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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism


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Kyung-Do Han  (Han KD) 4 Articles
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Association among Current Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, Regular Exercise, and Lower Extremity Amputation in Patients with Diabetic Foot: Nationwide Population-Based Study
Yoon Jae Lee, Kyung-Do Han, Jun Hyeok Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(5):770-780.   Published online October 12, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
The present study investigates whether modifiable behavioral factors of current cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and regular exercise are associated with risk of lower extremity amputation (LEA) in diabetic patients.
A total of 2,644,440 diabetic patients (aged ≥20 years) was analyzed using the database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for the behavioral factors with risk of LEA under adjustment for potential confounders.
The risk of LEA was significantly increased by current cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol consumption (HR, 1.436; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.367 to 1.508 and HR, 1.082; 95% CI, 1.011 to 1.158) but significantly decreased with regular exercise (HR, 0.745; 95% CI, 0.706 to 0.786) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, low income, hypertension, dyslipidemia, body mass index, using insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs, and diabetic duration. A synergistically increased risk of LEA was observed with larger number of risky behaviors.
Modification of behaviors of current smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and exercise prevents LEA and can improve physical, emotional, and social quality of life in diabetic patients.
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
The Effects of Glucose Lowering Agents on the Secondary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Inha Jung, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Kyung-Do Han, Yong-Gyu Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2021;36(5):977-987.   Published online October 14, 2021
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Patients with diabetes have a higher risk of requiring repeated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) than non-diabetic patients. We aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of anti-diabetic drugs on the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
We analyzed the general health check-up dataset and claims data of the Korean National Health Insurance Service of 199,714 participants (age ≥30 years) who underwent PCIs between 2010 and 2013. Those who underwent additional PCI within 1 year of their first PCI (n=3,325) and those who died within 1 year (n=1,312) were excluded. Patients were classified according to their prescription records for glucose-lowering agents. The primary endpoint was the incidence rate of coronary revascularization.
A total of 35,348 patients were included in the study. Metformin significantly decreased the risk of requiring repeat PCI in all patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.77). In obese patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2, patients treated with thiazolidinedione (TZD) exhibited a decreased risk of requiring repeat revascularization than those who were not treated with TZD (aHR, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 0.95). Patients treated with metformin showed a decreased risk of requiring revascularization regardless of their BMI. Insulin, meglitinide, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor were associated with increased risk of repeated PCI.
The risk of requiring repeat revascularization was lower in diabetic patients treated with metformin and in obese patients treated with TZD. These results suggest that physicians should choose appropriate glucose-lowering agents for the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effect of metformin on adverse outcomes in T2DM patients: Systemic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
    Zhicheng Xu, Haidong Zhang, Chenghui Wu, Yuxiang Zheng, Jingzhou Jiang
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Establishment of a Predictive Model for Poor Prognosis of Incomplete Revascularization in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and Multivessel Disease
    Huan Lian, Zhuoyan Zhao, Kelin Ma, Zhenjiang Ding, Lixian Sun, Ying Zhang
    Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis.2022; 28: 107602962211392.     CrossRef
Clinical Study
The Prevalence and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Adults with Disabilities in Korea
Inha Jung, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Kyung-Do Han, Yong-Gyu Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(3):552-561.   Published online July 22, 2020
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  • 5 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
People with disabilities are at risk of secondary conditions such as diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk of type 2 diabetes in South Korea, especially among people with all types of disabilities.
We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service, with two disabilityfree controls matched for each participant with disabilities by age and sex. Information regarding the type, severity and grade of disabilities was obtained based on the National Disability Registry. Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was defined according to the following criteria: presence of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification codes E11, E12, E13, or E14 and claims for at least one oral anti-diabetic agent or insulin at baseline, or fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL.
We included 1,297,806 participants with disabilities and 2,943,719 control. Out of 4,241,525 participants, 841,990 (19.9%) were diagnosed with diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes was higher in the disability group compared with individuals without disabilities (23.1% vs. 18.4%). The odds of having diabetes was higher in the disability group compared with the control group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 1.34). The results showed higher prevalence of diabetes in the mildly disabled group (23.2%) than in the severely disabled group (22.7%).
The prevalence and risk of diabetes were higher in people with disabilities compared with the general population. Physicians and public health authorities should focus on people with disabilities for proper diabetes management.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Disparities in diabetes-related avoidable hospitalization among diabetes patients with disability using a nationwide cohort study
    Hin Moi Youn, Dong-Woo Choi, Sung-In Jang, Eun-Cheol Park
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Disability type–specific mortality patterns and life expectancy among disabled people in South Korea using 10-year combined data between 2008 and 2017
    Jinwook Bahk, Hee-Yeon Kang, Young-Ho Khang
    Preventive Medicine Reports.2022; 29: 101958.     CrossRef
  • Cholecystectomy reduces the risk of myocardial and cerebral infarction in patients with gallstone-related infection
    Seon Mee Park, Hyun Jung Kim, Tae Uk Kang, Heather Swan, Hyeong Sik Ahn
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cumulative exposure to impaired fasting glucose and future risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Eun Sil Koh, Oak-Kee Hong, Ki-Hyun Baek, Ki-Ho Song, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 175: 108799.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes in People with Disabilities: a Call for Action
    Inha Jung, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
    Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy.2021; 3(4): 82.     CrossRef
Prevalence and Annual Incidence of Thyroid Disease in Korea from 2006 to 2015: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
Hyemi Kwon, Jin-hyung Jung, Kyung-Do Han, Yong-Gyu Park, Jung-Hwan Cho, Da Young Lee, Ji Min Han, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2018;33(2):260-267.   Published online June 21, 2018
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  • 93 Download
  • 22 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

The incidence of thyroid nodules has increased worldwide in recent years. Thyroid dysfunction is a potential risk factor for hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, arrhythmia, and neuropsychiatric disease. This study investigated the prevalence and annual incidence of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism in Koreans.


In this nationwide population-based cohort study, 51,834,660 subjects were included using the National Health Information database from 2006 to 2015, after the exclusion of subjects with thyroid cancer.


The prevalence in Korea in 2015 of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism in patients taking thyroid hormone, and hyperthyroidism in patients undergoing treatment was 15.82/1,000 population, 15.94/1,000 population, and 2.76/1,000 population, respectively. All these diseases were more prevalent among women than among men. The number of incident cases of these three thyroid diseases steadily increased from 2006 to 2012, and then decreased through 2015. The incidence of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism treated with thyroid hormone, and treated hyperthyroidism was 6.79/1,000 population, 1.76/1,000 population, and 0.55/1,000 population, respectively, in Korea in 2015. The use of methimazole continuously increased, from 33% of total antithyroid drug prescriptions in 2006 to 74.4% in 2015, and it became the most frequently prescribed antithyroid drug in Korea. In contrast, the use of propylthiouracil continuously decreased.


This was the first nationwide study of the prevalence and annual incidence of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism to take into account recent changes and to include the current status of patients receiving treatment.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of ITM2A rs1751094 polymorphism on X chromosome in Korean pediatric patients with autoimmune thyroid disease
    Won K. Cho, In‐Cheol Baek, Sung E. Kim, Mirae Kim, Tai‐Gyu Kim, Byung‐Kyu Suh
    Immunity, Inflammation and Disease.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Analysis of the status of treatment of benign thyroid diseases — a public health problem aggravated in the COVID-19 pandemic era
    Giulianno Molina Melo, Antonio José Gonçalves, Fernando Walder, Carolina Ferraz, Murilo Catafesta Neves, Marcio Abrahão, Onivaldo Cervantes
    Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology.2022; 88(6): 982.     CrossRef
  • Graves’ disease and the risk of Parkinson’s disease: a Korean population-based study
    Yoon Young Cho, Bongseong Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Jinyoung Youn, Ji Oh Mok, Chul-Hee Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Kyungdo Han, Tae Hyuk Kim
    Brain Communications.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Graves’ Disease and the Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease: A Korean Population-Based Study
    Yoon Young Cho, Bongseong Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Hye Ryoun Jang, Bo-Yeon Kim, Chan-Hee Jung, Jae Hyeon Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Kyungdo Han, Tae Hyuk Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(2): 281.     CrossRef
  • Incidence of hypothyroidism after treatment for breast cancer: A Korean population-based study
    Jongmoo Park, Choongrak Kim, Yongkan Ki, Wontaek Kim, Jiho Nam, Donghyun Kim, Dahl Park, Hosang Jeon, Dong Woon Kim, Ji Hyeon Joo, Claudio Andaloro
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(6): e0269893.     CrossRef
  • Genome-wide association study of hyperthyroidism based on electronic medical record from Taiwan
    Ting-Yuan Liu, Wen-Ling Liao, Tzu-Yuan Wang, Chia-Jung Chan, Jan-Gowth Chang, Yu-Chia Chen, Hsing-Fang Lu, Hsien-Hui Yang, Shih-Yin Chen, Fuu-Jen Tsai
    Frontiers in Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Graves’ disease, its treatments, and the risk of atrial fibrillation: A Korean population-based study
    Yoon Young Cho, Bongseong Kim, Dughyun Choi, Chul-Hee Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Jee Soo Kim, Seung-Jung Park, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Kyungdo Han, Tae Hyuk Kim
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk of autoimmune diseases in recurrent aphthous ulcer patients: A nationwide population study
    Young Chan Lee, Su Jin Jeong, Young‐Gyu Eun, Ran Song, In‐Hwan Oh
    Oral Diseases.2021; 27(6): 1443.     CrossRef
  • Hyperthyroidism Prevalence in China After Universal Salt Iodization
    Chuyuan Wang, Yongze Li, Di Teng, Xiaoguang Shi, Jianming Ba, Bing Chen, Jianling Du, Lanjie He, Xiaoyang Lai, Yanbo Li, Haiyi Chi, Eryuan Liao, Chao Liu, Libin Liu, Guijun Qin, Yingfen Qin, Huibiao Quan, Bingyin Shi, Hui Sun, Xulei Tang, Nanwei Tong, Gui
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comorbidity network analysis related to obesity in middle-aged and older adults: findings from Korean population-based survey data
    Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021018.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism and its Correlation with Serum Antithyroglobulin among patients in Kirkuk-Iraq ‎
    Sabah Mohammed Salih, Wijdan Abdullameer Kamel, Mohammed Talat Abbas, Kasim Sakran Abass
    Journal Of Advanced Pharmacy Education And Research.2021; 11(2): 57.     CrossRef
  • A nationwide study of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance with a 10-year follow-up in South Korea
    Ka-Won Kang, Ji Eun Song, Byung-Hyun Lee, Min Ji Jeon, Eun Sang Yu, Dae Sik Kim, Se Ryeon Lee, Hwa Jung Sung, Chul Won Choi, Yong Park, Byung Soo Kim
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Incidence and Mortality of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke in Patients with Hyperthyroidism: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Korea
    Hyun Jung Kim, Taeuk Kang, Min Ji Kang, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Seo Young Sohn
    Thyroid.2020; 30(7): 955.     CrossRef
  • Vitamin D supplementation does not prevent the recurrence of Graves’ disease
    Yoon Young Cho, Yun Jae Chung
    Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Binding and Activity of Tetrabromobisphenol A Mono-Ether Structural Analogs to Thyroid Hormone Transport Proteins and Receptors
    Xiao-Min Ren, Linlin Yao, Qiao Xue, Jianbo Shi, Qinghua Zhang, Pu Wang, Jianjie Fu, Aiqian Zhang, Guangbo Qu, Guibin Jiang
    Environmental Health Perspectives.2020; 128(10): 107008.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome and its components in Chinese patients with a range of thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations
    Kun Tang, Qiao Zhang, Nian-chun Peng, Miao Zhang, Shu-jing Xu, Hong Li, Ying Hu, Chun-ju Xue, Li-xin Shi
    Journal of International Medical Research.2020; 48(11): 030006052096687.     CrossRef
  • The Association of Overt and Subclinical Hyperthyroidism with the Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Cardiovascular Mortality: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Cohort Studies
    Seo Young Sohn, Eunyoung Lee, Min Kyung Lee, Jae Hyuk Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 35(4): 786.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Thyroid Disease in Patients Surgically Treated for Pituitary Disease
    Kim, Cho, Ku, Jung, Moon, Kim, Shin, Kim, Lee
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2019; 8(8): 1142.     CrossRef
  • Association of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Thyroid Hormones with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Euthyroid Children and Adolescents Aged 10–18 Years: A Population-Based Study
    Cheol Gyu Ma, Young Suk Shim
    Scientific Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Weight change is significantly associated with risk of thyroid cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study
    Hyemi Kwon, Kyung-Do Han, Cheol-Young Park
    Scientific Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the relationship of subclinical hypothyroidism with metabolic syndrome and its components in adolescents: a population-based study
    Min-Kyung Lee, Yoo Mee Kim, Seo-Young Sohn, Jae-Hyuk Lee, Young Jun Won, Se Hwa Kim
    Endocrine.2019; 65(3): 608.     CrossRef
  • Autoimmune thyroiditis and central serous chorioretinopathy may have a relation
    Brijesh Takkar, Harsha Saxena, Anubha Rathi, Rekha Singh
    Medical Hypotheses.2018; 121: 180.     CrossRef

Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism