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Sun Wook Cho  (Cho SW) 32 Articles
Thyroid
Prevalence, Treatment Status, and Comorbidities of Hyperthyroidism in Korea from 2003 to 2018: A Nationwide Population Study
Hwa Young Ahn, Sun Wook Cho, Mi Young Lee, Young Joo Park, Bon Seok Koo, Hang-Seok Chang, Ka Hee Yi
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(4):436-444.   Published online July 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.1684
  • 1,520 View
  • 110 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study aimed to investigate the changes of incidence and treatment of choice for hyperthyroidism from 2003 to 2018 and explore the treatment-related complications and concomitant comorbidities in South Korea using data from the National Health Insurance Service.
Methods
This is a retrospective observational study. Hyperthyroidism was defined as a case having two or more diagnostic codes of thyrotoxicosis, with antithyroid drug intake for more than 6 months.
Results
The average age-standardized incidence of hyperthyroidism from 2003 to 2018 was 42.23 and 105.13 per 100,000 men and women, respectively. In 2003 to 2004, hyperthyroidism was most often diagnosed in patients in their 50s, but in 2017 to 2018, people were most often diagnosed in their 60s. During the entire period, about 93.7% of hyperthyroidism patients were prescribed with antithyroid drugs, and meanwhile, the annual rates of ablation therapy decrease from 7.68% in 2008 to 4.56% in 2018. Antithyroid drug-related adverse events, mainly agranulocytosis and acute hepatitis, as well as complications of hyperthyroidism such as atrial fibrillation or flutter, osteoporosis, and fractures, occurred more often in younger patients.
Conclusion
In Korea, hyperthyroidism occurred about 2.5 times more in women than in men, and antithyroid drugs were most preferred as the first-line treatment. Compared to the general population, hyperthyroid patients may have a higher risk of atrial fibrillation or flutter, osteoporosis, and fractures at a younger age.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Current Status of Hyperthyroidism in Korea
    Hyemi Kwon
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(4): 392.     CrossRef
  • Is Thyroid Dysfunction Associated with Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms? A Population-Based, Nested Case–Control Study from Korea
    Hyeree Park, Sun Wook Cho, Sung Ho Lee, Kangmin Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Jeong Eun Kim, Aesun Shin, Won-Sang Cho
    Thyroid®.2023; 33(12): 1483.     CrossRef
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Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
Big Data Research in the Field of Endocrine Diseases Using the Korean National Health Information Database
Sun Wook Cho, Jung Hee Kim, Han Seok Choi, Hwa Young Ahn, Mee Kyoung Kim, Eun Jung Rhee
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(1):10-24.   Published online February 9, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2023.102
  • 2,941 View
  • 245 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
The Korean National Health Information Database (NHID) contains big data combining information obtained from the National Health Insurance Service and health examinations. Data are provided in the form of a cohort, and the NHID can be used to conduct longitudinal studies and research on rare diseases. Moreover, data on the cause and date of death are provided by Statistics Korea. Research and publications based on the NHID have increased explosively in the field of endocrine disorders. However, because the data were not collected for research purposes, studies using the NHID have limitations, particularly the need for the operational definition of diseases. In this review, we describe the characteristics of the Korean NHID, operational definitions of endocrine diseases used for research, and an overview of recent studies in endocrinology using the Korean NHID.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Associations Between Physical Activity and the Risk of Hip Fracture Depending on Glycemic Status: A Nationwide Cohort Study
    Kyoung Min Kim, Kyoung Jin Kim, Kyungdo Han, Yumie Rhee
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024; 109(3): e1194.     CrossRef
  • Weight change in patients with new‐onset type 2 diabetes mellitus and its association with remission: Comprehensive real‐world data
    Jinyoung Kim, Bongseong Kim, Mee Kyoung Kim, Ki‐Hyun Baek, Ki‐Ho Song, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk‐Sang Kwon
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(2): 567.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes severity and the risk of depression: A nationwide population-based study
    Yunjung Cho, Bongsung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Kyungdo Han, Mee Kyoung Kim
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2024; 351: 694.     CrossRef
  • Information Bias Might Exaggerate Lung Cancer Risk of Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Nobuyuki Horita, Kaoru Takase-Minegishi
    Journal of Thoracic Oncology.2024; 19(2): 348.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes severity is strongly associated with the risk of active tuberculosis in people with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide cohort study with a 6-year follow-up
    Ji Young Kang, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
    Respiratory Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Research on obesity using the National Health Information Database: recent trends
    Eun-Jung Rhee
    Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy.2023; 5(2): 35.     CrossRef
  • Pituitary Diseases and COVID-19 Outcomes in South Korea: A Nationwide Cohort Study
    Jeonghoon Ha, Kyoung Min Kim, Dong-Jun Lim, Keeho Song, Gi Hyeon Seo
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(14): 4799.     CrossRef
  • Risk of Pancreatic Cancer and Use of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Propensity Score-Matching Analysis
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Soon Jib Yoo
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(4): 426.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, Treatment Status, and Comorbidities of Hyperthyroidism in Korea from 2003 to 2018: A Nationwide Population Study
    Hwa Young Ahn, Sun Wook Cho, Mi Young Lee, Young Joo Park, Bon Seok Koo, Hang-Seok Chang, Ka Hee Yi
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(4): 436.     CrossRef
  • Is Thyroid Dysfunction Associated with Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms? A Population-Based, Nested Case–Control Study from Korea
    Hyeree Park, Sun Wook Cho, Sung Ho Lee, Kangmin Kim, Hyun-Seung Kang, Jeong Eun Kim, Aesun Shin, Won-Sang Cho
    Thyroid®.2023; 33(12): 1483.     CrossRef
  • Risk of Cause-Specific Mortality across Glucose Spectrum in Elderly People: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
    Joonyub Lee, Hun-Sung Kim, Kee-Ho Song, Soon Jib Yoo, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(5): 525.     CrossRef
  • Risk of depression in patients with acromegaly in Korea (2006-2016): a nationwide population-based study
    Shinje Moon, Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han, Cheol-Young Park
    European Journal of Endocrinology.2023; 189(3): 363.     CrossRef
  • Cumulative effect of impaired fasting glucose on the risk of dementia in middle-aged and elderly people: a nationwide cohort study
    Jin Yu, Kyu-Na Lee, Hun-Sung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Long-Term Cumulative Exposure to High γ-Glutamyl Transferase Levels and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
    Han-Sang Baek, Bongseong Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Dong-Jun Lim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Sang-Ah Chang, Kyungdo Han, Jae-Seung Yun
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(6): 770.     CrossRef
  • Increased Risk of Hip Fracture in Patients with Acromegaly: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Korea
    Jiwon Kim, Namki Hong, Jimi Choi, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Eun Jig Lee, Sin Gon Kim, Cheol Ryong Ku
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(6): 690.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
BRAFV600E Mutation Enhances Estrogen-Induced Metastatic Potential of Thyroid Cancer by Regulating the Expression of Estrogen Receptors
Minjun Kim, Su-jin Kim, Seong Yun Ha, Zhen Xu, Youngjin Han, Hyeon-Gun Jee, Sun Wook Cho, Young Joo Park, Kyu Eun Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(6):879-890.   Published online December 26, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1563
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Cross-talk between mitogen-activated protein kinase and estrogen has been reported; however, the role of BRAFV600E in the estrogen responsiveness of thyroid cancer is unknown. We elucidated the effect of BRAFV600E on the estrogen-induced increase in metastatic potential in thyroid cancer.
Methods
Using a pair of cell lines, human thyroid cell lines which harbor wild type BRAF gene (Nthy/WT) and Nthy/BRAFV600E (Nthy/V600E), the expression of estrogen receptors (ERs) and estrogen-induced metastatic phenotypes were evaluated. Susceptibility to ERα- and ERβ-selective agents was evaluated to confirm differential ER expression. ESR expression was analyzed according to BRAFV600E status and age (≤50 years vs. >50 years) using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data.
Results
Estradiol increased the ERα/ERβ expression ratio in Nthy/V600E, whereas the decreased ERα/ERβ expression ratio was found in Nthy/WT. BRAFV600E-mutated cell lines showed a higher E2-induced increase in metastatic potential, including migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth compared with Nthy/WT. An ERα antagonist significantly inhibited migration in Nthy/V600E cells, whereas an ERβ agonist was more effective in Nthy/WT. In the BRAFV600E group, ESR1/ESR2 ratio was significantly higher in younger age group (≤50 years) compared with older age group (>50 years) by TCGA data analysis.
Conclusion
Our data show that BRAFV600E mutation plays a crucial role in the estrogen responsiveness of thyroid cancer by regulating ER expression. Therefore, BRAFV600E might be used as a biomarker when deciding future hormone therapies based on estrogen signaling in thyroid cancer patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of DNA Promoter Methylation and BRAF Mutation in Thyroid Cancer
    Farzana Jasmine, Briseis Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Mohammad M. Rahman, Garrett Zaagman, Raymon H. Grogan, Mohammed Kamal, Habibul Ahsan, Muhammad G. Kibriya
    Current Oncology.2023; 30(3): 2978.     CrossRef
  • Editorial: Recent advances in papillary thyroid carcinoma: Progression, treatment and survival predictors
    Erivelto Martinho Volpi, Margarita Carmen Ramirez-Ortega, Jose Federico Carrillo
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Clinical Outcomes of Repeated Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Graves’ Disease
Min Joo Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Ye An Kim, Hoon Sung Choi, Young Joo Park, Do Joon Park, Bo Youn Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(3):524-532.   Published online June 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.1418
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy is a successful therapeutic modality for Graves’ disease. However, RAI therapy can fail, and RAI therapy after antithyroid drugs (ATDs) has a lower remission rate. Therefore, many patients require repeated RAI therapy. This study investigated the clinical outcomes of repeated RAI therapy for Graves’ disease.
Methods
Patients who underwent RAI therapy as second-line therapy after failure of ATD treatment between 2001 and 2015 were reviewed. Remission was defined as hypothyroid or euthyroid status without ATD, and with or without levothyroxine at 12 months after RAI therapy.
Results
The 1-year remission rate after 2nd RAI therapy (66%, 152/230) is significantly higher than that after 1st RAI therapy (48%, 393/815) or long-term ATD treatment after 1st RAI therapy failure (42%). The clinical response to 2nd RAI therapy was more rapid. The median time intervals from the 2nd RAI therapy to ATD discontinuation (1.3 months) and to the start of levothyroxine replacement (2.5 months) were significantly shorter than those for the 1st RAI therapy. A smaller goiter size, a longer time interval between the 1st and 2nd RAI therapies, and a longer ATD discontinuation period predicted remission after the 2nd RAI therapy. Finally, in 78 patients who failed the 2nd RAI therapy, the mean ATD dosage significantly reduced 5.1 mg over 12 months.
Conclusion
Repeated RAI therapy can be a good therapeutic option, especially in patients with smaller goiters and those who are more responsive to the 1st RAI therapy.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Early Changes in Thyroid-Stimulating Immunoglobulin Bioassay over Anti-Thyroid Drug Treatment Could Predict Prognosis of Graves’ Disease
    Jin Yu, Han-Sang Baek, Chaiho Jeong, Kwanhoon Jo, Jeongmin Lee, Jeonghoon Ha, Min Hee Kim, Jungmin Lee, Dong-Jun Lim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(3): 338.     CrossRef
  • Effect of liver dysfunction on outcome of radioactive iodine therapy for Graves’ disease
    Yuyang Ze, Fei Shao, Xuefeng Feng, Shanmei Shen, Yan Bi, Dalong Zhu, Xiaowen Zhang
    BMC Endocrine Disorders.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Miscellaneous
Corrigendum: Correction of Acknowledgments. Protocol for a Korean Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study of Active Surveillance or Surgery (KoMPASS) in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma
Min Ji Jeon, Yea Eun Kang, Jae Hoon Moon, Dong Jun Lim, Chang Yoon Lee, Yong Sang Lee, Sun Wook Kim, Min-Hee Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang, Minho Shong, Sun Wook Cho, Won Bae Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(1):181-182.   Published online February 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2022.104
Corrects: Endocrinol Metab 2021;36(2):359
  • 2,526 View
  • 108 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
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Citations

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  • Risk of thyroid cancer associated with glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes: A population‐based cohort study
    Sungho Bea, Heejun Son, Jae Hyun Bae, Sun Wook Cho, Ju‐Young Shin, Young Min Cho
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(1): 108.     CrossRef
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Calcium & Bone Metabolism
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
10-Year Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia and Osteoporosis in South Korea
Yeon-Hee Baek, Sun Wook Cho, Han Eol Jeong, Ju Hwan Kim, Yunji Hwang, Jeffrey L. Lange, Ju-Young Shin
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(6):1178-1188.   Published online December 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1215
  • 4,922 View
  • 243 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
In South Korea, women aged 66 years are eligible for complimentary bone mineral density (BMD) screening via the National Screening Program for Transitional Ages. We aimed to evaluate the 10-year fracture risk in women receiving BMD screening between January 2008 and December 2015.
Methods
BMD was classified as normal (T-score ≥–1.0 standard deviation [SD]), osteopenia (T-score <–1.0 SD and >–2.5 SD), and osteoporosis (T score ≤–2.5 SD) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Follow-up continued from the screening date until a diagnosis for clinical fragility fracture (including sites of the vertebrae, hip, pelvis, clavicle, humerus, forearm, wrist, lower leg, and ankle), censored at the earliest date of trauma, death, or December 2017; fracture was ascertained using diagnostic codes from the National Health Insurance Service database. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of fracture in women with osteopenia or osteoporosis relative to women with normal BMD.
Results
Among the 271,197 women screened, 44.0% had osteopenia and 35.2% had osteoporosis. The 10 year cumulative incidence of fragility fractures was 31.1%, 37.5%, and 44.3% in women with normal BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis, respectively. Fracture risk was higher in women with osteopenia (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.34) and osteoporosis (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.64 to 1.72) than in women with normal BMD.
Conclusion
Women with osteopenia and women with osteoporosis, identified by the national BMD screening program, demonstrated a substantially elevated risk of fracture.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Duration of osteoporosis treatment to reduce the risk of subsequent osteoporotic fracture and all-cause mortality in elderly hip fracture patients in a Korean real-world study
    Soong Joon Lee, Minjoon Cho, Hojoon Lee, Hyuna Lim, Jae Hyup Lee
    Archives of Osteoporosis.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Big Data Research in the Field of Endocrine Diseases Using the Korean National Health Information Database
    Sun Wook Cho, Jung Hee Kim, Han Seok Choi, Hwa Young Ahn, Mee Kyoung Kim, Eun Jung Rhee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 10.     CrossRef
  • Chronic airway disease as a major risk factor for fractures in osteopenic women: Nationwide cohort study
    Sung Hye Kong, Ae Jeong Jo, Chan Mi Park, Kyun Ik Park, Ji Eun Yun, Jung Hee Kim
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Biomimetic Porous Magnesium Alloy Scaffolds Promote the Repair of Osteoporotic Bone Defects in Rats through Activating the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway
    Yuanchao Zhu, Gaozhi Jia, Yifei Yang, Jian Weng, Su Liu, Mengwei Zhang, Geng Zhang, Haotian Qin, Yixiao Chen, Qi Yang, Guangyin Yuan, Fei Yu, Hui Zeng
    ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering.2023; 9(6): 3435.     CrossRef
  • Understanding the long-term impact of incident osteoporotic fractures on healthcare utilization and costs in Korean postmenopausal women
    S. Han, S. Kim, E.J. Yeh, H.S. Suh
    Osteoporosis International.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Correlation between bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fractures at different C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen levels: a retrospective analysis study
    Xiaonan Zhu, Lin Chen, Ling Pan, Yuexi Zeng, Qiang Fu, Yanbin Liu, Yongde Peng, Yufan Wang, Li You
    Menopause.2023; 30(11): 1139.     CrossRef
  • Age-Dependent Association of Height Loss with Incident Fracture Risk in Postmenopausal Korean Women
    Chaewon Lee, Hye-Sun Park, Yumie Rhee, Namki Hong
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(6): 669.     CrossRef
  • A Meaningful Journey to Predict Fractures with Deep Learning
    Jeonghoon Ha
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(4): 617.     CrossRef
  • The Efficacy of Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Monotherapies in Postmenopausal Women with Osteopenia
    Kyung Wook Kim, Young Il Kim, Ki-Choul Kim
    Journal of Bone Metabolism.2022; 29(3): 185.     CrossRef
  • Correlation of Psoas Muscle Index with Fragility Vertebral Fracture: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of Middle-Aged and Elderly Women
    Yihui Zhang, Yilihamu Dilixiati, Wei Jiang, Xiufeng Cao, Yuanyuan Chen, Hui Guo, Christian-Heinz Anderwald
    International Journal of Endocrinology.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Comparison of Korean vs. American Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System in Malignancy Risk Assessment of Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules
Sunyoung Kang, Seul Ki Kwon, Hoon Sung Choi, Min Joo Kim, Young Joo Park, Do Joon Park, Sun Wook Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(5):1111-1120.   Published online October 21, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1208
  • 3,755 View
  • 123 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The management of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules is challenging for clinicians. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (K-TIRADS) with that of the American College of Radiology (ACR)-TIRADS for predicting the malignancy risk of indeterminate thyroid nodules.
Methods
Thyroid nodules diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) followed by surgery or core needle biopsy at a single referral hospital were enrolled.
Results
Among 200 thyroid nodules, 78 (39.0%) nodules were classified as indeterminate by FNA (Bethesda category III, IV, and V), and 114 (57.0%) nodules were finally diagnosed as malignancy by surgery or core needle biopsy. The area under the curve (AUC) was higher for FNA than for either TIRADS system in all nodules, while all three methods showed similar AUCs for indeterminate nodules. However, for Bethesda category III nodules, applying K-TIRADS 5 significantly increased the risk of malignancy compared to a cytological examination alone (50.0% vs. 26.5%, P=0.028), whereas applying ACR-TIRADS did not lead to a change.
Conclusion
K-TIRADS and ACR-TIRADS showed similar diagnostic performance in assessing indeterminate thyroid nodules, and K-TIRADS had beneficial effects for malignancy prediction in Bethesda category III nodules.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diagnostic Performance of Various Ultrasound Risk Stratification Systems for Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules: A Meta-Analysis
    Ji-Sun Kim, Byung Guk Kim, Gulnaz Stybayeva, Se Hwan Hwang
    Cancers.2023; 15(2): 424.     CrossRef
  • The impact of thyroid imaging reporting and data system on the management of Bethesda III thyroid nodules
    Saad M. Alqahtani, Saif S. Al-Sobhi, Mohammed A. Alturiqy, Riyadh I. Alsalloum, Hindi N. Al-Hindi
    Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences.2023; 18(3): 506.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic Performance of Six Ultrasound Risk Stratification Systems for Thyroid Nodules: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
    Do Hyun Kim, Sung Won Kim, Mohammed Abdullah Basurrah, Jueun Lee, Se Hwan Hwang
    American Journal of Roentgenology.2023; 220(6): 791.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic efficiency among Eu-/C-/ACR-TIRADS and S-Detect for thyroid nodules: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
    Longtao Yang, Cong Li, Zhe Chen, Shaqi He, Zhiyuan Wang, Jun Liu
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of diagnostic performance of two ultrasound risk stratification systems for thyroid nodules: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Yun Jin Kang, Hee Sun Ahn, Gulnaz Stybayeva, Ju Eun Lee, Se Hwan Hwang
    La radiologia medica.2023; 128(11): 1407.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic Performance of ACR and Kwak TI-RADS for Benign and Malignant Thyroid Nodules: An Update Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Yun Jin Kang, Gulnaz Stybayeya, Ju Eun Lee, Se Hwan Hwang
    Cancers.2022; 14(23): 5961.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems in Malignancy Risk Stratification of Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules
    Bo Hyun Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(5): 974.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Association between Iodine Intake, Thyroid Function, and Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Case-Control Study
Kyungsik Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Young Joo Park, Kyu Eun Lee, Dong-Wook Lee, Sue K. Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(4):790-799.   Published online August 11, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.1034
  • 4,480 View
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  • 9 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study aimed to assess the effects of iodine intake, thyroid function, and their combined effect on the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC).
Methods
A case-control study was conducted including 500 community-based controls who had undergone a health check-up, and 446 overall PTC cases (209 PTC and 237 PTMC) from the Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), was used as an indicator of iodine intake, and serum for thyroid function. The risk of PTC and PTMC was estimated using unconditional logistic regression.
Results
Excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥220 μg/gCr) was associated with both PTC (odds ratio [OR], 18.13 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.87 to 37.04) and PTMC (OR, 8.02; 95% CI, 4.64 to 13.87), compared to adequate iodine intake (UIC, 85 to 219 μg/gCr). Free thyroxine (T4) levels ≥1.25 ng/dL were associated with PTC (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.87) and PTMC (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 2.01 to 4.41), compared to free T4 levels of 0.7 to 1.24 ng/dL. Individuals with excessive iodine intake and high free T4 levels had a greatly increased OR of PTC (OR, 43.48; 95% CI, 12.63 to 149.62), and PTMC (OR, 26.96; 95% CI, 10.26 to 70.89), compared to individuals with adequate iodine intake and low free T4 levels.
Conclusion
Excessive iodine intake using creatinine-adjusted UIC and high free T4 levels may have a synergistic effect on PTC and PTMC. Considering both iodine intake and thyroid function is important to assess PTC and PTMC risk.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between urinary iodine concentration and the risk of papillary thyroid cancer by sex and age: a case–control study
    Yerin Hwang, Hyun-Kyung Oh, Jae Hoon Chung, Sun Wook Kim, Jung-Han Kim, Jee Soo Kim, Myung-Hee Shin
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between iodine nutrition and cervical lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma
    Hengqiang Zhao, Jin Hu, Le Cui, Yiping Gong, Tao Huang
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sex-specific Associations between Body Mass Index and Thyroid Cancer Incidence among Korean Adults
    Kyoung-Nam Kim, Kyungsik Kim, Sangjun Lee, Sue K. Park
    Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.2023; 32(9): 1227.     CrossRef
  • Nomogram Model Based on Iodine Nutrition and Clinical Characteristics of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma to Predict Lateral Lymph Node Metastasis
    Junrong Wang, Yuzhang Gao, Yuxuan Zong, Weitong Gao, Xueying Wang, Ji Sun, Susheng Miao
    Cancer Control.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Content of Copper, Iron, Iodine, Rubidium, Strontium and Zinc in Thyroid Malignant Nodules and Thyroid Tissue adjacent to Nodules
    Vladimir Zaichick, Qiping Dong
    Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology.2022; 1(4): 7.     CrossRef
  • Distinguish Thyroid Malignant from Benign Alterations using Trace Element Contents in Nodular Tissue determined by Neutron Activation and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
    Vladimir Zaichick
    Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Pathology.2022; 1(4): 18.     CrossRef
  • Seaweed and Iodine Intakes and SLC5A5 rs77277498 in Relation to Thyroid Cancer
    Tung Hoang, Eun Kyung Lee, Jeonghee Lee, Yul Hwangbo, Jeongseon Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(3): 513.     CrossRef
  • Iodine nutrition and papillary thyroid cancer
    Xueqi Zhang, Fan Zhang, Qiuxian Li, Chuyao Feng, Weiping Teng
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The relationship between urinary iodine concentration and papillary thyroid cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Xueqi Zhang, Fan Zhang, Qiuxian Li, Renaguli Aihaiti, Chuyao Feng, Deshi Chen, Xu Zhao, Weiping Teng
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Screening and validation of lymph node metastasis risk-factor genes in papillary thyroid carcinoma
    Qiaoyue Zhang, Jing Li, Hengyan Shen, Xinyu Bai, Tao Zhang, Ping Liu
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Diagnosis of Thyroid Malignancy using Levels of Chemical Element Contents in Nodular Tissue
    Vladimir Zaichick
    Journal of Health Care and Research.2022; 3(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • Associations of Habitual Mineral Intake with New-Onset Prediabetes/Diabetes after Acute Pancreatitis
    Claire F. Norbitt, Wandia Kimita, Juyeon Ko, Sakina H. Bharmal, Maxim S. Petrov
    Nutrients.2021; 13(11): 3978.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Clinicopathological Characteristics and Recurrence-Free Survival of Rare Variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas in Korea: A Retrospective Study
Mijin Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Young Joo Park, Hwa Young Ahn, Hee Sung Kim, Yong Joon Suh, Dughyun Choi, Bu Kyung Kim, Go Eun Yang, Il-Seok Park, Ka Hee Yi, Chan Kwon Jung, Bo Hyun Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(3):619-627.   Published online June 10, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.974
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological features and biological behaviors of Korean thyroid cancer patients with rare variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) to address the ambiguity regarding the prognostic consequences of these variants.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 5,496 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for PTC, between January and December 2012, in nine tertiary hospitals. Rare PTC variants included tall cell (TCV), columnar cell (CCV), diffuse sclerosing (DSV), cribriform-morular (CMV), solid (SV), hobnail, and Warthin-like variants. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) was defined as the time from the date of thyroidectomy until recurrence.
Results
Rare variants accounted for 1.1% (n=63) of the PTC patients; with 0.9% TCV, 0.02% CCV, 0.1% DSV, 0.1% CMV, and 0.1% SV. The mean age of patients and primary tumor size were 42.1±13.1 years and 1.3±0.9 cm, respectively. Extrathyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastasis were observed in 38 (60.3%) and 37 (58.7%) patients, respectively. Ultrasonographic findings revealed typical malignant features in most cases. During a median follow-up of 7 years, 6.3% of patients experienced a locoregional recurrence. The 5-year RFS rates were 71.4% in patients with DSV or SV, 95.9% for TCV, or CCV, and 100% for other variants. DSV emerged an independent risk factor associated with shorter RFS.
Conclusion
In this multicenter Korean cohort, rare variants accounted for 1.1% of all PTC cases, with TCV being the most frequent subtype. DSV emerged as a significant prognostic factor for RFS.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Serum thyroglobulin testing after thyroid lobectomy in patients with 1–4 cm papillary thyroid carcinoma
    Ahreum Jang, Meihua Jin, Chae A Kim, Min Ji Jeon, Yu-Mi Lee, Tae-Yon Sung, Tae Yong Kim, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong, Won Gu Kim
    Endocrine.2023; 81(2): 290.     CrossRef
  • Do Histologically Aggressive Subtypes of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma have Worse Clinical Outcome than Non-Aggressive Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Subtypes? A Multicenter Cohort Study
    Sayid Shafi Zuhur, Hunkar Aggul, Ugur Avci, Selvinaz Erol, Mazhar Müslüm Tuna, Serhat Uysal, Gulhan Akbaba, Faruk Kilinç, Merve Catak, Sakin Tekin, Ogun Irem Bilen, Beyza Olcay Öztürk, Ecem Bilgehan Erden, Gulsah Elbuken, Halise Cinar Yavuz, Pinar Kadiogl
    Hormone and Metabolic Research.2023; 55(05): 323.     CrossRef
  • The Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas: a clinicopathologic analysis report of two cases
    Xing Zhao, Yijia Zhang, Pengyu Hao, Mingzhen Zhao, Xingbin Shen
    Oncologie.2023; 25(5): 581.     CrossRef
  • A Retrospective Cohort Study with Validation of Predictors of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Outcomes
    Ayanthi Wijewardene, Anthony J. Gill, Matti Gild, Diana L. Learoyd, Anthony Robert Glover, Mark Sywak, Stan Sidhu, Paul Roach, Geoffrey Schembri, Jeremy Hoang, Bruce Robinson, Lyndal Tacon, Roderick Clifton-Bligh
    Thyroid.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinicopathological Implications of the BRAFV600E Mutation in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma of Ukrainian Patients Exposed to the Chernobyl Radiation in Childhood: A Study for 30 Years After the Accident
    Liudmyla Zurnadzhy, Tetiana Bogdanova, Tatiana I. Rogounovitch, Masahiro Ito, Mykola Tronko, Shunichi Yamashita, Norisato Mitsutake, Michael Bolgov, Serhii Chernyshov, Sergii Masiuk, Vladimir A. Saenko
    Frontiers in Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Close layer
Clinical Study
Protocol for a Korean Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study of Active Surveillance or Surgery (KoMPASS) in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma
Min Ji Jeon, Yea Eun Kang, Jae Hoon Moon, Dong Jun Lim, Chang Yoon Lee, Yong Sang Lee, Sun Wook Kim, Min-Hee Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang, Minho Shong, Sun Wook Cho, Won Bae Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(2):359-364.   Published online March 23, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.890
Correction in: Endocrinol Metab 2022;37(1):181
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  • 14 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
A Korean Multicenter Prospective cohort study of Active Surveillance or Surgery (KoMPASS) for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) has been initiated. The aim is to compare clinical outcomes between active surveillance (AS) and an immediate lobectomy for low-risk PTMCs. We here outline the detailed protocol for this study.
Methods
Adult patients with a cytopathologically confirmed PTMC sized 6.0 to 10.0 mm by ultrasound (US) will be included. Patients will be excluded if they have a suspicious extra-thyroidal extension or metastasis of a PTMC or multiple thyroid nodules or other thyroid diseases which require a total thyroidectomy. Printed material describing the prognosis of PTMCs, and the pros and cons of each management option, will be provided to eligible patients to select their preferred intervention. For the AS group, thyroid US, thyroid function, and quality of life (QoL) parameters will be monitored every 6 months during the first year, and then annually thereafter. Disease progression will be defined as a ≥3 mm increase in maximal diameter of a PTMC, or the development of new thyroid cancers or metastases. If progression is detected, patients should undergo appropriate surgery. For the lobectomy group, a lobectomy with prophylactic central neck dissection will be done within 6 months. After initial surgery, thyroid US, thyroid function, serum thyroglobulin (Tg), anti-Tg antibody, and QoL parameters will be monitored every 6 months during the first year and annually thereafter. Disease progression will be defined in these cases as the development of new thyroid cancers or metastases.
Conclusion
KoMPASS findings will help to confirm the role of AS, and develop individualized management strategies, for low-risk PTMCs.

Citations

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  • Thyroid‐Stimulating Hormone, Age, and Tumor Size are Risk Factors for Progression During Active Surveillance of Low‐Risk Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma in Adults
    Yasuhiro Ito, Akira Miyauchi, Makoto Fujishima, Takuya Noda, Tsutomu Sano, Takahiro Sasaki, Taketoshi Kishi, Tomohiko Nakamura
    World Journal of Surgery.2023; 47(2): 392.     CrossRef
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    Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Manon Auger, Chan Kwon Jung, Fabiano Mesquita Callegari
    Cancer Cytopathology.2023; 131(7): 415.     CrossRef
  • To Screen or Not to Screen?
    Do Joon Park
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 69.     CrossRef
  • Lower Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Patients Detected by Screening: A Meta-Analysis
    Shinje Moon, Young Shin Song, Kyong Yeun Jung, Eun Kyung Lee, Young Joo Park
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 93.     CrossRef
  • Long-Term Outcomes of Active Surveillance and Immediate Surgery for Adult Patients with Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: 30-Year Experience
    Akira Miyauchi, Yasuhiro Ito, Makoto Fujishima, Akihiro Miya, Naoyoshi Onoda, Minoru Kihara, Takuya Higashiyama, Hiroo Masuoka, Shiori Kawano, Takahiro Sasaki, Mitsushige Nishikawa, Shuji Fukata, Takashi Akamizu, Mitsuru Ito, Eijun Nishihara, Mako Hisakad
    Thyroid®.2023; 33(7): 817.     CrossRef
  • Active Surveillance Outcomes of Patients with Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma According to Levothyroxine Treatment Status
    Masashi Yamamoto, Akira Miyauchi, Yasuhiro Ito, Makoto Fujishima, Takahiro Sasaki, Takumi Kudo
    Thyroid®.2023; 33(10): 1182.     CrossRef
  • Cost-Effectiveness of Active Surveillance Compared to Early Surgery of Small Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Retrospective Study on a Korean Population
    Han-Sang Baek, Jeonghoon Ha, Kwangsoon Kim, Jaseong Bae, Jeong Soo Kim, Sungju Kim, Dong-Jun Lim, Chulmin Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Optimal Cutoff Values of the Contact Angle of Tumor on Sonography System for Predicting Extrathyroidal Extension of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma by Tumor Location
    Ik Beom Shin, Do Hoon Koo, Dong Sik Bae
    Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Thermal ablation for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma located in the isthmus: a study with 3 years of follow-up
    Lin Zheng, Fang-yi Liu, Jie Yu, Zhi-gang Cheng, Xiao-ling Yu, Xiao-cong Dong, Zhi-yu Han, Ping Liang
    Future Oncology.2022; 18(4): 471.     CrossRef
  • Trends in the Management of Localized Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in the United States (2000–2018)
    Elisa Pasqual, Julie Ann Sosa, Yingxi Chen, Sara J. Schonfeld, Amy Berrington de González, Cari M. Kitahara
    Thyroid.2022; 32(4): 397.     CrossRef
  • Management of Low-Risk Thyroid Cancers: Is Active Surveillance a Valid Option? A Systematic Review of the Literature
    Renato Patrone, Nunzio Velotti, Stefania Masone, Alessandra Conzo, Luigi Flagiello, Chiara Cacciatore, Marco Filardo, Vincenza Granata, Francesco Izzo, Domenico Testa, Stefano Avenia, Alessandro Sanguinetti, Andrea Polistena, Giovanni Conzo
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(16): 3569.     CrossRef
  • Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Active Surveillance Compared to Early Surgery in Small Papillary Thyroid Cancer: A Systemic Review
    Han-sang Baek, Chai-ho Jeong, Jeonghoon Ha, Ja-Seong Bae, Jeong-soo Kim, Dong-Jun Lim, Chul-Min Kim
    Cancer Management and Research.2021; Volume 13: 6721.     CrossRef
  • Active Surveillance as an Effective Management Option for Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma
    Min Ji Jeon, Won Gu Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(4): 717.     CrossRef
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Thyroid
Best Achievements in Translational and Basic Thyroidology in 2020
Sun Wook Cho, Young Joo Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(1):36-40.   Published online February 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2021.104
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
This review discusses articles published in 2020 that presented noteworthy achievements in translational and basic thyroidology. Previously unresolved questions about thyroid hormone receptor actions and signaling mechanisms were answered using various novel in vitro and in vivo models. Using high resolution cryo-electron microscopy, the fine functional structure of thyroglobulin was demonstrated, and new insights into the pathogenesis of thyroid disease were achieved, with a focus on research into thyroid-disrupting chemicals and the gut microbiome. Novel therapeutic approaches were tried in the field of advanced thyroid cancer treatments.
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Thyroid
A High Frequency of Lobectomy Instead of Total Thyroidectomy to Treat Medullary Thyroid Cancer in Korea: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service
Sun Wook Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(4):784-785.   Published online December 23, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.408
  • 2,859 View
  • 97 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
PDFPubReader   ePub   

Citations

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  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma
    Maria Rosa Pelizzo, Esmeralda Isabella Mazza, Caterina Mian, Isabella Merante Boschin
    Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy.2023; 23(9): 943.     CrossRef
  • Total thyroidectomy vs thyroid lobectomy for localized medullary thyroid cancer in adults: A propensity-matched survival analysis
    Weili Liang, Jinyuan Shi, Hui Zhang, Guixu Lv, Tiantian Wang, Yong Wang, Bin Lv, Luchuan Li, Qingdong Zeng, Lei Sheng
    Surgery.2022; 172(5): 1385.     CrossRef
Close layer
Clinical Study
A Phase II Multi-Center, Non-Randomized, Parallel Group, Non-Inferiority Study to Compare the Efficacy of No Radioactive Iodine Remnant Ablation to Remnant Ablation Treatment in Low- to Intermediate-Risk of Papillary Thyroid Cancer: The MOREthyroid Trial Protocol
Eun Kyung Lee, You Jin Lee, Young Joo Park, Jae Hoon Moon, Ka Hee Yi, Koon Soon Kim, Joo Hee Lee, Sun Wook Cho, Jungnam Joo, Yul Hwangbo, Sujeong Go, Do Joon Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(3):571-577.   Published online September 22, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.681
  • 4,442 View
  • 114 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Radioactive iodine (RAI) remnant ablation is recommended in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and extrathyroidal extension or central lymph node metastasis. However, there exists little evidence about the necessity of remnant ablation in PTC patients with low- to intermediate-risk, those have been increasing in recent decades.
Methods
This multicenter, prospective, non-randomized, parallel group clinical trial will enroll 310 eligible patients with low- to intermediate-risk of thyroid cancer. Inclusion criteria are patients who recently underwent total thyroidectomy for PTC with 3 or less tumors of size 1≤ to ≤2 cm with no microscopic extension and N0/x, or size ≤2 cm with microscopic extension and/or N1a (number of lymph node ≤3, size of tumor foci ≤0.2 cm, and lymph node ratio <0.4). Patients choose to undergo RAI ablation (131I, dose 1.1 GBq) or diagnostic whole-body scan (DxWBS) (131I or 123I, dose 0.074 to 0.222 GBq), followed by subsequent measurement of stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) within 1 year. Survey for quality of life (QOL) will be performed at baseline and at 1 year after follow-up. The total enrollment period is 5 years, and patients will be followed up for 1 year. The primary endpoint is the non-inferiority of surgery alone to surgery with ablation in terms of biochemical remission (BCR) rate (sTg ≤2 ng/mL) without evidence of structural recurrence. The secondary endpoint was the difference of QOL.
Conclusion
This study will evaluate whether surgery alone achieves similar BCR and improved QOL compared to RAI ablation in patients with low- to intermediate-risk PTC within 1 year.
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Miscellaneous
Multifaceted Actions of Succinate as a Signaling Transmitter Vary with Its Cellular Locations
Yuqi Guo, Sun Wook Cho, Deepak Saxena, Xin Li
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(1):36-43.   Published online March 19, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.1.36
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   

Since the identification of succinate's receptor in 2004, studies supporting the involvement of succinate signaling through its receptor in various diseases have accumulated and most of these investigations have highlighted succinate's pro-inflammatory role. Taken with the fact that succinate is an intermediate metabolite in the center of mitochondrial activity, and considering its potential regulation of protein succinylation through succinyl-coenzyme A, a review on the overall multifaceted actions of succinate to discuss whether and how these actions relate to the cellular locations of succinate is much warranted. Mechanistically, it is important to consider the sources of succinate, which include somatic cellular released succinate and those produced by the microbiome, especially the gut microbiota, which is an equivalent, if not greater contributor of succinate levels in the body. Continue learning the critical roles of succinate signaling, known and unknown, in many pathophysiological conditions is important. Furthermore, studies to delineate the regulation of succinate levels and to determine how succinate elicits various types of signaling in a temporal and spatial manner are also required.

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    A. V. Shchulkin, P. Yu. Mylnikov, I. V. Chernykh, A. S. Esenina, E. N. Yakusheva
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Close layer
Clinical Study
Postoperative Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Levels Did Not Affect Recurrence after Thyroid Lobectomy in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer
Myung-Chul Lee, Min Joo Kim, Hoon Sung Choi, Sun Wook Cho, Guk Haeng Lee, Young Joo Park, Do Joon Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2019;34(2):150-157.   Published online May 10, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2019.34.2.150
  • 6,249 View
  • 130 Download
  • 28 Web of Science
  • 30 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression is recommended for patients who undergo thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the impact of TSH suppression on clinical outcomes in low-risk DTC remains uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the effects of postoperative TSH levels on recurrence in patients with low-risk DTC after thyroid lobectomy.

Methods

Patients (n=1,528) who underwent thyroid lobectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma between 2000 and 2012 were included in this study. According to the mean and dominant TSH values during the entire follow-up period or 5 years, patients were divided into four groups (<0.5, 0.5 to 1.9, 2.0 to 4.4, and ≥4.5 mIU/L). Recurrence-free survival was compared among the groups.

Results

During the 5.6 years of follow-up, 21 patients (1.4%) experienced recurrence. Mean TSH levels were within the recommended low-normal range (0.5 to 1.9 mIU/L) during the total follow-up period or 5 years in 38.1% or 36.0% of patients. The mean and dominant TSH values did not affect recurrence-free survival. Adjustment for other risk factors did not alter the results.

Conclusion

Serum TSH levels did not affect short-term recurrence in patients with low-risk DTC after thyroid lobectomy. TSH suppression should be conducted more selectively.

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Close layer
Clinical Study
Effects of Maternal Iodine Status during Pregnancy and Lactation on Maternal Thyroid Function and Offspring Growth and Development: A Prospective Study Protocol for the Ideal Breast Milk Cohort
Young Ah Lee, Sun Wook Cho, Ho Kyung Sung, Kyungsik Kim, Young Shin Song, Sin Je Moon, Jung Won Oh, Dal Lae Ju, Sooyeon Choi, Sang Hoon Song, Gi Jeong Cheon, Young Joo Park, Choong Ho Shin, Sue K. Park, Jong Kwan Jun, June-Key Chung
Endocrinol Metab. 2018;33(3):395-402.   Published online September 18, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2018.33.3.395
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

Iodine is an intrinsic element of thyroid hormone, which is essential for childhood growth and development. The Ideal Breast Milk (IBM) cohort study aims to evaluate the effects of maternal iodine status during pregnancy and lactation on maternal thyroid function, offspring growth and development, and offspring thyroid function.

Methods

The IBM cohort study recruited pregnant women from Seoul National University Hospital between June 2016 and August 2017, followed by enrollment of their offspring after delivery. For the maternal participants, iodine status is evaluated by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and dietary records in the third trimester and at 3 to 4 weeks and 12 to 15 months postpartum. For the child participants, cord blood sampling and UIC measurements are performed at birth. At 3 to 4 weeks of age, UIC and breastmilk iodine concentrations are measured. At 12 to 15 months of age, growth and development are assessed and measurements of UIC, a thyroid function test, and ultrasonography are performed.

Results

A total of 198 pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited. Their mean age was 35.1±3.5 years, and 78 (39.4%) of them were pregnant with twins. Thirty-three (16.7%) of them had a previous history of thyroid disease.

Conclusion

Korea is an iodine-replete area. In particular, lactating women in Korea are commonly exposed to excess iodine due to the traditional practice of consuming brown seaweed soup postpartum. The study of the IBM cohort is expected to contribute to developing guidelines for optimal iodine nutrition in pregnant or lactating women.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • High intakes of iodine among women during pregnancy and the postpartum period has no adverse effect on thyroid function
    Dal Lae Ju, Sun Wook Cho, Chae Won Chung, Young Ah Lee, Gi Jeong Cheon, Young Joo Park, Choong Ho Shin, Jong Kwan Jun, June-Key Chung, Sue K. Park, YoonJu Song
    European Journal of Nutrition.2023; 62(1): 239.     CrossRef
  • Associations between maternal thyroid function in pregnancy and child neurodevelopmental outcomes at 20 months in the Seychelles Child Development Study, Nutrition Cohort 2 (SCDS NC2)
    Anna M. Monaghan, Maria S. Mulhern, Emeir M. Mc Sorley, J.J. Strain, Theresa Winter, Edwin van Wijngaarden, Gary J. Myers, Philip W. Davidson, Conrad Shamlaye, Jude Gedeon, Alison J. Yeates
    Journal of Nutritional Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Miscellaneous
Corrigendum: Author's Name Correction. Study Protocol of Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study of Active Surveillance on Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma (MAeSTro)
Jae Hoon Moon, Ji-hoon Kim, Eun Kyung Lee, Kyu Eun Lee, Sung Hye Kong, Yeo Koon Kim, Woo-Jin Jeong, Chang Yoon Lee, Roh-Eul Yoo, Yul Hwangbo, Young Shin Song, Min Joo Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Su-jin Kim, Eun-Jae Chung, June Young Choi, Chang Hwan Ryu, You Jin Lee, Jeong Hun Hah, Yuh-Seog Jung, Junsun Ryu, Yunji Hwang, Sue K. Park, Ho Kyung Sung, Ka Hee Yi, Do Joon Park, Young Joo Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2018;33(3):427.   Published online August 14, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2018.33.3.427
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PDFPubReader   ePub   

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  • Invasiveness and Metastatic Aggressiveness in Small Differentiated Thyroid Cancers: Demography of Small Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas in the Swedish Population
    Haytham Bayadsi, Martin Bergman, Malin Sund, Joakim Hennings
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    Ling Zhao, Xiaoya Sun, Yukun Luo, Fulin Wang, Zhaohui Lyu
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Close layer
Thyroid
Star-Shaped Intense Uptake of 131I on Whole Body Scans Can Reflect Good Therapeutic Effects of Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine Treatment of 1.1 GBq
Sung Hye Kong, Jung Ah Lim, Young Shin Song, Shinje Moon, Ye An Kim, Min Joo Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Jae Hoon Moon, Ka Hee Yi, Do Joon Park, Bo Youn Cho, Young Joo Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2018;33(2):228-235.   Published online May 4, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2018.33.2.228
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

After initial radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer patients, we sometimes observe a star-shaped region of intense uptake of 131I on whole body scans (WBSs), called a ‘star artifact.’ We evaluated the clinical implications of star artifacts on the success rate of remnant ablation and long-term prognosis.

Methods

Total 636 patients who received 131I dose of 1.1 GBq for the initial RAI therapy and who did not show distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis were retrospectively evaluated. A negative second WBS was used for evaluating the ablation efficacy of the RAI therapy. Among them, 235 patients (36.9%) showed a star artifact on their first WBS.

Results

In patients with first stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels ≤2 ng/mL, patients with star artifacts had a higher rate of negative second WBS compared with those without star artifacts (77.8% vs. 63.9%, P=0.044), and showed significantly higher recurrence-free survival (P=0.043) during the median 8.0 years (range, 1.0 to 10.0) of follow-up. The 5- and 10-year recurrence rates (5YRR, 10YRR) were also significantly lower in patients with star artifacts compared with those without (0% vs. 4.9%, respectively, P=0.006 for 5YRR; 0% vs. 6.4%, respectively, P=0.005 for 10YRR). However, ablation success rate or recurrence-free survival was not different among patients whose first sTg levels >2 ng/mL regardless of star artifacts.

Conclusion

Therefore, star artifacts at initial RAI therapy imply a good ablation efficacy or a favorable long-term prognosis in patients with sTg levels ≤2 ng/mL.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prognostic value of star-shaped intense uptake of 131I in thyroid cancer patients
    Liu Xiao, Wen Jie Zhang, Yue Qi Wang, Lin Li
    Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular (English Edition).2021; 40(1): 30.     CrossRef
  • Valores pronósticos de la captación en estrella de 131I en pacientes con cáncer diferenciado de tiroides
    L. Xiao, W.J. Zhang, Y.Q. Wang, L. Li
    Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular.2021; 40(1): 30.     CrossRef
  • Comparison between planar and single-photon computed tomography images for radiation intensity quantification in iodine-131 scintigraphy
    Yusuke Iizuka, Tomohiro Katagiri, Minoru Inoue, Kiyonao Nakamura, Takashi Mizowaki
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Close layer
Thyroid
Study Protocol of Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study of Active Surveillance on Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma (MAeSTro)
Jae Hoon Moon, Ji-hoon Kim, Eun Kyung Lee, Kyu Eun Lee, Sung Hye Kong, Yeo Koon Kim, Woo-jin Jung, Chang Yoon Lee, Roh-Eul Yoo, Yul Hwangbo, Young Shin Song, Min Joo Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Su-jin Kim, Eun Jae Jung, June Young Choi, Chang Hwan Ryu, You Jin Lee, Jeong Hun Hah, Yuh-Seog Jung, Junsun Ryu, Yunji Hwang, Sue K. Park, Ho Kyung Sung, Ka Hee Yi, Do Joon Park, Young Joo Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2018;33(2):278-286.   Published online June 21, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2018.33.2.278
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

The ongoing Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study of Active Surveillance on Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma (MAeSTro) aims to observe the natural course of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), develop a protocol for active surveillance (AS), and compare the long-term prognosis, quality of life, and medical costs between the AS and immediate surgery groups.

Methods

This multicenter prospective cohort study of PTMC started in June 2016. The inclusion criteria were suspicious of malignancy or malignancy based on fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy, age of ≥18 years, and a maximum diameter of ≤1 cm. If there was no major organ involvement, no lymph node/distant metastasis, and no variants with poor prognosis, the patients were explained of the pros and cons of immediate surgery and AS before selecting AS or immediate surgery. Follow-up visits (physical examination, ultrasonography, thyroid function, and questionnaires) are scheduled every 6 months during the first 2 years, and then every 1 year thereafter. Progression was defined as a maximum diameter increase of ≥3, ≥2 mm in two dimensions, suspected organ involvement, or lymph node/distant metastasis.

Results

Among 439 enrolled patients, 290 patients (66.1%) chose AS and 149 patients (33.9%) chose immediate surgery. The median follow-up was 6.7 months (range, 0.2 to 11.9). The immediate surgery group had a larger maximum tumor diameter, compared to the AS group (7.1±1.9 mm vs. 6.6±2.0 mm, respectively; P=0.014).

Conclusion

The results will be useful for developing an appropriate PTMC treatment policy based on its natural course and risk factors for progression.

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Bone Metabolism
Osteoblasts Are the Centerpiece of the Metastatic Bone Microenvironment
Hyo Min Jeong, Sun Wook Cho, Serk In Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(4):485-492.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.4.485
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The tumor microenvironment is comprised of diverse stromal cell populations in addition to tumor cells. Increasing evidence now clearly supports the role of microenvironment stromal cells in tumor progression and metastasis, yet the regulatory mechanisms and interactions among tumor and stromal cells remain to be elucidated. Bone metastasis is the major problem in many types of human malignancies including prostate, breast and lung cancers, and the biological basis of bone metastasis let alone curative approaches are largely undetermined. Among the many types of stromal cells in bone, osteoblasts are shown to be an important player. In this regard, osteoblasts are a key target cell type in the development of bone metastasis, but there are currently no drugs or therapeutic approaches are available that specifically target osteoblasts. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge on osteoblasts in the metastatic tumor microenvironment, aiming to provide clues and directions for future research endeavor.

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Bone Metabolism
New Biological Markers of Bone Metabolism in Osteoporosis Treatment
Sun Wook Cho
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(3):400-401.   Published online September 26, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.3.400
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Endocrine Research
Macrophage Densities Correlated with CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 Expression and Related with Poor Survival in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer
Dae In Kim, Eunyoung Kim, Young A Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Jung Ah Lim, Young Joo Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(3):469-475.   Published online August 2, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2016.31.3.469
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) have emerged as potential biomarkers in various human cancers. The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical characteristics of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) patients according to the TAM numbers in the tumor tissue, and to evaluate the associations between CXCR4 expressions and macrophage densities in ATC tumor microenvironment.

Methods

Total 14 ATC samples from thyroid tissue microarray were used. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using anti-CD163 and anti-CXCR4 antibodies. According to the immunoreactivity of CD163, all subjects were divided into two groups: low-CD163 (n=8) and high-CD163 (n=6) groups.

Results

The mean diagnostic age was 65±7 years and the median tumor size was 4.3 cm, ranging 2.5 to 15 cm. Clinicopathological characteristics were not significantly different between low-CD163 and high-CD163 groups, while age of diagnosis was younger in high-CD163 group than that of low-CD163 group with marginal significance (56.9±5.5 years vs. 67.5±6.8 years, P=0.09). However, overall survival was significantly reduced in high-CD163 group (5.5 months [range, 1 to 10]) compared with low-CD163 groups (8.8 months [range, 6 to 121); log-rank test, P=0.0443). Moreover, high-CD163 group showed strong CXCR4 expressions in both cancer and stromal compartments, while low-CD163 group showed relatively weak, stromal-dominant CXCR4 expressions. Additionally, CD163 and CXCR4 expressions showed a strong positive correlation (γ2=0.432, P=0.013).

Conclusion

Increased number of TAMs showed poor overall survival in ATC, suggesting TAMs are potentially a prognostic biomarker for ATC. CXCR4 expression was significantly correlated with CD163-positive TAM densities, which suggest the possible role of CXCR4 in TAM recruitments.

Citations

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  • IL2RA+VSIG4+ tumor-associated macrophage is a key subpopulation of the immunosuppressive microenvironment in anaplastic thyroid cancer
    Zongfu Pan, Lisha Bao, Xixuan Lu, Xiaoping Hu, Lu Li, Jinming Chen, Tiefeng Jin, Yiwen Zhang, Zhuo Tan, Ping Huang, Minghua Ge
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    Mingyuan Song, Qi Liu, Wei Sun, Hao Zhang
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Clinical Study
Characteristics of Body Composition and Muscle Strength of North Korean Refugees during South Korean Stay
Sun Wook Cho, So Hee Lee, Eun Sil Koh, Si Eun Kim, Seok Joong Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(4):551-556.   Published online December 31, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.4.551
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of body composition and muscle strength of North Korean refugees (NKRs) according to their duration of stay in South Korea.

Methods

NKRs who volunteered and were living in South Korea, aged 20 to 75 years were recruited. Body compositions were analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength was measured with the hand grip test. Demographic and migration information was obtained with a questionnaire.

Results

A total of 158 volunteers were recruited at a mean age of 48.3±11.4 years. The mean time from when they escaped from North Korea and arrived in South Korea was 5.8±4.3 years. Height, weight, and body surface area were significantly smaller in all NKRs compared to South Korean controls, except for women aged over 50 years. In females of younger ages (<50 years), NKRs with more than a 4-year stay in South Korea had a higher weight and fat mass than that of those who had a shorter stay (less than 4 years) in South Korea. All NKRs had a weaker grip strength than that of the age-matched controls from South Korea.

Conclusion

The NKRs showed relatively smaller physiques and weaker muscle strength than that of the South Korean controls. In younger female NKRs, shorter South Korean stay group showed small body weight and fat mass than that of longer South Korean stay group. Specific health support programs might be needed.

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Thyroid
The Expression of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Seunghwan Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Hye Sook Min, Kang Min Kim, Gye Jeong Yeom, Eun Young Kim, Kyu Eun Lee, Yeo Gyu Yun, Do Joon Park, Young Joo Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2013;28(3):192-198.   Published online September 13, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2013.28.3.192
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a tumorigenic role related to advanced staging and poor prognosis in many human cancers including thyroid cancers. Yet, a functional role of TAMs in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate TAM expression in human PTC with lymph node (LN) metastasis.

Methods

Thirty-six patients who underwent surgery after being diagnosed with PTC with LN metastasis were included. Primary tumor tissues were immunohistochemically stained with an anti-CD68 antibody and clinical characteristics according to TAM density were evaluated.

Results

The TAM densities (CD68+ cells) varied from 5% to 70%, in all tumor areas, while few cells were stained in adjacent normal tissues. TAMs were identified as CD68+ cells with thin, elongated cytoplasmic extensions that formed a canopy structure over tumor cells. Comparing clinicopathologic characteristics between tumors with low (<25%) and high (25% to 70%) TAM densities, primary tumors were larger in the high density group than in the low density group (2.0±0.1 vs. 1.5±0.1; P=0.009).

Conclusion

TAMs were identified in primary PTC tumors with LN metastasis and higher TAM densities were related to larger tumor sizes, suggesting a tumorigenic role of TAMs in human PTCs.

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Androgen Receptor Gene CAG Repeat Polymorphism and Effect of Testosterone Therapy in Hypogonadal Men in Korea.
Min Joo Kim, Jin Taek Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Sang Wan Kim, Chan Soo Shin, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(3):225-231.   Published online September 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.3.225
  • 1,916 View
  • 23 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
As the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor (AR) gene increases, transcriptional activities decrease and the effects of testosterone decline. In this study, we evaluated the importance of the CAG repeat polymorphism in regard to the effect/safety of testosterone therapy in hypogonadal Korean men. METHODS: The number of CAG repeats was determined in 42 hypogonadal men who underwent testosterone therapy for more than 24 months between December 1999 and August 2007. Body mass index, lean body mass, body fat, bone mineral density, type I collagen N-telopeptide (NTx), osteocalcin, lipid profile, hematocrit and PSA levels prior to and after 24 months of testosterone therapy were identified in our medical record review. RESULTS: Twenty-four months of testosterone therapy increased lean body mass, hematocrit, and PSA levels and reduced body fat, NTx, and HDL cholesterol levels. The mean number of CAG repeats in the AR gene was 23 +/- 3 (range, 15-29) in hypogonadal Korean men. The number of CAG repeats was not found to be associated with changes in lean body mass, body fat, NTx, HDL cholesterol, hematocrit, or PSA levels during testosterone therapy. CONCLUSIONS: No association between the number of CAG repeats in the AR gene and the effect/safety of testosterone therapy was detected in hypogonadal Korean men.

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  • Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length as a Risk Factor of Late-Onset Hypogonadism in a Korean Male Population
    Jong Wook Kim, Young Dae Bae, Sun Tae Ahn, Jin Wook Kim, Je Jong Kim, Du Geon Moon
    Sexual Medicine.2018; 6(3): 203.     CrossRef
  • Positive Correlation between Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length and Metabolic Syndrome in a Korean Male Population
    Jong Wook Kim, Young Dae Bae, Sun Tae Ahn, Jin Wook Kim, Je Jong Kim, Du Geon Moon
    The World Journal of Men's Health.2018; 36(1): 73.     CrossRef
  • Genome-Based Approaches in Endocrinology and Metabolism: From Clinical and Research Aspects
    Sihoon Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2011; 26(3): 208.     CrossRef
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Association of the Parathyroid Adenoma Volume and the Biochemical Parameters in Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Yul Hwang-Bo, Jung Hee Kim, Jee Hyun An, Eun Shil Hong, Jung Hun Ohn, Eun Ky Kim, Ah Reum Khang, Sun Wook Cho, Do Joon Park, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Bo Youn Cho, Chan Soo Shin
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(1):62-66.   Published online March 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.1.62
  • 1,766 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The objective of this study is to demonstrate the relationship between the volume of a parathyroid adenoma and the preoperative biochemical parameters in patients undergoing surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism. METHODS: The medical records of 68 patients who underwent a parathyroidectomy for a single parathyroid adenoma were retrospectively reviewed. The volume of the adenoma was estimated using its measured size and a mathematical formula. The correlation between the volume of the parathyroid adenoma and the preoperative laboratory data was assessed. RESULTS: There were no correlations between the estimated volume of the adenoma and the serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone levels. However, the volume of the adenoma was associated with the preoperative level of serum phosphorus. After excluding 5 adenomas with cystic degeneration, a positive correlation was noted between the adenoma volume and the preoperative levels of alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone. CONCLUSION: The preoperative serum levels of calcium, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone are of limited use to predict the volume of the parathyroid adenoma in patients with a single parathyroid adenoma. We suggest that the absence of a correlation between the volume of the adenoma and the biochemical parameters can be attributed to the cystic degeneration of the adenomas.

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  • Differentiating pathologic parathyroid glands from thyroid nodules on neck ultrasound: the PARATH-US cross-sectional study
    Dolly Yazgi, Carine Richa, Sylvie Salenave, Peter Kamenicky, Amel Bourouina, Lorraine Clavier, Margot Dupeux, Jean-François Papon, Jacques Young, Philippe Chanson, Luigi Maione
    The Lancet Regional Health - Europe.2023; 35: 100751.     CrossRef
  • Primer hiperparatiroidide Tc99m-MIBI sintigrafi sonuçlarının biyokimyasal ve histopatolojik bulgular ile ilişkisi
    Seda TURGUT, Ezgi Başak ERDOĞAN
    OSMANGAZİ JOURNAL OF MEDICINE.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Letter: Association of the Parathyroid Adenoma Volume and the Biochemical Parameters in Primary Hyperparathyroidism (Endocrinol Metab 26:62-66, 2011, Yul Hwang-Bo et al.)
    Dong Jin Chung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2011; 26(2): 185.     CrossRef
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Clinical Characteristics of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Hypothalamo-Pituitary Involvement.
Eun Shil Hong, Jung Hun Ohn, Jung Hee Kim, Yul Hwang-Bo, Jin Joo Kim, Jung Hee Kwon, Jung Won Lee, Se Youn Choi, Eun Kyung Lee, Sun Wook Cho, Chan Soo Shin, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang, Seong Yeon Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2011;26(1):38-43.   Published online March 1, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2011.26.1.38
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease that involves a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. LCH has a predilection for hypothalamo-pituitary axis (HPA) dysfunction, and this leads to diabetes insipidus (DI) and/or anterior pituitary dysfunction. Here, we describe the endocrine dysfunction and clinical characteristics of adult patients with LCH and we analyzed the differences between an adult-onset type and a childhood-onset type. METHODS: The data was obtained from a retrospective chart review of the patients with LCH that involved the HPA and who attended Seoul National University Hospital. The patients were classified into the adult-onset type (age at the time of diagnosis > or = 16) and the childhood-onset type (age at the time of diagnosis < or = 15). RESULTS: Ten patients (9 males and 1 female) were diagnosed with LCH involving the HPA. Five patients were classified as an adultonset type and the other five patients were classified as a childhood-onset type. The median follow-up duration was 6 (3-12) years for the adult-onset type and 16 (15-22) years for the childhood-onset type. All the patients presented with DI as the initial manifestation of HPA involvement. Four adult-onset patients and three childhood-onset patients had a multi-system disease. Panhypopituitarism developed in three adult-onset patients and in one childhood-onset patient. The pituitary lesion of the three adult-onset patients had spread to the brain during the follow-up duration. In contrast, the pituitary lesion of the other two adult-onset patients without panhypopituitarism and all the childhood-onset patients had not changed. CONCLUSION: DI was the initial presentation symptom of HPA involvement. Anterior pituitary hormone deficiency followed in some patients. Compared with the childhood-onset patients, the adult-onset patients were more likely to have panhypopituitarism and a poor prognosis.

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  • Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report
    Yeun Seoung Choi, Jung Soo Lim, Woocheol Kwon, Soon-Hee Jung, Il Hwan Park, Myoung Kyu Lee, Won Yeon Lee, Suk Joong Yong, Seok Jeong Lee, Ye-Ryung Jung, Jiwon Choi, Ji Sun Choi, Joon Taek Jeong, Jin Sae Yoo, Sang-Ha Kim
    Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.2015; 78(4): 463.     CrossRef
  • Adult Multisystem Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus Successfully Treated with Chemotherapy
    Jung-Eun Choi, Hae Ri Lee, Jung Hun Ohn, Min Kyong Moon, Juri Park, Seong Jin Lee, Moon-Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Jung Han Kim, Eun-Gyoung Hong
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2014; 29(3): 394.     CrossRef
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Characteristics and Natural Course of Pituitary Incidentaloma in Korea.
You Jin Lee, Sun Wook Cho, Sang Wan Kim, Chan Soo Shin, Kyong Soo Park, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Seong Yeon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(2):111-116.   Published online April 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.2.111
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
A pituitary incidentaloma is a pituitary mass discovered incidentally by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MRI) of the brain performed for evaluation of an unrelated disease, and when the patient did not show neurological or endocrine signs and symptoms. Despite of increasing incidence, only a few studies have reported on characteristics, natural history, treatment, or follow-up strategy. Moreover no epidemiologic data exist on pituitary incidentaloma in Korean. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled subjects diagnosed as pituitary incidentaloma in Seoul National University Hospital from January 1992 to August 2006. We reviewed baseline demographic findings and the results of basal hormone tests, visual field test, and MRI (or CT) at baseline and during follow-up. RESULTS: Among 1310 patients with pituitary adenoma, 161 subjects were diagnosed with incidentaloma. The subject age at diagnosis was 49.7 +/- 15.5 years, with 84 males. Macroadenoma was more frequent (n = 110, 68.3%). with microadenomas and Rathke's cleft cysts found in 21 and 30 cases, respectively. The mean diameter of the tumor was 1.75 cm. Functional incidentalomas such as prolactinoma or acromegaly were found in 31 cases (19.3%) although there were no symptoms or visual field defects. Of 61 incidentaloma patients who did not undergo surgery or other treatment over one year, only 3 patient showed an increase in tumor size during the mean 38.0 +/- 24.9 months follow-up. CONCLUSION: Pituitary incidentaloma generally showed a benign course despite the high prevalence of macroadenoma (68.3%). However, as about 20% of the patients had functioning tumors, pituitary hormonal evaluation at diagnosis is mandatory. Furthermore, as we experienced 3 cases with increased tumor size during follow up, including a case of pituitary microadenoma, long-term careful follow-up of pituitary incidentaloma seems necessary. A long-term, prospective study with more patients would reveal the characteristics and the natural history of pituitary incidentalomas in Korea.

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  • Sellar Masses: An Epidemiological Study
    Khaled Al-Dahmani, Syed Mohammad, Fatima Imran, Chris Theriault, Steve Doucette, Deborah Zwicker, Churn-Ern Yip, David B. Clarke, Syed Ali Imran
    Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences / Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques.2016; 43(2): 291.     CrossRef
  • Optimal Surgical Approaches for Rathke Cleft Cyst With Consideration of Endocrine Function
    Jeong Kyung Park, Eun Jig Lee, Sun Ho Kim
    Operative Neurosurgery.2012; 70: ons250.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Characteristics of 16 Patients with Pituitary Tumor Incidentally Detected by18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET-CT (18F-FDG PET-CT)
    Hyung Jin Kim, Gi Jeong Cheon, A Ra Cho, Chang Hoon Lee, Sang Min Youn, Se jin Ahn, Sang Eon Jang, Jung Min Kim, Yun Yong Lee, Ka Hee Yi
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2010; 25(4): 321.     CrossRef
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A Case of Aortic Dissection Associated with Cushing's Syndrome.
Soo Heon Kwak, Eun Jung Lee, Sun Wook Cho, Hyung Jin Choi, Eun Kyung Lee, Young Min Cho, Seong Yeon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(6):556-559.   Published online December 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.6.556
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Herein is reported the case of a 43-year-old woman, who experienced an acute aortic dissection associated with underlying Cushing's syndrome. The patient had central obesity and a moon face of ten years duration, but had never sought medical consultation. On the day of her presentation, she experienced a severe chest pain radiating to her back. Computed tomography revealed a Stanford type B acute aortic dissection and a left adrenal mass. From her hormonal study results, clinical symptoms and signs, she was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome, which was due to a left adrenal adenoma. After medical treatment to stabilize the aortic dissection, she underwent left adrenalectomy. The aortic lesion of the present patient suggests that hypercortisolemia arising from Cushing's syndrome might be related to the development of acute aortic dissection.
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Cystic Insulinoma of the Pancreas.
Sun Wook Cho, Eun Jung Lee, Soo Heon Kwak, Young Min Cho, Chan Soo Shin, Kyong Soo Park, Seong Yeon Kim, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(6):552-555.   Published online December 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.6.552
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Cystic islet cell neoplasms are among the rarest entities in the differential diagnosis of cystic tumor of the pancreas, and this malady raises difficult clinical problems. The diagnosis of insulinoma could be difficult if the functional activity is incomplete, which possibly leads to blunted symptoms of hypoglycemia and failure in the laboratory to provide evidence of hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, if the imaging shows a smaller tumor than usual or an unusual morphology like cyctic tumor, then physicians can become somewhat confused. We report here on a clinical case of cystic insulinoma with the typical neuroglycopenic symptoms and laboratory-confirmed hyperinsulinemia. At resection, a 2-cm cavitary mass without central necrosis was excised and this was confirmed histologically as a purely cystic insulioma. This is the first report of a functional cystic insulinoma of the pancreas in Korea. We suggest that the differential diagnosis of endocrine tumor must be considered for any pancreatic cyst, and especially when it is discovered in a patient who is clinically suggestive of having the associated syndrome.
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A Case of Protein-losing Enteropathy with an Abnormal Cortisol Response to ACTH Stimulation.
Hong Il Kim, Bo Kyeong Koo, You Jin Lee, Eun Jung Lee, Soo Heon Kwak, Sun Wook Cho, Hyung Jin Choi, Young Min Cho, Seong Yeon Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(1):90-95.   Published online February 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.1.90
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We hereby report a case of a 62-year-old male patient who was misdiagnosed with adrenal insufficiency during the course of protein-losing enteropathy caused by superior mesenteric arterial thrombosis. The patient was suspected to have adrenal insufficiency due to hyponatremia and severe weakness. The cortisol responses to the initial challenge of 250microgram ACTH were inadequate (maximum serum cortisol level after ACTH challenge was 10.9microgram/dL), while the serum albumin concentration was 1.9g/dL. Subsequently, intravenous steroid therapy was given to the patient. However, after bowel resection, the serum albumin level increased to 3.4g/dL and the cortisol response to the follow-up rapid ACTH stimulation was completely normal. Accordingly, we discontinued steroid replacement and discharged the patient without any problem. In conclusion, measuring total serum cortisol in a patient with hypo-pro-teinemia may lead to misdiagnosis of adrenal insufficiency. In such cases, caution should be exercised in interpreting the results in terms of total serum cortisol level or measurement of serum free cortisol levels should be considered.
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