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Woon Won Chung  (Chung WW) 2 Articles
Analysis of Glucocorticoid Response Element and TPA Response Element of Rat Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormine Gene by Site-Directed Mutagenesis.
Sung Woon Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Young Seol Kim, Young Kil Choi, In Myoung Yang, Jung Taek Woo, Woon Won Chung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(2):278-292.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
We previously demonstrated that a GRE/TRE composite sequence, which is located between 200 bp and 220 bp relative to the transcriptional start site of rat TRH gene, is responsible for the dexamethasone (DEX)- and TPA-induced transcriptional activation, and the transcriptional activation by DEX is mediated by interaction between glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and a TRE-binding transcriptional factor such as c-Jun. However, a non-specific binding with the transciption factors can not be excluded as the mutants used in the previous report could not inhibit the binding of GR and c-Jun completely, and it remains unclear which one of the two TRE-like sequences is critical for the interaction of the two transcription factors. METHODS: Luciferase expressing plasmids that contain a part of rat TRH promoter including the composite GRE sequence or its mutants were transfected into HeLa cells by Fugene 6. After the cells were incubated overnight with DEX or/and TPA, the luciferase activity was measured in a chemiluminometer. A gel retardation assay was performed after binding of the labeled composite sequence or its mutants with GR and c-Jun. RESULTS: DEX and TPA increased the transcriptional activity of the wild type composite sequence by 3 folds and 4 folds, respectively, and the combined stimulation increased the activity by 10 folds. The mutants of which all 6 nucleotides of the GRE half site were replaced and removed almost did not bind to GR and eould not enhance the transcriptional activity at all in response to DEX. The GRE-deleted mutant bound to c-Jun with a remarkably lower affinity and showed a lower response to TPA, whereas the GRE-replaced mutant bound to c-Jun with a similar affinity and showed a similar response to TPA compared to those of the wild type. In response to the combined simulation with DEX and TPA, the mutants showed 30-40% of the trancriptional activity of the wild type. Basal transcriptional activity of all the TRE mutants was significantly lower than that of the wild type. While they almost could not bind to c-Jun, their binding affinity to GR was comparable to that of the wild type. Whereas the DEX- and TPA-induced transcriptional activity of 5 TRE mutant was 10% and 15% of that of the wild type, it responded to those agents in a similar pattern as the wild type. The 3 TRE mutant and the mutant of both TRE sites did not respond to DEX and TPA. The GRE-deleted mutant hardly formed the DNA-protein complex as did the wild type, while the GRE -replaced mutant could form the complex in a less amount with nuclear extract of HeLa celL CONCLUSION: These results suggest that GRE/TRE composite sequence of rat TRH gene specifically binds to GR and c-Jun, providing a site for interaction between the two transcription factors, and that both TRE sites play an important role in basal transcription, and that the 3 TRE site is more critical in the interaction between GRE and TRE for DEX-induced transcriptional activation. (J Kor Endocrinol 14:278-292, 1999)
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The Characterization of Glucocoritcoid Response Element(GRE) on the Promoter of Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone(TRH) Gene.
Sung Woon Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Young Seol Kim, Young Kil Choi, In Myoung Yang, Jung Taek Woo, Woon Won Chung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(2):265-277.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 1,009 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We previously demonstrated that the promoter of rat TRH gene has GRE half site (TGTTCT) between -210 bp and -205 bp flanking with similar sequences of TPA response element (TRE), TAGTCA, at a distance of several base pairs from the GRE half site. It promps us to hypothesize that this composite GRE/TRE sequence can provide a site for interaction between glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and c-Jun. Thus, we investigated whether the composite sequence mediates transcriptional regulation induced by dexamethasone (DEX) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phobol-13-acetate (TPA), and whether it binds GR and c-Jun. METHODS: A luciferase expressing plasmids that contain a part of rat TRH promoter including the composite sequence or their mutants were transfected into HeLa cells by Fugene 6. After the cells were incubated overnight with DEX and TPA, the luciferase activity was measured in a chemiluminometer. A gel retardation assay was performed after binding of the labeled composite sequence or its mutants with GR and c-Jun. RESULTS: DEX increased the transcriptional activity of the plasmid containing the wild type GRE by 2.5 folds, and TPA increased the transcriptional activity by 4 folds. The simultaneous stimulation with DEX and TPA synergistically increased the transcriptional activity by 10 folds. Two mutants whose GRE half sits were altered showed no responses to DEX, and suppressed the TPA-induced or both agents-induced transcriptional activity by 50%. Two mutants whose TRE-like sites were altered suppressed the DEX-induced transcriptional activity by 20%, TPA-induced trarptional activity by 25%, and both agents-induced transcriptional activity by 50%. Gel retardation assay showed that the composite sequence fonned a complex with GR and its mutants bound to GR with remarkably less affinity. c-Jun also bound to the composite sequence to form two cornplexes with less affinity compared to the AP-1 consensus sequence. The mutants of the TRE-like sequence bound to c-Jun with a significantly lower affinity compared to that of the wild type. Simulateous binding of the composite sequence with GR and c-Jun did not form any larger complex. The complex of GR and the composite sequence was much smaller than that formed by c-Jun, suggesting that GR binds to the composite sequence as a monomer. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the composite sequence of GRE half site and TRE-like site on the promoter of rat TRH gene provides binding sites for GR and c-Jun, which mediate the interaction between two signal transduction pathways. (J Kor Soc Endocrinol 14:265-277, 1999)
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