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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism


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Sang Mo Hong  (Hong SM) 5 Articles
Diagnosis and Treatment of Growth Hormone Deficiency: A Position Statement from Korean Endocrine Society and Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology
Jung Hee Kim, Hyun Wook Chae, Sang Ouk Chin, Cheol Ryong Ku, Kyeong Hye Park, Dong Jun Lim, Kwang Joon Kim, Jung Soo Lim, Gyuri Kim, Yun Mi Choi, Seong Hee Ahn, Min Ji Jeon, Yul Hwangbo, Ju Hee Lee, Bu Kyung Kim, Yong Jun Choi, Kyung Ae Lee, Seong-Su Moon, Hwa Young Ahn, Hoon Sung Choi, Sang Mo Hong, Dong Yeob Shin, Ji A Seo, Se Hwa Kim, Seungjoon Oh, Sung Hoon Yu, Byung Joon Kim, Choong Ho Shin, Sung-Woon Kim, Chong Hwa Kim, Eun Jig Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(2):272-287.   Published online June 24, 2020
  • 9,656 View
  • 438 Download
  • 14 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is caused by congenital or acquired causes and occurs in childhood or adulthood. GH replacement therapy brings benefits to body composition, exercise capacity, skeletal health, cardiovascular outcomes, and quality of life. Before initiating GH replacement, GH deficiency should be confirmed through proper stimulation tests, and in cases with proven genetic causes or structural lesions, repeated GH stimulation testing is not necessary. The dosing regimen of GH replacement therapy should be individualized, with the goal of minimizing side effects and maximizing clinical improvements. The Korean Endocrine Society and the Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology have developed a position statement on the diagnosis and treatment of GH deficiency. This position statement is based on a systematic review of evidence and expert opinions.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Once-Weekly Somapacitan as an Alternative Management of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Prepubertal Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trial
    Ghina Tsurayya, Cut Alifiya Nazhifah, Muhammad Rahmat Pirwanja, Putri Oktaviani Zulfa, Muhammad Raihan Ramadhan Tatroman, Fajar Fakri, Muhammad Iqhrammullah
    Children.2024; 11(2): 227.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy, safety, and patient satisfaction of norditropin and sogroya in patients with growth hormone deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Obieda Altobaishat, Mohamed Abouzid, Mostafa Hossam El Din Moawad, Abdulrahman Sharaf, Yazan Al-Ajlouni, Tungki Pratama Umar, Abdallah Bani-salameh, Mohammad Tanashat, Omar Abdullah Bataineh, Abdulqadir J. Nashwan
    Endocrine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of Adult Height in Patients with Non-Permanent Idiopathic GH Deficiency
    Agnese Murianni, Anna Lussu, Chiara Guzzetti, Anastasia Ibba, Letizia Casula, Mariacarolina Salerno, Marco Cappa, Sandro Loche
    Endocrines.2023; 4(1): 169.     CrossRef
  • The effect of hypothalamic involvement and growth hormone treatment on cardiovascular risk factors during the transition period in patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma
    Sang Hee Park, Yun Jeong Lee, Jung-Eun Cheon, Choong Ho Shin, Hae Woon Jung, Young Ah Lee
    Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 28(2): 107.     CrossRef
  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring: A Possible Aid for Detecting Hypoglycemic Events during Insulin Tolerance Tests
    Soo Yeun Sim, Moon Bae Ahn
    Sensors.2023; 23(15): 6892.     CrossRef
  • The risk patients with AGHD have of developing CVD
    Eisha Javed, Maha Zehra, Naz Elahi
    International Journal of Cardiology Cardiovascular Risk and Prevention.2023; 19: 200221.     CrossRef
  • Diagnosis of GH Deficiency Without GH Stimulation Tests
    Anastasia Ibba, Sandro Loche
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Metabolic Impacts of Discontinuation and Resumption of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment during the Transition Period in Patients with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency
    Yun Jeong Lee, Yunha Choi, Han-Wook Yoo, Young Ah Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Han Saem Choi, Ho-Seong Kim, Jae Hyun Kim, Jung Eun Moon, Cheol Woo Ko, Moon Bae Ahn, Byung-Kyu Suh, Jin-Ho Choi
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(2): 359.     CrossRef
  • A Radiomics-Based Model with the Potential to Differentiate Growth Hormone Deficiency and Idiopathic Short Stature on Sella MRI
    Taeyoun Lee, Kyungchul Song, Beomseok Sohn, Jihwan Eom, Sung Soo Ahn, Ho-Seong Kim, Seung-Koo Lee
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2022; 63(9): 856.     CrossRef
  • Phenotypic spectrum of patients with mutations in CHD7: clinical implications of endocrinological findings
    Ja Hye Kim, Yunha Choi, Soojin Hwang, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo, Jin-Ho Choi
    Endocrine Connections.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Endocrine Disorders: A Position Statement from the Korean Endocrine Society
    Hyemi Kwon, Eun Roh, Chang Ho Ahn, Hee Kyung Kim, Cheol Ryong Ku, Kyong Yeun Jung, Ju Hee Lee, Eun Heui Kim, Sunghwan Suh, Sangmo Hong, Jeonghoon Ha, Jun Sung Moon, Jin Hwa Kim, Mi-kyung Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(6): 839.     CrossRef
  • Laron syndrome: clinic, diagnostics (а clinical case)
    P.M. Lіashuk, R.P. Lіashuk, N.I. Stankova, M.B. Kudina
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine).2022; 18(3): 193.     CrossRef
  • Diagnosis for Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: A Joint Position Statement of the Korean Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma Task Force
    Eu Jeong Ku, Kyoung Jin Kim, Jung Hee Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Chang Ho Ahn, Kyung Ae Lee, Seung Hun Lee, You-Bin Lee, Kyeong Hye Park, Yun Mi Choi, Namki Hong, A Ram Hong, Sang-Wook Kang, Byung Kwan Park, Moon-Woo Seong, Myungshin Kim, Kyeong Cheon Jung, Chan
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(2): 322.     CrossRef
  • Asian Conference on Tumor Ablation Guidelines for Adrenal Tumor Ablation
    Byung Kwan Park, Masashi Fujimori, Shu-Huei Shen, Uei Pua
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(3): 553.     CrossRef
  • Asian Conference on Tumor Ablation guidelines for renal cell carcinoma
    Byung Kwan Park, Shu-Huei Shen, Masashi Fujimori, Yi Wang
    Investigative and Clinical Urology.2021; 62(4): 378.     CrossRef
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency
    Jung Hee Kim
    The Korean Journal of Medicine.2021; 96(5): 400.     CrossRef
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Clinical Study
Changes in Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies Might Be Associated with Graves' Disease Relapse after Antithyroid Drug Therapy
Yun Mi Choi, Mi Kyung Kwak, Sang Mo Hong, Eun-Gyoung Hong
Endocrinol Metab. 2019;34(3):268-274.   Published online September 26, 2019
  • 6,972 View
  • 130 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   

Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune thyroid disorder caused by antibodies stimulating the thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) measurement is useful for predicting GD relapse after antithyroid drug (ATD) treatment. However, the association of other thyroid autoantibodies with GD relapse remains obscure.


This retrospective study enrolled patients with GD who were initially treated with ATD. TRAb, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were measured at the initial diagnosis and at the time of ATD discontinuation.


A total of 55 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 49.7 years, and 39 patients (70.9%) were female. Antibody positivity at diagnosis was 90.9%, 69.1%, and 61.9% for TRAb, TPOAb, TgAb, respectively. Median ATD treatment period was 15.1 months. At the time of ATD withdrawal, TRAb titers decreased uniformly overall. Conversely, TPOAb and TgAb showed various changes. After withdrawal of ATD, 19 patients (34.5%) experienced relapse. No clinical features or laboratory results were significantly related to relapse in the overall patient group. However, in the TPOAb positive group at diagnosis, increasing titer of TPOAb or TgAb after ATD treatment was significantly and independently related to relapse free survival (TPOAb: hazard ratio [HR], 17.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 to 195.43; P=0.02) (TgAb: HR, 5.73; 95% CI, 1.21 to 27.26; P=0.03).


Changes in TPOAb or TgAb titers during treatment might be useful for predicting relapse after ATD treatment in patients with positive TPOAb at diagnosis.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Enhanced predictive validity of integrative models for refractory hyperthyroidism considering baseline and early therapy characteristics: a prospective cohort study
    Xinpan Wang, Tiantian Li, Yue Li, Qiuyi Wang, Yun Cai, Zhixiao Wang, Yun Shi, Tao Yang, Xuqin Zheng
    Journal of Translational Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical significance of thyroglobulin antibodies and thyroid peroxidase antibodies in Graves’ disease: a cross-sectional study
    Masahito Katahira, Taku Tsunekawa, Akira Mizoguchi, Mariko Yamaguchi, Kahori Tsuru, Hiromi Takashima, Ryoma Terada
    Hormones.2023; 22(2): 253.     CrossRef
  • The Clinical Implications of Anti-thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies in Graves’ Disease in Basrah
    Emad S Alhubaish, Nassar T Alibrahim, Abbas A Mansour
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Influence of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies Serum Levels in Graves' Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    Maria L Guia Lopes, Carlos Tavares Bello, José P Cidade, Clotilde Limbert, Joao Sequeira Duarte
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Interpretation of Thyroid Autoantibodies in Hyperthyroidism
    Han-Sang Baek, Dong-Jun Lim
    The Korean Journal of Medicine.2023; 98(3): 132.     CrossRef
  • Usefulness of Real-Time Quantitative Microvascular Ultrasonography for Differentiation of Graves’ Disease from Destructive Thyroiditis in Thyrotoxic Patients
    Han-Sang Baek, Ji-Yeon Park, Chai-Ho Jeong, Jeonghoon Ha, Moo Il Kang, Dong-Jun Lim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(2): 323.     CrossRef
  • Differential Diagnosis of Thyrotoxicosis by Machine Learning Models with Laboratory Findings
    Jinyoung Kim, Han-Sang Baek, Jeonghoon Ha, Mee Kyoung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Ki-Ho Song, Dong-Jun Lim, Ki-Hyun Baek
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(6): 1468.     CrossRef
  • The relationship between atherosclerotic disease and relapse during ATD treatment
    Xinxin Zhu, Yaguang Zhang, Xiaoyu Zhao, Xiaona Zhang, Zixuan Ru, Yanmeizhi Wu, Xu Yang, Boyu Hou, Hong Qiao
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Programmed Cell Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Graves’ Disease and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis in Korean Patients
    Jee Hee Yoon, Min-ho Shin, Hee Nam Kim, Wonsuk Choi, Ji Yong Park, A Ram Hong, Hee Kyung Kim, Ho-Cheol Kang
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(3): 599.     CrossRef
  • Low frequency of IL-10-producing B cells and high density of ILC2s contribute to the pathological process in Graves’ disease, which may be related to elevated-TRAb levels
    Xiaoyun Ji, Jie Wan, Rong Chen, Huixuan Wang, Lan Huang, Shwngjun Wang, Zhaoliang Su, Huaxi Xu
    Autoimmunity.2020; 53(2): 78.     CrossRef
  • Implication of VDR rs7975232 and FCGR2A rs1801274 gene polymorphisms in the risk and the prognosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases in the Tunisian population
    S Mestiri, I Zaaber, I Nasr, H Marmouch
    Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics.2020; 23(1): 69.     CrossRef
  • Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Positivity is Associated With Relapse-Free Survival Following Antithyroid Drug Treatment for Graves Disease
    Christopher A. Muir, Graham R.D. Jones, Jerry R. Greenfield, Andrew Weissberger, Katherine Samaras
    Endocrine Practice.2020; 26(9): 1026.     CrossRef
  • Predicting the Risk of Graves Disease Relapse: Commentary on “Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Positivity is Associated with Relapse-Free Survival Following Antithyroid Drug Treatment for Graves Disease”
    D. Gallo, M.L. Tanda, E. Piantanida
    Endocrine Practice.2020; 26(9): 1039.     CrossRef
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Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Presenting with Gynecomastia
Sung Won Lee, Dong Shin Kwak, In Sub Jung, Joo Hee Kwak, Jung Hwan Park, Sang Mo Hong, Chang Bum Lee, Yong Soo Park, Dong Sun Kim, Woong Hwan Choi, You Hern Ahn
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(2):226-230.   Published online June 30, 2015
  • 7,055 View
  • 72 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Gynecomastia is a benign enlargement of the male breast caused by the proliferation of glandular breast tissue. Determining the various causes of gynecomastia such as physiological causes, drugs, systemic diseases, and endocrine disorders is important. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare endocrine disorder presenting with gynecomastia and is a disorder of male sexual differentiation caused by mutations within the androgen receptor gene. All individuals with AIS have the 46 XY karyotype, although AIS phenotypes can be classified as mild, partial or complete and can differ among both males and females including ambiguous genitalia or infertility in males. We experienced a case of partial AIS presenting with gynecomastia and identified the androgen receptor gene mutation.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A case of mild partial androgen insensitivity syndrome in a juvenile boy
    Fen Wang, Shiying Shao, Wentao He, Shuhong Hu
    Journal of International Medical Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gynecomastia in adolescent males: current understanding of its etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment
    Kotb Abbass Metwalley, Hekma Saad Farghaly
    Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024; 29(2): 75.     CrossRef
  • Clinical outcomes and genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with complete and partial androgen insensitivity syndromes
    Nae-yun Lee, Ja Hye Kim, Ji-Hee Yoon, Soojin Hwang, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo, Jin-Ho Choi
    Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 28(3): 184.     CrossRef
  • The Impact and Management of Gynaecomastia in Klinefelter Syndrome
    Amr Abdel Raheem, Ahmed Said Zaghloul, Ahmed M. G. Sadek, Bilal Rayes, Tarek M. Abdel-Raheem
    Frontiers in Reproductive Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Identification of Potential Genes in Pathogenesis and Diagnostic Value Analysis of Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Using Bioinformatics Analysis
    Yajie Peng, Hui Zhu, Bing Han, Yue Xu, Xuemeng Liu, Huaidong Song, Jie Qiao
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Adolescent Gynecomastia due to Minimal Androgen Resistance Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review
    Aureliano Fiorini, Margherita Sepich, Margherita Pontrelli, Giorgio Sangriso, Mirna Cosci o Di Coscio, Marcella Lauletta, Fulvia Baldinotti, Diego Peroni, Maria Rosaria Ambrosio, Silvano Bertelloni
    Sexual Development.2020; 14(1-6): 21.     CrossRef
  • Endocrine and molecular investigations in a cohort of 25 adolescent males with prominent/persistent pubertal gynecomastia
    F. Paris, L. Gaspari, F. Mbou, P. Philibert, F. Audran, Y. Morel, A. Biason‐Lauber, C. Sultan
    Andrology.2016; 4(2): 263.     CrossRef
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A Case of Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis with Thyrotoxicosis in an Elderly Patient
Bo Sang Kim, Kil Woo Nam, Jeong Eun Kim, Ji Hoon Park, Jun Sik Yoon, Jung Hwan Park, Sang Mo Hong, Chang Bum Lee, Yong Soo Park, Woong Hwan Choi, You Hern Ahn, Dong Sun Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2013;28(1):50-54.   Published online March 25, 2013
  • 4,913 View
  • 48 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST) is a rare condition, as the thyroid gland is relatively resistant to infection. Thyroid function tests are usually normal in AST. A few cases of AST associated with thyrotoxicosis have been reported in adults. We report a case of AST that was associated with thyrotoxicosis in a 70-year-old woman. We diagnosed AST with thyroid ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration of pus. The patient improved after surgical intervention and had no anatomical abnormality. Fine needle aspiration is the best method for the difficult task of differentiating malignancy and subacute thyroiditis from AST with thyrotoxicosis. Earlier diagnosis and proper treatment for AST might improve the outcome.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Acute suppurative thyroiditis with Graves disease – A very rare association
    Inês Damásio, Joana Maciel, Maria Manuel Costa, Luisa Raimundo
    Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Thyrotoxicosis as a rare presentation in acute suppurative thyroiditis: a case report
    Zeynab Seyedjavadeyn, Seyed Amir Miratashi Yazdi, Alireza Samimiat, Matin Vahedi
    Journal of Medical Case Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Subakute Thyreoiditis und akute suppurative Thyreoiditis
    Christian Trummer, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Stefan Pilz
    Journal für Klinische Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel.2020; 13(3): 124.     CrossRef
  • Infection of Thyroid Cyst Occurring 1 Month after Fine-Needle Aspiration in an Immunocompetent Patient
    Jung Kyu Park, Eon Ju Jeon
    International Journal of Thyroidology.2018; 11(2): 182.     CrossRef
  • Brief Review of Articles in 'Endocrinology and Metabolism' in 2013
    Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2014; 29(3): 251.     CrossRef
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A Case of Pseudohypoparathyroidism with Graves' Disease.
Gil Woo Lee, Jae Hoon Kim, Kang Won Lee, Sa Il Kim, Sang Mo Hong, Dong Sun Kim, Woong Hwan Choi, You Hern Ahn, Tae Wha Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2010;25(3):221-225.   Published online September 1, 2010
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  • 27 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a rare disease that is characterized by target cell resistance to the effects of parathyroid hormone and this disease is classified into various types depending on the phenotypic and biochemical findings. The patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism present with the clinical and biochemical features of hypoparathyroidism, but they have an increased serum level of parathyroid hormone. We experienced a case of pseudohypoparathyroidism in a 24 years old woman who had Graves' disease at that time. She had hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, an elevated serum parathyroid hormone level and a normal urinary basal cyclic AMP(adenosine monophosphate) level. She also had a normal phenotypic appearance. Therefore, she was classified as suffering with pseudohypoparathyroidism type II. The clinical and laboratory abnormalities were improved by calcium supplementation in addition to vitamin D. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of pseudohypoparathyroidism combined with Graves' disease in Korea.
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