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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism


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Yona Greenman  (Greenman Y) 1 Article
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and the Endocrine System
Dana Zaid, Yona Greenman
Endocrinol Metab. 2019;34(2):95-105.   Published online May 20, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

In the current era of effective antiretroviral therapies (ARTs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection became a chronic disorder that requires long term follow-up. Among other medical issues, these patients may develop endocrine problems, specific to HIV infection and its treatment. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of common endocrine complications associated with HIV infection, and to propose diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. HIV can affect the endocrine system at several levels. Adrenal and gonadal dysfunction, osteoporosis with increased fracture risk, dyslipidemia with increased cardiovascular risk, are some of the endocrine disorders prevalent in HIV-infected patients that may negatively influence quality of life, and increase morbidity and mortality. While ARTs have dramatically increased life expectancy in the HIV-infected population, they are not devoid of adverse effects, including endocrine dysfunction. Physicians caring for HIV-infected patients should be knowledgeable and exercise a high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of endocrine abnormalities, and in particular be aware of those that can be life threatening. Endocrine evaluation should follow the same strategies as in the general population, including prevention, early detection, and treatment.


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