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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism


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Xin Gao 1 Article
Adrenal gland
The Genotype-Based Morphology of Aldosterone-Producing Adrenocortical Disorders and Their Association with Aging
Xin Gao, Yuto Yamazaki, Yuta Tezuka, Kei Omata, Yoshikiyo Ono, Ryo Morimoto, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Fumitoshi Satoh, Hironobu Sasano
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(1):12-21.   Published online February 24, 2021
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension, and is associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. PA itself is clinically classified into the following two types: unilateral PA, mostly composed of aldosteroneproducing adenoma (APA); and bilateral hyperaldosteronism, consisting of multiple aldosterone-producing micronodules (APMs) and aldosterone-producing diffuse hyperplasia. Histopathologically, those disorders above are all composed of compact and clear cells. The cellular morphology in the above-mentioned aldosterone-producing disorders has been recently reported to be closely correlated with patterns of somatic mutations of ion channels including KCNJ5, CACNA1D, ATP1A1, ATP2B3, and others. In addition, in non-pathological adrenal glands, APMs are frequently detected regardless of the status of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Aldosterone-producing nodules have been also proposed as non-neoplastic nodules that can be identified by hematoxylin and eosin staining. These non-neoplastic CYP11B2-positive nodules could represent possible precursors of APAs possibly due to the presence of somatic mutations. On the other hand, aging itself also plays a pivotal role in the development of aldosterone-producing lesions. For instance, the number of APMs was also reported to increase with aging. Therefore, recent studies indicated the novel classification of PA into normotensive PA (RAAS-independent APM) and clinically overt PA.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Subtype-specific Body Composition and Metabolic Risk in Patients With Primary Aldosteronism
    Seung Shin Park, Chang Ho Ahn, Sang Wan Kim, Ji Won Yoon, Jung Hee Kim
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Expression of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 in adrenal adenoma correlates with clinical characteristics of primary aldosteronism
    Chang Ho Ahn, Hee Young Na, So Yeon Park, Hyeong Won Yu, Su‐Jin Kim, June Young Choi, Kyu Eun Lee, Sang Wan Kim, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Jung Hee Kim
    Clinical Endocrinology.2022; 96(1): 30.     CrossRef
  • Pathology of Aldosterone Biosynthesis and its Action
    Xin Gao, Yuto Yamazaki, Yuta Tezuka, Kei Omata, Yoshikiyo Ono, Ryo Morimoto, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Takashi Suzuki, Fumitoshi Satoh, Hironobu Sasano
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine.2021; 254(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Cellular Senescence in Adrenocortical Biology and Its Disorders
    Xin Gao, Faping Li, Bin Liu, Yuxiong Wang, Yishu Wang, Honglan Zhou
    Cells.2021; 10(12): 3474.     CrossRef
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