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) content were measured. The expression of mitochondrial complex genes in Atg7-deficient islets and in β-TC6 cells transfected with siAtg7 was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

Results

Baseline oxygen consumption rate of Atg7-deficient islets was significantly lower than that of control islets (P<0.05). Intracellular ATP content of Atg7-deficient islets during glucose stimulation was also significantly lower than that of control islets (P<0.05). By Oxygraph-2k analysis, mitochondrial respiration in Atg7-deficient islets was significantly decreased overall, although state 3 respiration and responses to antimycin A were unaffected. The mRNA levels of mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and V in Atg7-deficient islets were significantly lower than in control islets (P<0.05). Down-regulation of Atg7 in β-TC6 cells also reduced the expression of complexes I and II, with marginal significance (P<0.1).

Conclusion

Impairment of autophagy in pancreatic β-cells suppressed the expression of some mitochondrial respiratory complexes, and may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. Among the complexes, I and II seem to be most vulnerable to autophagy deficiency.

Citations

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    Belinda Yau, Sheyda Naghiloo, Alexis Diaz-Vegas, Austin V. Carr, Julian Van Gerwen, Elise J. Needham, Dillon Jevon, Sing-Young Chen, Kyle L. Hoehn, Amanda E. Brandon, Laurence Macia, Gregory J. Cooney, Michael R. Shortreed, Lloyd M. Smith, Mark P. Keller,
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    Aiqing Zhang, Wei He, Huimin Shi, Xiaodan Huang, Guozhong Ji
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  • Autophagy deficiency in β cells blunts incretin-induced suppression of glucagon release from α cells
    Min Joo Kim, Ok Kyong Choi, Kyung Sil Chae, Hakmo Lee, Sung Soo Chung, Dong-Sik Ham, Ji-Won Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon, Kyong Soo Park, Hye Seung Jung
    Islets.2015; 7(5): e1129096.     CrossRef
Close layer
Obesity and Metabolism
Clinical Implications of Various Criteria for the Biochemical Diagnosis of Insulinoma
Chang Ho Ahn, Lee-Kyung Kim, Jie Eun Lee, Chan-Hyeon Jung, Se-Hee Min, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Young Min Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2014;29(4):498-504.   Published online December 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2014.29.4.498
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  • 10 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Among the various diagnostic criteria for insulinoma, the ratio criteria have been controversial. However, the amended insulin-glucose ratio exhibited excellent diagnostic performance in a recent retrospective cohort study, although it has not yet been validated in other patient cohorts. We examined the diagnostic performance of the current criteria of the Endocrine Society, insulin-glucose ratio, C-peptide-glucose ratio, and amended ratios in terms of differentiating insulinomas.

Methods

We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent evaluation for hypoglycemia from 2000 to 2013. Fourteen patients with histopathologically confirmed insulinoma and 18 patients without clinical evidence of insulinoma were included. The results of a prolonged fast test were analyzed according to the abovementioned criteria.

Results

Fulfilling all three Endocrine Society criteria-plasma levels of glucose (<3.0 mmol/L), insulin (≥8 pmol/L), and C-peptide (≥0.2 nmol/L)-exhibited 100% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Fulfilling the glucose and C-peptide criteria showed 100% sensitivity and 83% specificity, while fulfilling the glucose and insulin criteria showed 100% sensitivity and 72% specificity. Among the ratio criteria, the insulin-glucose ratio [>24.0 (pmol/L)/(mmol/L)] gave the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, with 93% sensitivity and 94% specificity.

Conclusion

Fulfilling the glucose, insulin, and C-peptide criteria of the Endocrine Society guidelines exhibited the best diagnostic performance for insulinoma. Nonetheless, the insulin-glucose ratio may still have a role in the biochemical diagnosis of insulinoma.

Citations

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    Kálmán Bódis, Martin Schön, Laura Dauben, Miriam Wilker, Klaus Strassburger, Volker Burkart, Michael Roden, Karsten Müssig
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  • Articles in 'Endocrinology and Metabolism' in 2014
    Won-Young Lee
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Obesity and Metabolism
Clinical Application of Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Young Min Cho, Rhonda D. Wideman, Timothy J. Kieffer
Endocrinol Metab. 2013;28(4):262-274.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2013.28.4.262
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells in response to oral nutrient intake and elicits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion while suppressing glucagon secretion. It also slows gastric emptying, which contributes to decreased postprandial glycemic excursions. In the 1990s, chronic subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 was found to lower blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, GLP-1's very short half-life, arising from cleavage by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) and glomerular filtration by the kidneys, presented challenges for clinical use. Hence, DPP-4 inhibitors were developed, as well as several GLP-1 analogs engineered to circumvent DPP-4-mediated breakdown and/or rapid renal elimination. Three categories of GLP-1 analogs, are being developed and/or are in clinical use: short-acting, long-acting, and prolonged-acting GLP-1 analogs. Each class has different plasma half-lives, molecular size, and homology to native GLP-1, and consequently different characteristic effects on glucose metabolism. In this article, we review current clinical data derived from each class of GLP-1 analogs, and consider the clinical effects reported for each category in recent head to head comparison studies. Given the relatively brief clinical history of these compounds, we also highlight several important efficacy and safety issues which will require further investigation.

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Obesity and Metabolism
A Novel Mutation in the Von Hippel-Lindau Tumor Suppressor Gene Identified in a Patient Presenting with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Yun Hyi Ku, Chang Ho Ahn, Chan-Hyeon Jung, Jie Eun Lee, Lee-Kyung Kim, Soo Heon Kwak, Hye Seung Jung, Kyong Soo Park, Young Min Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2013;28(4):320-325.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2013.28.4.320
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominantly inherited, multisystemic tumor syndrome caused by mutations in the VHL gene. To date, more than 1,000 germline and somatic mutations of the VHL gene have been reported. We present a novel mutation in the VHL tumor suppressor gene that presented with gestational diabetes mellitus.

Methods

A 30-year-old woman presented with gestational diabetes mellitus. She sequentially showed multiple pancreatic cysts, spinal cord hemangioblastoma, cerebellar hemangioblastoma, and clear cell type renal cell carcinomas. Also, her father and brother had brain hemangioblastomas. Each of the three exons of the VHL gene was individually amplified by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing was performed using an ABI 3730 DNA analyzer.

Results

DNA sequence analysis to determine the presence of VHL mutation in her family revealed del291C, a novel frameshift mutation.

Conclusion

We found a novel mutation in the VHL tumor suppressor gene that presented with gestational diabetes mellitus.

Citations

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    Yikeng Huang, Weiwen Hu, Xionggao Huang
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    Claudia von Arx, Monica Capozzi, Elena López-Jiménez, Alessandro Ottaiano, Fabiana Tatangelo, Annabella Di Mauro, Guglielmo Nasti, Maria Lina Tornesello, Salvatore Tafuto
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    Won-Young Lee
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Close layer
Thyroid
Two Cases of Methimazole-Induced Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome in Graves' Disease
Eun Roh, Ye An Kim, Eu Jeong Ku, Jae Hyun Bae, Hye Mi Kim, Young Min Cho, Young Joo Park, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Soo Heon Kwak
Endocrinol Metab. 2013;28(1):55-60.   Published online March 25, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2013.28.1.55
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  • 71 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

We report here the cases of two females with Graves' disease who developed insulin autoimmune syndrome after treatment with methimazole. The patients exhibited a sudden altered mental state after treatment with methimazole for approximately 4 weeks. Patients had hypoglycemia with serum glucose below 70 mg/dL, and laboratory findings showed both high levels of serum insulin and high titers of insulin autoantibodies. The two women had never been exposed to insulin or oral antidiabetic agents, and there was no evidence of insulinoma in imaging studies. After glucose loading, serum glucose, and total insulin levels increased abnormally. One of the patient was found to have HLA-DRB1*0406, which is known to be strongly associated with methimazole-induced insulin autoimmune syndrome. After discontinuation of methimazole, hypoglycemic events disappeared within 1 month. Insulin autoantibody titer and insulin levels decreased within 5 months and there was no further development of hypoglycemic events. We present these cases with a review of the relevant literature.

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    In Wook Song, Eugene Han, Nan Hee Cho, Ho Chan Cho
    Journal of Korean Thyroid Association.2014; 7(2): 180.     CrossRef
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    Won-Young Lee
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Close layer
A Case of Aortic Dissection Associated with Cushing's Syndrome.
Soo Heon Kwak, Eun Jung Lee, Sun Wook Cho, Hyung Jin Choi, Eun Kyung Lee, Young Min Cho, Seong Yeon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(6):556-559.   Published online December 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.6.556
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  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Herein is reported the case of a 43-year-old woman, who experienced an acute aortic dissection associated with underlying Cushing's syndrome. The patient had central obesity and a moon face of ten years duration, but had never sought medical consultation. On the day of her presentation, she experienced a severe chest pain radiating to her back. Computed tomography revealed a Stanford type B acute aortic dissection and a left adrenal mass. From her hormonal study results, clinical symptoms and signs, she was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome, which was due to a left adrenal adenoma. After medical treatment to stabilize the aortic dissection, she underwent left adrenalectomy. The aortic lesion of the present patient suggests that hypercortisolemia arising from Cushing's syndrome might be related to the development of acute aortic dissection.
Close layer
Cystic Insulinoma of the Pancreas.
Sun Wook Cho, Eun Jung Lee, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Chan Soo Shin, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(6):552-555.   Published online December 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.6.552
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Cystic islet cell neoplasms are among the rarest entities in the differential diagnosis of cystic tumor of the pancreas, and this malady raises difficult clinical problems. The diagnosis of insulinoma could be difficult if the functional activity is incomplete, which possibly leads to blunted symptoms of hypoglycemia and failure in the laboratory to provide evidence of hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, if the imaging shows a smaller tumor than usual or an unusual morphology like cyctic tumor, then physicians can become somewhat confused. We report here on a clinical case of cystic insulinoma with the typical neuroglycopenic symptoms and laboratory-confirmed hyperinsulinemia. At resection, a 2-cm cavitary mass without central necrosis was excised and this was confirmed histologically as a purely cystic insulioma. This is the first report of a functional cystic insulinoma of the pancreas in Korea. We suggest that the differential diagnosis of endocrine tumor must be considered for any pancreatic cyst, and especially when it is discovered in a patient who is clinically suggestive of having the associated syndrome.
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A Case of Adrenocortical Carcinoma showing Variable Cortisol Production during the Clinical Course.
Yun Hyi Ku, Hyung Jin Choi, Jin Taek Kim, Ji Won Yoon, Eun Kyung Lee, Hwa Young Cho, Mi Yeon Kang, Jie Seon Lee, Young Min Cho, Seong Yeon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(5):419-423.   Published online October 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.5.419
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Patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) present with evidence of excessive adrenal steroid hormone in approximately 60% of cases, in which rapidly progressing Cushing's syndrome with or without virilization is the most frequent presentation. Some patients experience an increase or a decline in cortisol production through the progression of their ACC. We report on an unusual case of a cortisol-producing ACC, and the patient presented with a decline in cortisol production, followed by an increase in cortisol production, through the progression of the tumor. A 65-year-old woman who manifested with facial edema and weight gain was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome, caused by cortisol producing ACC. The patient was treated with adrenalectomy. However, 8 months later, a metastatic hepatic tumor of recurred ACC was detected. At that time, the hormonal evaluation revealed that the liver mass did not produce any hormones. The patient was treated with metastatectomy. Four months later, a relapsed tumor was detected. Increased cortisol production was observed at that time. We speculate there was a change in the clonal dominance within the ACC and this change might cause such a difference. This is the first case report of ACC that showed variable hormone production during progression.
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A case of Paraganglioma Arising in the Transverse Mesocolon.
Hong Il Kim, Bo kyung Koo, You Jin Lee, Jin Taek Kim, Young Min Cho, Kuhn Uk Lee, Seong Yeon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(5):496-501.   Published online October 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.5.496
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Herein, a case of a solitary primary paraganglioma arising in the mesentery, found in a hypertensive 70-year-old woman, who presented with nausea and postprandial abdominal discomfort, is reported. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a hypervascular mass abutting the second portion of the duodenum. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a 5.5 x 5.3 x 5cm sized mass in the mesentery of the transverse colon, which was histologically proven to be a paraganglioma. No intraoperative hemodynamic changes developed, and the postoperative course was uneventful. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a paraganglioma arising in the mesentery reported in Korea. Considering the unusual locations and the associated operative risk, it is necessary to rule out the possibility of a functioning paraganglioma in the preoperative differential diagnosis of an abdominal mass.

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  • Mesenteric Lesions with Similar or Distinctive Appearances on CT
    Hwajin Cha, Jiyoung Hwang, Seong Sook Hong, Eun Ji Lee, Hyun-joo Kim, Yun-Woo Chang
    Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology.2019; 80(6): 1091.     CrossRef
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A Case of Primary Reninism Manifested by Hypertension with Hypokalemia.
Hyung Jin Choi, Eui Sil Hong, Young Min Cho, Do Joon Park, Chan Soo Shin, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(2):168-173.   Published online April 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.2.168
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Primary reninism is a rare cause of hypertension manifesting along with hypokalemia. A high level of plasma renin activity and a high level of serum aldosterone are the whole markers of primary reninism. Upon making the diagnosis of primary reninism, other more common causes of aldosteronism must be differentiated, such as renovascular hypertension and primary aldosteronism. Primary reninism is commonly caused by juxtaglomerular cell tumor, which is one of the curable causes of hypertension, and this can be successfully treated by conservative surgery. We report here on a case of primary reninism that was caused by juxtaglomerular cell tumor that developed in a 22-year-old female patient. She was recently diagnosed with hypertension and hypokalemia. She had markedly elevated plasma renin activity and an increased serum aldosterone concentration. Computed tomography revealed a mass located in the right kidney and selective renal vein sampling suggested that the mass was secreting an excess of renin. Right nephrectomy was done and her hypertension with hypokalemia was successfully treated. We report here a case of primary reninism that presented with juxtaglomerular cell tumor along with a review of the literature

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  • Reninoma: a rare cause of curable hypertension
    Ji Hye Kim, Ji Hyun Kim, Myung Hyun Cho, Eujin Park, Hye Sun Hyun, Yo Han Ahn, Hee Gyung Kang, Kyung Chul Moon, Il-Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics.2019; 62(4): 144.     CrossRef
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A Case of Protein-losing Enteropathy with an Abnormal Cortisol Response to ACTH Stimulation.
Hong Il Kim, Bo Kyeong Koo, You Jin Lee, Eun Jung Lee, Soo Heon Kwak, Sun Wook Cho, Hyung Jin Choi, Young Min Cho, Seong Yeon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(1):90-95.   Published online February 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.1.90
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We hereby report a case of a 62-year-old male patient who was misdiagnosed with adrenal insufficiency during the course of protein-losing enteropathy caused by superior mesenteric arterial thrombosis. The patient was suspected to have adrenal insufficiency due to hyponatremia and severe weakness. The cortisol responses to the initial challenge of 250microgram ACTH were inadequate (maximum serum cortisol level after ACTH challenge was 10.9microgram/dL), while the serum albumin concentration was 1.9g/dL. Subsequently, intravenous steroid therapy was given to the patient. However, after bowel resection, the serum albumin level increased to 3.4g/dL and the cortisol response to the follow-up rapid ACTH stimulation was completely normal. Accordingly, we discontinued steroid replacement and discharged the patient without any problem. In conclusion, measuring total serum cortisol in a patient with hypo-pro-teinemia may lead to misdiagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. In such cases, caution should be exercised in interpreting the results in terms of total serum cortisol level or measurement of serum free cortisol levels should be considered.
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The Efficacy of MIBG Scan as a Diagnostic and Docalization Test for Pheochromocytoma.
Cheol Ku Park, Kyeong Won Kim, Do Hee Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim, Jun Gu Kang, San Wan Kim, Young Min Cho, Do Joon Park, Chan Soo Shin, Kyong Soo Park, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Seong Yeon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(1):21-28.   Published online February 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.1.21
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Computed tomography(CT) is currently considered as the initial imaging procedure of choice for the localization of pheochromocytomas in most of the cases. 131I-or 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy(MIBG scan) was proven to be a highly specific tool for the detection of adrenal and extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas, but was less sensitive than CT. The present study is aimed to evaluate the usefulness of a MIBG scan in diagnosis and localization of pheochromocytoma when compared to CT. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 27 patients who underwent a MIBG scan for a pheochromocytoma at the Seoul National University Hospital from the year 2000 and 2002. According to the pathological and clinical findings, in 16 the patients pheochromocytoma was confirmed to be positive and the rest 11 of the patients were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Pheochromocytomas was identified in 16 patients. Eleven of them were localized in adrenal gland and 5 were extra-adrenal lesions. The sensitivity to MIBG scan in adrenal lesions and extra-adrenal lesions, was 72%(8/11) and 40%(2/5) respectively. In our study, the overall sensitivity to MIBG scan was 62%(10/16), and overall specificity was 90.9%(10/11). By CT four were identified to have equivocal biochemical abnormalities, but were definite and extraadrenal tumors by MIBG scan showed abnormal uptakes in two of them. CONCLUSION: The MIBG scan was especially useful in 2 of the 27 patients but we had no experienced about the additional benefits of a MIBG scan in the other 25 cases. Our results reveal that a MIBG scan should be performed carefully for the diagnosis and localization of a pheochromocytoma, while considering cost and time of operation.
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Diagnostic Value of 1microgram Rapid ACTH Stimulation Test According to the Timing of Sampling of Serum Cortisol in Patients with Suspected Central Adrenal Insufficiency.
Sang Wan Kim, Young Min Cho, Do Joon Park, Chan Soo Shin, Kyung Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2004;19(1):33-41.   Published online February 1, 2004
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BACKGROUND
Traditional testing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function has essentially relied upon the insulin tolerance test or the metyrapone test(both tests are not only uncomfortable, but are also dangerous). The standard ACTH stimulation test uses an extremely supra-physiologic amount(250f microgram) of ACTH to evaluate a physiological response, which may result in a false normal response. The 1microgram rapid ACTH stimulation test is more physiological and more sensitive than the standard test, but there exist much controversy about when the serum cortisol should be measured or what the most appropriate cut-off point is for normality or whether the 1microgram ACTH commercial solution is needed. The aims of this study were to investigate 1) whether 1microgram of ACTH is an appropriate amount to stimulate the adrenal gland of patients that have suspected central adrenal insufficiency compared with insulin tolerance test(ITT) and 2) the diagnostic value of the 1microgram rapid ACTH stimulation test according to timing of sampling of serum cortisol. METHODS: In order to evaluate the dose-response relationship between ACTH and cortisol, we performed the ITT in 77 patients with suspected central adrenal insufficiency with serial measurements of serum cortisol and plasma ACTH. We drew the blood samples in 10 min intervals between 10 and 60 min after the administration of 1microgram ACTH in 39 patients with central adrenal insufficiency and in 38 pituitary control patients with pituitary. ITT was used to confirm the diseases for the patients of central adrenal insufficiency, but for pituitary control patients, the ITT indicated normality in the patients. Also, all subjects underwent the 250microgram rapid ACTH stimulation test, and we compared the diagnostic value of the 1microgram ACTH stimulation test with the 250microgram test. RESULTS: 1) The plasma ACTH level after the 1microgram ACTH stimulation test, even if it was be assumed as approximately 300pg/mL, was expected to be sufficient enough to stimulate the adrenal cortex normally(serum cortisol levels >18microgram/dL) compared to the plasma ACTH level in the ITT. 2) The sensitivity and specificity of the 1microgram rapid ACTH stimulation test was highest with 92.3% and 84.2%, respectively, when serum cortisol levels were measured at 20, 30, and 40 min after the ACTH injection. The 1microgram rapid ACTH stimulation test was more sensitive than the 250microgram ACTH test(sensitivity: 92.3%, specificity: 71.8%). CONCLUSION: The 1microgram rapid ACTH stimulation test was more sensitive test in patients with suspected central adrenal insufficiency, and blood samples for cortisol levels should be drawn at 20, 30, and 40 min after ACTH administration.
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Interaction of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide and Angiotensin II on Aldosterone Production in Human Adrenocortical H295R Cells.
Seong Yeon Kim, Sang Wan Kim, Young Min Cho, Do Joon Park, Chan Soo Shin, Kyung Soo Park, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kye Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):272-282.   Published online June 1, 2003
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BACKGROUND
Evidence is accumulating that aldosterone secretion can be regulated in a paracrine and/or an autocrine manner by several neuropeptides locally released within the adrenal gland. Among neuropeptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is present in high concentration in the human adrenal gland. The purpose of this study was to investigate the action of PACAP and the interaction between PACAP and angiotensin II (AII), the main physiologic aldosterone secretagogue, in aldosterone production in human H295R adrenocortical cells. METHODS: H295R cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of PACAP (10(-11)M~10(-7)M) in the absence or presence of 10(-7)M AII. Aldosterone concentration in the supernatant was determined by RIA. Intracellular cAMP content was measured by RIA and total inositol phosphate (IP) production by anion exchange chromatography. Gene expression of CYP11B2 was studied by RT-PCR. RESULTS: In H295R cells, PACAP stimulated aldosterone production in a dose-dependent manner. Incubation of H295R cells with PACAP in the presence of AII significantly increased aldosterone production, compared with that of PACAP alone. PACAP dose-dependently increased cAMP production, but 10(-7)M AII had no effect on either basal or PACAP-stimulated cAMP production. Total IP production was not affected by PACAP, but was increased by 10(-7)M AII; an increase that was not further increased by addition of PACAP. RT-PCR analysis of H295R cells which were exposed to 10-7M PACAP or 10(-7)M AII showed an increase in CYP11B2 transcript signal. Induction of CYP11B2 mRNA expression in response to treatment with both PACAP and AII was significantly more than that resulting from using PACAP alone. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that PACAP exerts a direct stimulatory effect on aldosterone production through induction of CYP11B2 mRNA expression by adenylate cyclase activation as the main intracellular signal pathway in H295R cells. Furthermore, there may be some additive effects between PACAP and AII on aldosterone production.
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Metabolic Syndrome.
Min Kyong Moon, Young Min Cho, Soo Lim, Kyong Soo Park, Hong Kyu Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(2):105-119.   Published online April 1, 2003
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No abstract available.
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A Case of Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis as a Complication of Acupuncture in Patient with a Benign Thyroid Nodule.
Tae Yong Kim, Han Mo Yang, Jae Kyung Hwang, Young Min Cho, Young Joo Park, Do Joon Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Hong Kyu Lee, Bo Youn Cho
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(4):576-582.   Published online August 1, 2002
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Acute suppurative thyroiditis is an uncommon disease, and usually affects patients with preexisting thyroid gland pathology. Penetrating injury could provide an acquired channel for the infection to spread into the relatively infection-resistant thyroid gland. We describe the first case of acute suppurative thyroiditis, as a complication of acupuncture, in a patient with a benign thyroid nodule. A 54-year-old male received acupuncture on his neck for the treatment of a previously diagnosed thyroid nodule. Four days after the acupuncture, the patient was admitted due to severe pain of the anterior neck and odynophagia. Fever and tenderness over the thyroid gland were observed. Burkholderia cepacia was isolated from a culture dish of aspirate of the thyroid gland. A neck computed tomography scan showed an abscess in the thyroid gland. Antibiotic treatment, and repeated drainage of the abscess, ameliorated the symptoms of infection. Two weeks after admission, the patient was discharged without sequela. Acupuncture should be considered as a kind of penetrating injury, which may induce acute suppurative thyroiditis.
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Changes in Plasma Leptin Levels Relating to Short-Term Thyroid Manipulation in Rats.
Min Seon Kim, Cho Ya Yoon, Young Min Cho, Hye Seung Jung, Chan Soo Shin, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Stephen R Bloom
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(2):197-205.   Published online April 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Leptin, an adipocyte derived hormone, and thyroid hormone have similar effects on energy homeostasis, such that a shortage of both hormones is associated with decreased energy expenditure and increased body weight. Therefore, for the maintenance of energy homeostasis may require a close interaction between leptin and thyroid hormone. This study was performed to investigate the change in plasma leptin levels relating to short-term thyroid manipulation causing no significant change in body weight. METHODS: Hypothyroidism was induced by surgical thyroidectomy and hyperthyroidism by subcutaneous injection of 50 g of L-T3/100 g body weight/day, for 5 days, in 6~8 weeks old male Wistar rats. Body weights and food intakes were monitored daily until sacrifice. Plasma samples were collected, and the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (T3) and leptin levels measured. The plasma leptin levels in rats with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were compared with those of body weights at death and food intakes during the study, atched controls. RESULTS: The rats treated with L-T3 consumed equal amount of food as freely fed, rats but their final body weights were significantly lower (L-T3 treated 220.0 +/- 1.8 vs. freely fed 226.0 +/- 2.0 g, p<0.05). There was no difference in food intake during study, and final body weight, between the thyroidectomised rats and their paired controls (thyroidectomised 220.4 +/- 1.7 vs. paired 223.9 +/- 4.7 g, P=NS). Plasma leptin levels in the L-T3 treated rats were significantly lower than those in freely fed rats (L-T3 treated 1.7 +/- 0.1 vs. freely fed 4.8 +/- 0.2 ng/ml, p<0.005). Conversely, the thyroidectomised rats had higher plasma leptin levels, compared to those of their paired controls (thyroidectomised 4.8 +/- 0.3 vs. paired 1.7 +/- 0.1 ng/ml, p<0.005). CONCLUSION: The Plasma leptin levels in the rats were decreased by short term hyperthyroidism, while they were increased by short term hypothyroidism. These findings suggest that thyroid hormones may affect the production or secretion of leptin
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism