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Kyung Rae Kim  (Kim KR) 77 Articles
Autoimmune Thyroiditis during Antiviral Therapy with Peginterferon.
Jung Min Roh, Jeong Seon Yoo, Yoon Bum Lee, Hye Rim An, Hong Kyu Choi, Kyo Tae Jung, Jong Suk Park, Kwan Sik Lee, Kyung Rae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2010;25(1):68-71.   Published online March 1, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2010.25.1.68
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Combination treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin has been established as a standard therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Although interferon therapy is relatively safe, an important side effect is the induction of autoantibodies and autoimmune disease, especially autoimmune thyroid disease. Interferon associated autoimmune thyroid disease can consist of autoimmune hypothyroidism, Graves' disease, and destructive thyroiditis. Thyroid disease may lead to dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy.
Retraction: Expression of RET in Thyroid Diseases of a Korean Population.
Si Hoon Lee, Soon Won Hong, Woo Chul Moon, Myoung Ryur Oh, Jin Kyung Lee, Bong Soo Cha, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Rae Kim, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):70-70.   Published online February 1, 2008
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  • 16 Download
A Case of Turner's Syndrome with Transient Hypopituitarism.
Ji Sun Nam, Min Ho Cho, Jung Min Roh, Hai Jin Kim, Ji Eun Yoon, Han Young Jung, Jong Suk Park, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2007;22(4):266-271.   Published online August 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2007.22.4.266
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Turner's syndrome is characterized by short stature and gonadal dysgenesis, and it is often associated with various systemic manifestations, such as cardiovascular, renal, thyroidal, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Though very rare, it can also be accompanied by hypopituitarism. It is important to give a meticulous medical attention to short females with gonadal dysgenesis so that neither disease is neglected or gets delayed diagnosis. In this case, Turner's syndrome and hypopituitarism were diagnosed almost simultaneously, but hypopiuitarism was transient, and the normal pituitary function was recovered spontaneously without any treatment. Initial sella MRI showed mild congenital hypoplastic hypopituitarism, and combined pituitary function test was compatible with hypopituitarism, but after 5 years, though growth hormone deficiency was still present, otherwise normal pituitary function was noted without any change in MRI. Herein, we are reporting a case of Turner's syndrome with transient idiopathic hypopituitarism with the review of literature.
rhTSH-aided Radioiodine Treatment in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.
Kyung Rae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(4):272-273.   Published online August 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.4.272
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  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
A Case of Patient with Opioid-Induced Adrenocortical Insufficiency and Hypogonadism.
Hai Jin Kim, Chul Sik Kim, Jong Suk Park, Jina Park, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(3):257-260.   Published online June 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.3.257
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Opioids are known to decrease plasma cortisol and testosterone level in human and other mammals. Nowadays, opioid use is exponentially increasing, but little is known about its side effects. With the help of progressive human science, we can habit longer life and as result, are becoming more avid for healthy life. In this respect, analgesics play important role in maintaining good and healthy quality of life. For this reason, it is important to fully understand its side effects and handle it with special precaution. We are reporting a 22-year-old male who had been taken opioid analgesic for more than six years to relieve chronic, intractable headache. Then, his hormone test revealed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism combined with hypoadrenocorticotropic hypoadrenalism but showed no definite clinical features except for sexual frigidity. After two years of oxycodon discontinuation, we reevaluated that his hormone test, and all other laboratory tests returned to the normal range.
Reversible Pituitary Dysfunction in a Patient with Cushing's Syndrome due to Adrenal Adenoma.
Jee Hyun Kong, Kyung Wook Kim, Hei Jin Kim, Ji Sun Nam, Jin A Park, Jong Sook Park, Chul Sik Kim, Byung Soo Moon, Soon Won Hong, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Rae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(2):146-152.   Published online April 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.2.146
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A 45-year-old woman who complained of weight gain and irregular menstruation was diagnosed as having Cushing's syndrome due to a 3 cm sized left adrenal adenoma. She underwent left adrenalectomy, and she also underwent combined anterior pituitary tests before and 9 months after the surgery. The growth hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels failed to respond to hypoglycemia before the surgery, but their responses recovered after the surgery. Cortisol and thyroid stimulating hormone failed to respond to hypoglycemia and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) before the surgery, respectively, but these were improved after the surgery. Luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, and prolactin adequately responded to gonadotropin-releasing hormone and TRH, respectively, before and after the surgery. However, the basal levels of these hormones were higher after adrenalectomy, suggesting that hypercortisolemia had a significant influence on all the pituitary hormones.
A Case of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Hai Jin Kim, Chul Sik Kim, Hyun Chul Je, Jina Park, Jong Suk Park, Jee Hyun Kong, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Hang Suk Jang, Soon Won Hong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(1):79-84.   Published online February 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.1.79
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
This is the first report of papillary thyroid carcinoma combined with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). It is an hereditary syndrome characterized by neoplastic disorders such as pituitary adenoma, parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, such as gastrinoma just like in our case. But sometimes pheochromocytoma, mucosal ganglioneuromas, lipoma, forgut carcinoid and thyroid disease could be accompany the disease, but coincidental papillary thyroid carcinoma was never reported before in Korea. Herein we represent a 39-year-old woman who manifested typical features of MEN 1 with coincidental papillary thyroid carcinoma. Despite with definite family history of MEN 1, her genetic analysis of DNA had not found any germline mutation in MEN 1 gene. Unidentified culprit gene unable further genetic study of finding LOH (loss of heterogeneity) in 11q13, the possible explanation of papillary thyroid carcinoma as a new component of MEN 1. As we have experienced a case of MEN 1 combined with papillary thyroid carcinoma, we report it with the review of literature.

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  • A Case of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I with Atypical Clinical Course
    Yun Sun Choi, Youn Sun Bai, Bon Jeong Ku, Young Suk Jo, Young Kun Kim, Heung Kyu Ro, Minho Shong
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2008; 23(4): 266.     CrossRef
A Case of Acromegaly Caused by Double Pituitary Adenomas.
Hai Jin Kim, Chul Sik Kim, Jong Suk Park, Jina Park, Jee Hyun Kong, Ji Sun Nam, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Soon Won Hong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(1):53-57.   Published online February 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.1.53
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Acromegaly is a clinical syndrome, which is caused by an excess of growth hormone (GH), most commonly secreted from a pituitary solitary adenoma. However, our patient had bilateral GH-secreting pituitary tumors, the incidence of which has been reported in only 1.3 to 1.69% of all acromegalic patients. A 59-year-old female, with no family history of pituitary adenomas, demonstrated an increased level of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and GH not suppressed after 75 g oral glucose loading. On a preoperative MRI, only one pituitary tumor, measuring 1.1 x 0.7 cm, could be observed using sellar MRI. After surgical resection of the tumor, her headache and myalgia were sustained, and the IGF-1 level was still in a high titer. Therefore, a follow-up sellar MRI was taken, and a 0.6 x 0.7 cm sized newly growing pituitary tumor was found on the other side. With a retrospective review of radiological examinations, the patient was found to have bilateral tumors. The 0.3 cm sized tumor on the left was too small to be detected on the preoperative MRI. As the patient preferred medical treatment after surgery, she was treated with sandostatin analogues. Acromegaly with bilateral GH-secreting pituitary tumors, is a very rare disease, with no previous case having been reported in Korea. Herein, we report the case with a review of the literature.
A Case of Acromegaly with Gall Bladder Cancer.
Ji Sun Nam, Chul Sik Kim, Jee Hyun Kong, Hai Jin Kim, Jin A Park, Jong Suk Park, Chul Woo Ahn, Se Joon Lee, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(4):401-406.   Published online August 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.4.401
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Acromegaly is a systemic endocrine disorder due to an excessive release of growth hormone, which increases the serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1). Elevated levels of these hormones are assumed to increase the incidence of malignant tumors in patients with acromegaly, due to by stimulating the growth and maturation of cells. In particular, IGF-1 is considered to be closely related with the development of colon polyps and colon cancers. Studies suggest that various malignant tumors, including thyroid cancer, brain tumor and renal cell carcinomas, are also more common in patients with acromegaly. Here, a case of gall bladder cancer in a patient with acromegaly, and the possible relationships between these two disorders, is reported.
The Effect of Treatment Modalities on Survival Rates of Patients with Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma.
Jae Myoung Choi, Mi Jeong Kim, Seung Won Lee, Kyoung Eun Song, Yoon Sok Chung, Kwan Woo Lee, Dae Jung Kim, Sung Hee Choi, So Hun Kim, Min Ho Cho, Yumie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(2):127-133.   Published online April 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.2.127
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma represents 2% to 5% of all thyroid cancers and it is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Local extension at the time of diagnosis and distant metastases are almost always the rule. Its lethality is evidenced by a 5-year survival rate of 3.6% and a median survival time of 4 months. We retrospectively reviewed patients with this disease at 4 tertiary referral centers. METHODS: From 1990 to 2003, 19 cases(9 men and 10 women, mean age: 65.1+/-7.1 years) of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma were reviewed via the medical records. The overall survival rates according to the prognostic factors and the treatment modalities were analyzed. RESULTS: The presenting symptoms included rapidly enlarged neck masses in 16 patients, shortness of breath in 3 patients, hoarseness in 4 patients, dysphagia in 2 patients and chest wall pain in 1 patient. The mean diameter of tumor was 7.2cm. Local extension was seen in all of the cases that had undergone surgery. Distant metastases(lung 6, bone 2, abdominal carcinomatosis 2, brain 1 and mediastinum 1) were seen in 9 patients. Surgical treatment was performed in 10 patients. Radiotherapy was performed in 9 patients and chemotherapy was done in 5 patients; radiotherapy was performed alone in 2 patients, combination chemo-radiotherapy was performed in 3 patients, postoperative radiotherapy was performed in 2 patients and postoperative combination chemo-radiotherapy was performed in 2 patients. 4 patients were treated cons ervatively after the confirmative diagnosis. The overall median survival time was 123 days(range: 23~621 days); the median survival time was 129 days in the treatment group(n=15), and 27 days in the no treatment group (n=4), and significantly higher survival rates were observed for the treated patients(p=0.02). According to the treatment modalities, patients who underwent surgical treatment and postoperative radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy were observed to have significantly higher survival rates than patients in the radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy group(p=0.03), and also than those patients in the surgical treatment only group(p=0.04). CONCLUSION: We found that aggressive surgical treatment and postoperative radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy improved the survival rates of patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma even though local invasion and distant metastases was generally observed to occur

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  • Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: Experience of a Single Institute
    Dongbin Ahn, Jin Ho Sohn
    Korean Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.2012; 55(1): 37.     CrossRef
A Case of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 with Mutation in MENIN Gene.
Se Eun Park, Eun Seok Kang, Hyun Joo Lee, So Hun Kim, Mi Young Do, Shin Ae Kang, Seung Jin Han, Hyeong Jin Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Il Jin Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(1):71-77.   Published online February 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.1.71
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  • 6 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1(MEN 1) is an autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome, characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors of the parathyroid glands, endocrine pancreas, and anterior pituitary gland. The MENIN gene, which is a kind of tumor suppressor gene, is located at the chromosomal locus 11q13. It consists of one untranslated exon and nine exons encoding the menin protein. We report a case of a 22-yearss-old woman with MEN type 1, who was proven to have a mutation in the MENIN gene. The patient was admitted because of repeated hypoglycemia. The fasting plasma glucose level was 32mg/dL. Seventy two hours fasting test showed an the insulin/glucose ratio as 0.33. Endoscopic ultrasonography detected multiple masses on the pancreas. The arterial -stimulated venous sampling(ASVS) with calcium showed sudden step up of insulin at the head and tail portions of the pancreas. The sellar MRI showed a pituitary mass that produced prolactin. Instead of a pathologic diagnosis from operational specimen, the genetic analysis revealed a mutation in the MENIN 1 gene(exon 2, 200~201insAGCCC).

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  • Genetic and Epigenetic Analysis in Korean Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1
    Yoon Jung Chung, Sena Hwang, Jong Ju Jeong, Sun Yong Song, Se Hoon Kim, Yumie Rhee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2014; 29(3): 270.     CrossRef
  • A Case of Familial Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 with a Novel Mutation in theMEN1Gene
    Min Jung Kim, Eun Hee Kim, Mi-Seon Shin, Joo Hui Kim, Hee Kyung Na, Seong Joon Park, Sang Ah Lee, Eun Hee Koh, Woo Je Lee, Ki Ho Song, Joong-Yeol Park, Ki-Up Lee, Gu-Hwan Kim, Han-Wook Yoo, Min-Seon Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2011; 26(2): 171.     CrossRef
  • Somatic Mutational Analysis of MEN1 and Phenotypic Correlation in Sporadic Parathyroid Tumors
    Young Su Chae, Hee Jin Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Myung-Chul Chang
    Journal of the Korean Surgical Society.2009; 76(1): 15.     CrossRef
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 with Multiple Leiomyomas Linked to a Novel Mutation in the MEN1 Gene
    Heekyoung Choi, Sehyun Kim, Jae-Hoon Moon, Yoon Hee Lee, Yumie Rhee, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Seon Yong Jeong, Hyun Ju Kim, Sung-Kil Lim
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2008; 49(4): 655.     CrossRef
  • A Case of Familial Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 with MEN1 Gene Mutation
    Young Eun Jo, Yong-Jun Choi, Yun Kyung Kim, Sang Mi Ahn, Sun Hye Jung, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Kwan Woo Lee, Ji-Hee Hong, Seon-Yong Jeong, Hyon J Kim, Yoon-Sok Chung
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2007; 22(1): 68.     CrossRef
  • A Case of Familial Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia with MEN1 Gene Mutation
    Hye-Young Sung, Yeon-Joo Chun, Hyeug Lee, Bum Jun Kwon, Kun Woo Park, Jung Min Lee, Sung Dae Moon, Sang Ah Chang, Je-Ho Han
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2006; 21(6): 560.     CrossRef
Adiponectin Gene Polymorphism and Carotid Artery Intima-Media thickness in Type 2 Diabetes.
Eun Seok Kang, So Young Park, So Hun Kim, Hyun Joo Lee, Kyu Yeon Hur, Seung Jin Han, Se Eun Park, Hyeong Jin Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(1):29-39.   Published online February 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.1.29
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of this study was to examine the association between the common polymorphisms of the adiponectin gene(ACDC) and the intima-media thickness(IMT) of the common carotid arteries in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: The B mode ultrasound examination of carotid artery was performed on 133 type 2 diabetic patients. The carotid IMT was calculated using the Intimascope computer program. The SNP45 and SNP276 of the ACDC were examined. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the carotid IMT among the SNP45 genotypes(0.66+/-0.18mm for TT, 0.71+/-0.12mm for TG and 0.64+/-0.15mm for GG, P=NS). Subjects carrying the SNP276 GG genotype had a markedly lower serum adiponectin concentration than those carrying the TT genotype(3.35+/-2.00microgram/mL vs. 4.98+/-2.24microgram/mL, P=0.029) The carotid IMT was significantly higher in patients with the SNP276 GG genotype than those with the TT genotype (0.70+/-0.17mm vs. 0.59+/-0.13mm, P=0.032). Patients with the +45GG/+276GG genotype combination showed significantly higher mean carotid IMT than the other genotype combinations(0.78+/-0.09mm vs. 0.71+/-0.15mm, P=0.013) CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the adiponectin gene, SNP276 is associated with the carotid IMT in type 2 diabetic patients. Further studies are will be needed to confirm these genotypephenotype associations.
A Case of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Developed in Pendred Syndrome.
So Hun Kim, Ji Young Jung, Sung Jae Shin, So Young Park, Si Hoon Lee, Yoo Mee Kim, Yu Mie Rhee, Soon Won Hong, Bong Soo Cha, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Rae Kim, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2004;19(4):411-418.   Published online August 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, which is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, goiter and a positive perchlorate discharge test. It is caused by mutations of the PDS gene, and its clinical characteristics vary widely. The thyroid function in most cases is normal, or shows only mild hypothyroidism. In Pendred syndrome, there is an organification defect that leads to defective thyroid hormone synthesis, followed by chronic TSH stimulation. Herein is reported a case of a follicular thyroid carcinoma associated with Pendred syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Korea. The patient presented with a huge anterior neck mass, sensorineural hearing loss and a positive perchlorate discharge test. Fine needle aspiration cytology suggested malignancy of the thyroid, and a total thyroidectomy, with central compartment node dissection, was performed. The pathology from the thyroid mass showed a poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma
A Case of Hepatomegaly due to Diabetic Glycogenosis Reversed by Glycemic Control.
Jina Park, Dae Hoon Song, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Chul Sik Kim, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Hae Ryoung Kim, Chan Il Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2004;19(2):223-228.   Published online April 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Diabetes mellitus is well known to be associated with various structural and functional liver abnormalities. If diabetic patients are accompanied by hepatomegaly or abnormal findings from a liver function test, the most common pathological findings are steatosis and glycogenosis. The steatosis is characterized by deposition of macrovesicular fat droplets in the hepatocytes, which is common in obese, type 2 diabetes mellitus. If macrovesicular steatosis is combined with mixed inflammatory infiltrate, without evidence of alcoholic hepatitis, the case could be diagnosed as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH has the possibility of progressing to cirrhosis. Secondary glycogenosis is common in uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus, and is completely reversible. A 22-year-old male, with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes mellitus, was admitted with anorexia, nausea and right upper quadrant pain. Hepatomegaly and elevated aminotransferases were noted. He was diagnosed as diabetic glycogenosis using computed tomogram and liver biopsy. The hepato megaly and liver function test abnormalities were markedly improved with glycemic control
A Case of Riedel's Thyroiditis in a Patient with a History of Subacute Thyroiditis.
Chul Sik Kim, Sung Ju Lee, Jong Suk Park, Joo Young Nam, Dol Mi Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(4):414-419.   Published online August 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Riedel's thyroiditis is a rare form of chronic thyroiditis, characterized by a fibroinflammatory process which partially destroys the thyroid, often involving surrounding tissues. The relationship of Riedel's thyroiditis to other forms of thyroiditis is not clear. A case of Riedel's thyroiditis in a 51-year-old female patient, admitted with a previous diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis, is reported. She was first diagnosed with subacute thyroiditis based on clinical manifestation and radiologic and laboratory results. She was treated with glucocorticoid for 8 weeks. The follow-up lasted for 12 months. However, three years later she underwent a thyroidectomy operation due to an enlargement of the thyroid nodule and suspicion of malignancy. Histopathologic examination confirmed that she had Riedel's Thyroiditis. Until now, few case of Riedel's thyroiditis in patients with a history of subacute thyroiditis have been reported in the literature. Although the etiology of Riedel's thyroiditis is unknown, it may develop in the course of subacute thyroiditis.
A Case of Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma with Liver Metastasis.
Hyun Joo Lee, Myung Soo Kim, Hyo Kyoung Park, Dae Jung Kim, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Jae Hyun Nam, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sang Won Han, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(2):232-238.   Published online April 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
An adrenal cortical carcinoma is a rare malignancy associated with poor prognosis. On diagnosis, most patients present with large tumor masses, which are often detected at an advanced stage. The most effective treatment is a complete resection, which is the only curative treatment for adrenal cortical carcinomas. The most important prognostic factor is a successful resection of the primary tumor, as long as it is low-grade and has not spread to distant sites. However, with advanced adrenal cortical carcinomas, with distant metastasis, there is no strict effective treatment program, and the prognosis is poor. The case of a 50-year-old female patient, presenting with an adrenal cortical carcinoma and Cushing's syndrome, who had a long-term survival of 78 months, is reported. The mass was completely resected on diagnosis, but 16 months later liver metastasis was discovered. She had received chemotherapy, with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin, for the liver metastasis for a period of 15 months, but with no response, furthermore, the size had increased after 10 months. Afterward, she received her 10th session of intrahepatic artery cisplatin chemotherapy and her 3rd hepatic artery embolization. Although the patient had a large degree of liver metastasis, this was tolerated. The tumor mass is presently not aggravated, and she still survives after 78 months.
Association between Serum Leptin Concentration and Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Korean Women.
Yumie Rhee, Dae Jung Kim, Se Hwa Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Sung Kil Lim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(2):177-183.   Published online April 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Leptin is known to affect bone metabolism both centrally and peripherally. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between leptin and bone mineral density(BMD) in healthy premenopausal and postmenopausal Korean women. METHODS: 140 women were recruited for a routine health check-up. Anthro-pometric and biochemical data were checked as usual. BMDs were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry of the spine and femur in 67 premenopausal women and 73 postmenopausal women, in addition to their serum leptin levels. RESULTS: Serum leptin level showed no correlation with BMD in premenopausal women, but there was a positive correlation betwen serum leptin and spinal BMD in postmenopausal women(r=0.468, p<0.001). After the correcting for age, body mass index, and duration of menopause, the serum leptin level and BMD still showed a positive correlation(r=0.217, p=0.088) although weak. The women in the lowest quartile of serum leptin level showed significantly lower lumbar and femoral neck BMD. CONCLUSION: Leptin level seems to have a weak relationship with BMD showing different features in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
Expression of RET in Thyroid Diseases of a Korean Population.
Si Hoon Lee, Soon Won Hong, Woo Chul Moon, Myoung Ryur Oh, Jin Kyung Lee, Bong Soo Cha, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Rae Kim, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(2):140-152.   Published online April 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Activation of the RET proto-oncogene, located on the long arms of chromosome 10, contributes to the development of thyroid cancers in two different ways. Somatic rearrangements of RET with variable genes of activation are frequently found in papillary thyroid carcinomas. And Ggerm-line point mutations are responsible for the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma and the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2(MEN2). There are several conflicting reports on the influences of RET expression and RET/PTC rearrangements on the clinical outcome of thyroid cancer. Therefore, we performed an examination of RET expression and RET/PTC-1, -2, -3 rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinomas and other thyroid diseases. METHODS: Twenty-six papillary thyroid carcinomas(PTCs), three follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), one anaplastic thyroid carcinoma(ATC), five follicular adenomas(FAs), nineteen hyperplasias, and two normal thyroid tissues were included in this study. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis were done to identify RET gene, RET/PTC rearrangements, and ret RET protein expression. RESULTS: By RT-PCR, 89.4% of PTCs, 100% of FTCs, and 62.1% of hyperplasias expressed the RET gene, but no RET was observed in ATCs, FAs, and normal thyroid tissues. RET/PTC-1, -2,-3 rearrangements were not detected in any specimens. Immunohistochemical results revealed that 76.9% of PTCs, 50% of FAs, 52.3% of hyperplasias, and 20.6% of normal thyroid tissues expressed the RET ret protein, but FTCs and ATCs did not. Most PTCs showed strong cytoplasmic positivity in RET ret immunostaining, but the positive non- PTCs expressed weak and membranous staining. Overall, the two methods for detecting RET gene, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry showed similar results. CONCLUSION: The RET gene was highly expressed in PTCs. In contrast to the previous reports of that theRET gene expression of RET gene is being limited to PTCs, RET was also expressed in hyperplasias, Fas, and normal thyroid tissues. However, the pattern and the degree of expression of the RET ret protein in non- PTCs were are different from those in PTCs.
A Case of AVP Dependent Bilateral Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia.
Hyun Jin Kim, Se Hwa Kim, Yu Mie Rhee, Sung Eun Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Sung Kil Lim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(4):603-609.   Published online August 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) independent bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) is a rare form of Cushing's syndrome, in which unique endocrinological, clinical and histopathological features have been described. In AIMAH, cortisol secretion is autonomous and independent of ACTH, thus plasma ACTH levels are persistently suppressed. Various etiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the development of AIMAH, the development of aberrant adrenal sensitivity to gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), vasopressin, beta-adrenergic receptor agonists or the presence of circulating adrenal stimulating immunoglobulins have been suggested. We report on a 46-year-old female who had Cushing's syndrome, due to AIMAH, with a positive response to vasopressin.
A Case of Klinefelter's Syndrome with Rathke's Cleft Cyst.
Hyun Joo Lee, Hyo Kyoung Park, Dae Jung Kim, Yu Mie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sang Soo Jung, Jae Hyun Nam, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Yong Koo Park, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(4):564-571.   Published online August 1, 2002
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Klinefelter's syndrome is one of the most common forms of primary hypogonadism presenting with gynecomastia, azospermia and increased follicle-stimulating hormone. It is well known that this syndrome has an increased incidence of neoplasia, especially breast cancer and extragonadal germ cell tumors. However, it is rarely associated with an intracranial tumor of maldevelopmental origin, especially in the suprasellar area. We report, for the first time, a case of Klinefelter's syndrome, with a Rathke's cleft cyst is the patient was a 32-year-old male who was known to have an incidentaloma form brain computed tomography, which was clinically diagnosed as a suprasellar tumor. After operating, the suprasellar mass was confirmed as a Rathke's cleft cyst, and his hormonal abnormality, an elevated level of follicle-stimulating hormone, was not normalized. Therefore, we performed chromosomal analysis, and diagnosed Klinefelter's syndrome with the XXY karyotype.
Effects of Tibolone and Active Vitamin D Combined Treatment on Bone Mineral Density in Korean Postmenopausal Women.
Se Hwa Kim, Yu Mie Rhee, Soo Kyung Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Hyeung Jin Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Gap Bum Huh, Sung Kil Lim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(4):535-543.   Published online August 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Tibolone is a novel synthetic compound with tissue-specific effects in bone, breast tissue and the endometrium. Tibolone, and active vitamin D, effectively prevent bone loss, and the maintain skeletal integrity of postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of tibolone, and active vitamin D (1-hydroxyvitamin D3), therapies given alone, or in combination, against bone loss in postmenopausal women. METHODS: One hundred and three postmenopausal women were treated with tibolone (n=40), alphacalcidol (n=27) or both drugs (n=36) for 12 months. All subjects took supplemental calcium carbonate (500 mg daily). The bone mineral densities (BMD) of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the baseline and after 12 months. RESULTS: Tibolone therapy produced significant increase of 4.1 and 1.8% in the BMD at the lumbar spine (p<0.001) and femoral neck (p=0.009), respectively. The combination of tibolone and active vitamin D increased the BMD by 8.0 and 4.4% (p<0.001) at the spine and femoral neck, respectively. The differences in the change of BMD from the baseline at the lumbar spine was significant (p=0.038) in the combination treatment group compared that in the tibolone alone group. CONCLUSION: Tibolone alone, and in combination with active vitamin D, effectively increased the BMD at all skeletal sites in postmenopausal women. Combination treatment for osteoporosis is emerging as a promising modality in Korean postmenopausal women.
A Case of Panhypopituitarism Due to Craniopharyngioma with Slipped Capitalis Femoral Epiphysis.
Jun Hee Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Hi Yan Park, Jin Yang Ju, Young Duk Chae, Soo Jee Yoon, Ki Joong Kim, Woo Il Park, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(1):104-109.   Published online February 1, 2002
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Craniopharyngioma accounts for 3% to 5% of intracranial tumors and is the second most common neoplasm in the sellar region. Panhypopituitarism associated with craniopharyngioma has been reported in 7% of all patients with craniopharyngioma. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis is the condition in which the femoral head slips downward and backward on the femoral neck at the epiphyseal plate due to growth disturbance of capital physis, the actual cause of which is unknown. It is a disease of adolescence, during which many physiologic hormonal changes occur. The clinical association between slipped capital femoral epiphysis and endocrine disease is well known. There have been four cases of slipped capital femoral epiphysis associated with endocrine disorders in Korea. This is the first Korean case report of slipped capital femoral epiphysis combined with craniopharyngioma caused by hypopituitarism
A Case of Thyroid Storm Due to Thyrotoxicosis Factitia.
Kee Sup Song, Seung Hyun Cho, Byoung Eun Park, Soo Jee Yoon, kyung Wook Kim, Su Youn Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):260-264.   Published online April 1, 2001
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Thyrotoxicosis factitia, a syndrome that results from a surreptitious ingestion of excess thyroid hormone, has generally been diagnosed in young or middle-aged women who have psychopathological disturbances. An 18-year-old female was admitted to the hospital 24 hours after taking an overdose of more than 50 tablets of synthyroid (levothyroxine, 5mg). She had taken 6 to 9 tablets of synthyroid daily for 6 months for the purpose of weight reduction even though she was not overweight. Because of her stuporous mental state and an acute respiratory failure, she was intubated and treated in the intensive care unit. After careful history taking and after her plasma thyroid hormone levels were determined, we diagnosed a thyroid storm that was caused by a thyrotoxicosis factitia. The laboratory results were, T3 430.0 ng/dL, free T4 70.0 ng/dL, TSH 0.05 IU/mL. Her symptoms improved after treatment by steroids and propranolol. She was discharged 8days after admission. Cases of thyrotoxicosis factitia have been reported very infrequently and, there has been no reports of a thyroid storm due to thyrotoxicosis factitia in Korea. We now report a case of a thyroid storm that resulted from thyrotoxicosis factitia that was caused by the ingestion of a massive dose of thyroid hormone that was takan daily for 6 months. We also present a brief review of the relevant literature.
Effect of weight loss on cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma Concentrations of NPY, alpha -MSH and leptin in Obese Women.
Su Youn Nam, Kyung Wook Kim, Jun Hee Lee, Soo Jee Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Young Duck Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):199-209.   Published online April 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Although leptin and its principal mediators, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and -melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) are postulated to play a pivotal role in the energy balance in experimental animals, the physiologic roles of leptin and its molecular targets are not fully identified in cases of human obesity. METHODS: The subjects consisted of 16 obese women (mean BMI 35.6 kg/m2) before and after weight loss that was induced by a 2 week-very low caloric diet (800 kcal/day) and 14 normal weight women (who had a mean BMI of 20.4 kg/m2). We evaluated the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leptin, NPY and alpha -MSH levels and their relationship in normal weight and obese women. Additionally, changes of these peptides during a negative energy balance (800 kcal/day) were assessed in causes of human obesity. RESULTS: Obese subjects exhibited a 6.3-fold higher plasma leptin level (21.9+/-1.2 vs 3.5+/-0.4 ng/mL, p<0.05) and a 2.8-fold higher CSF leptin level (0.29+/-0.02 vs 0.10+/-0.01 ng/mL, p<0.05) compared to control subjects. The CSF/plasma leptin ratio in normal weight subjects was 2.3-fold higher than that in obese subjects. After a weight loss in obese subjects, the plasma leptin level decreased by 40% and the CSF level decreased by 51%. The CSF/plasma leptin ratio was slightly lower than the baseline level. There was a positive linear correlation between CSF and plasma leptin level at the baseline in obese subjects (r= 0.74, p<0.05) and a positive logarithmic correlation in normal weight subjects and in obese subjects after a weight loss (r= 0.66, p<0.05). The BMI negatively correlated with the CSF/plasma leptin ratio (r=-0.86, p<0.05) in any subjects. Neither the baseline plasma levels nor the baseline CSF levels of NPY were different between the normal weight subjects and obese subjects. After a weight loss the CSF NPY level decreased significantly compared to the baseline values in obese subjects. The alpha -MSH levels in plasma and CSF did not differ significantly from controls in obese subjects at the baseline or after a weight loss. The baseline CSF leptin level neither correlated with the baseline CSF NPY level nor the baseline CSF alpha -MSH level. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that the efficiency of leptin delivery to the CNS is reduced in human obesity and that the CNS leptin uptake involves the combination of saturable and unsaturable mechanisms. A marked reduction in the CSF leptin levels compared to the plasma level after a weight loss in obese subjects can be a potent stimulus for the body to regain weight. In contrast to the results that were observed in experimental animals, the CSF NPY and alpha -MSH did not differ from the controls in human obesity and there was no significant correlation between the CSF leptin and CSF of these neuropeptides. This could have resulted from leptin resistance in cases of human obesity although the mechanisms for this resistance remain to be determined.
Two Cases of Malignant Lymphoma Involving Bilateral Adrenal Glands as Huge Masses.
Seung Hyeok Han, Jin Seok Kim, Myung Soo Kim, Hye Won Chung, Jae Ho Jung, Young Suck Goo, Chul Woo Ahn, Jae Hyun Nam, Sang Soo Jung, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Jee Sook Hahn
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2000;15(1):121-127.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Adrenal gland is a common site of metastatic tumors such as breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. When adrenal mass is found incidentally, adenoma is the most common among single adrenal masses. But in the case of bilateral adrenal masses, infection, bilateral metastases and hemorrhage are common. Secondary involvement of the adrenal gland is found in 25% of autopsy cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, adrenal insufficiency is rare because it becomes apparent only when approximately 90% of adrenal cortex is destructed. We exprienced two cases of malignant lymphoma which involved the adrenal glands bilaterally. One case in which adrenal insufficiency was suspicious, was accompanied by hypovolemic shock and sepsis at the initial presentation. He died of sepsis combined with DIC even though hydrocortisone, intravenous saline infusion, and antibiotics therapy were started immediately. The other one was found incidentally, in which adrenal infiltraion was confirmed by CT scan. Hormonal level was normal and adrenal masses disappeared after chemotherapy.
Mutations in Thyroid Hormone Receptor-beta Associated with Patients with Generalized Resistance and Pituitary Resistance to Thyroid Hormone.
Yong Seok Yun, Sung Kkwan Hong, Chul Woo Ahn, Jae Hyun Nam, Seok Won Park, Bong Su Cha, Young Duk Song, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2000;15(1):113-120.   Published online January 1, 2001
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We report a point mutation in the TRbeta gene in korean patients with generalized resistance and pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone. One mutation at TRbeta (P453S) were detected in patient with pituitary resistance to thyroid, which showed different phenotype, generalized resistance to thyroid hormone, in her mothers. But, the other (C31Y), did not show clear relations with the disease. Therefore, further study of molecular and cellular basis will be warranted to explain the clear mechanism of the resistance to thyroid hormone.
A Case of Propylthiouracil Induced Anti: Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA) Positive Vasculitis.
Yumie Rhee, Sang Su Chung, Su Youn Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(4):757-763.   Published online January 1, 2001
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A 40-year-old woman just had started to take propylthiouracil for Graves disease, However, the treatment had to be interrupted because she developed skin rash, arthritis, chest pain, fever and proteinuria after 2 months. The serologic study revealed antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody(ANCA) positivity, especially showing perinuclear pattern. The anti-myeloperoxidase titer was high. The hematoxylin & eosin stain of the specimen obtained from kidney was compatible with pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with crescent formation. There were no immune complex deposits under electron microscope. Such findings suggested propylthiouracil-induced vasculitis. Vasculitis is a rare side effect of propylthiouracil. Recently more cases of vasculitis associated with anti-thyroid drug with ANCA positivity are being reported up to about 36 cases worldwide. There are possibilities of underdiagnosis of this side effect, meaning more cautions on the patients under anti-thyroid drug treatment. We present a case with review of related literature.
Two Cases of Extensive Pituitary Calcification.
Chul Woo Ahn, Shin Myung Kang, Do Young Kim, Jang Yel Shin, Seok Won Park, Jae Hyun Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(4):739-744.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Although calcification of such endocrine gland as adrenal or pineal gland is common, extensive calcification of the pituitary gland is unusual. Calcification is a well recognized but uncommon feature of prolactin-secreting, growth hormone-secreting and non-functioning pituitary tumours. The calcification varies in extent, but rarely exceeds a tiny amount histologically or radiologically. Recently, we had the opportunity to investigate two patients with radiologically demonstrated "pituitary stone" (severely calcified pituitary adenoma). The first Patient, a 51 year-old female, initially presented with general weakness, dizziness, visual disturbance, and loss of hair for 2 months. She was suspected to have a pituitary lesion. Decreased secretion of GH, TSH, LH, and FSH was demonstrated by dynamic tests. On CT scan, she was found to have multilobulated calcified sella mass. She was successfully managed by medical treatment. The second patient, a 65 year-old male, presented with general weakness, nausea, vomiting and polyuria for 2 months. Combined pituitary stimulation test showed subnormal response of GH and prolactine. Radiologic studies revealed pituitary stone which was managed with medical treatment of hormone replacement. We suggest that calcific changes in the pituitary adenoma might be common and occur to the extent of pituitary stone formation with the possible alteration of hormonal secretion.
Polymorphisms of the Interleukin - 6 Gene and Bone Mineral Density at Postmenopause in Korean Women.
Soo Young Yoon, Sung Kil Lim, Song Zae Li, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(4):698-705.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the candidate cytokines to play an important role in bone loss followed by estrogen deficiency. Recently, the IL-6 VNTR (various number tandem repeats) genotype was reported to be associated with bone mineral density, raising the possibility that genotyping at this site might be of value in identifying women who are at risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis. To evaluate whether allelic variants in the gene encoding the polymorphism of VNTR located at the 3 flank of the IL-6 gene in Koreans were also the same as those of Caucasian, we analyzed the distribution pattern of the polymerase chain reaction product of the IL-6 gene. METHODS: The IL-6 VNTR were examined in 134 postmenopausal Korean women. Bone mineral densities were measured by DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Lunar Radiation, Madison, WI). RESULTS: The IL-6 VNTR polymorphism of Koreans was different from that of Caucasian, and four genotypes (KaKb, KbKb, KbKc and KbKd) were identified. The genotypes KaKb and KbKd were found only in one individual each and most Koreans had KbKb or KbKc genotypes. The overall prevalences of KbKb and KbKc genotypes were 76.9% Rlld 21.6%, respectively, and the distribution patterns of the genotypes were not different among normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic groups. The values of bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were not different between the frequent genotypes of KbKb and KbKc. Furthermore, the levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and urinary deoxypyridinoline/creatinine were also not different between the two genotypes. CONCLUSION: There are ethnic differences in IL-6 VNTR polymorphism, and IL-6 VNTR polymorphism may not be associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data suggest that the analysis of IL-6 VNTR polymorphism may not be helpful in detecting patients at risk of developing osteoporosis.
The Effect of Body Fat Disribution on Glucose, Lipid Metabolism and Grewth Hormone Secretion in Obesity.
Ae Jung Huh, Byeong Kee Choi, Dae Ho Chung, Kyung Wook Kim, Su Youn Nam, Kyung Rae Kim, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(3):541-552.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Body fat distribution, rather than the level of obesity per se, appears to be a strong predictor of abnormalities in metabolic complication. Visceral fat accumulation is significantly correlated with glucose intolerance and constitutes as an independent risk factor for the diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We investigated the impact of body fat distribution on the glucose, lipid metabolism and growth hormone secretion in obese subjects with varying glucose tolerance and lean controls matched with sex and age. 69 obese Koreans (34 men, 35 women; 43.8 yrs) and 21 lean Koreans (10 men, 11 women; 40.8 yrs) were recruited. Anthropometric measurement and impedence for measurement of total body fat, and computed tomography for visceral and subcutaneous fat area at umbilicus level were performed. All subjects underwent a standard oral glucose tolerance test and GH stimulation test by L-dopa. RESULTS: The results are summarized as follows. 1. Obese patients had greater ideal body weight (%, IBW) and lean body mass (LBM) than lean controls. But no significant differences were found in IBW and LBM between 3 obese groups. 2. The 25 obese NIDDM had the highest FFA-AUC during OGTI and the lowest GH-AUC to L-Dopa stimulation test. The insulin-AUC during OGTT was the highest in 24 obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance. 3. All male groups have VSR of more than 0.4, which has been designated visceral fat obesity. In contrast all female groups have VSR of lesser than 0.4 but obese DM subjects have the highest VSR. Visceral fat area per body weight ratio(VWR) showed increasing tendency in obese, IGT, and DM group. 4. Waist circumference and VWR showed strong correlation with metabolic parameters among anthropometric parameters. They were positively correlated with FFA-AUC during OGTT and negatively correlated with GH-AUC to L-dopa stimulation. CONCLUSION: Visceral fat accumulation are associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and impairment of growth hormone secretion via increase of free fatty acid. The simple waist circumference may provide a more practical indicator that correlated with aMominal fat distribution and metabolic complications associated with obesity.
The Growth Hormone (GH) - Binding Protein in Obesity with Varying Glucose Tolerance: Relationship to Body fat Distribution Sex Hormones, Insulin and GH-Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 Axis.
Su Youn Nam, Kyung Wook Kim, Sang Won Ji, Se Jung Yoon, Kyung Rae Kim, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(3):531-540.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
As GHBP is believed to be derived from proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain of the GH receptor and may be regarded as an intrinsic part of the GH-IGF-1 axis, an effect of body composition on circulating GHBP levels may be expected. We investigated GHBP variations in obesity with varying glucose tolerance and its relationship to body fat distribution, sex hormones, insulin secretion, and the GH-IGF-1 axis. METHODS: Bioelectrical impedence for measurement of total body fat and computed tomography for visceral fat and subcutaneous fat at umbilicus level were performed in 69 obese Koreans and 21 lean Koreans. Insulin secretion in response to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a GH stimulation test by L-dopa, growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and sex hormones (estrone, estradiol, total and free testosterone) were measured. RESULTS: Obese type 2 DM group had the highest GHBP levels and the most visceral fat amount. GHBP levels were most strongly correlated with the ratio of visceral fat area to body weight (VWR) above other parameters (r=0.725, p<0.001). Insulin- and free fatty acid-area under the curve (AUC) during OGTT and IGF-1 level were also positively correlated with GHBP levels (r=0.474, p<0.005; r=0.572, p<0.005; r=0.453, p<0.005). GH-AUC to L-dopa stimulation test was negatively correlated with GHBP levels (r=0.432, p<0.005). The GHBP level was slightly higher in females than in male in the same glucose tolerance category. In males, total and free testosterone levels were negatively correlated with GHBP levels (r=-0.516, p<0.001;r=-0.653, p<0.001). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that VWR, FFA-and insulin-AUC significantly contributed to the variability of GHBP (r=0.58). CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that 1) visceral fat amount was mainly determined GHBP levels in obese subjects with varying glucose tolerance; 2) hyperglycemia per se did not influence GHBP level, whereas insulin and FFA could play a role in regulation of GHBP level. 3) The constant concentration of IGF-1 despite GH hyposecretion suggests that increased GHBP level retlect GHBP hypersensitivity in order to compensate for decreased GH secretion in obesity; 5) the lower level of GHBP in males might be explained at least in part by a suppressive effect of androgen.
SR (Slow-Replase) Lanreotide Treatment in Acromegalic Patients.
Jae Hyun Nam, Sung Kil Lim, Sun Ho Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Song Chul Lee, Young Duk Song, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Ki Hyun Park, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(3):472-482.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Several clinical studies reported the efficacy of the long-acting SRIH analog, octreotide (Octreotide, Sandoz) in the treattnent of acromegaly. Recently, another SRIH analog (BIM 23014, Ipsen Biotech) was shown to decrease plasma GH levels in acromegalic patients. The recent availability of a long-acting formulation of BIM 23014 [slow release (SR) lanreotide] could avoid repeated sc injections or continuous sc infusions. The objective of this study was to determine the tolerability and effectiveness of the slow release (SR) somatostatin analog, SR lanreotide in active acromegaly. METHOD: Between March 1998 and May 1998, 10 patients were recruited in the prospective study carried out at Yonsei University. The effects of 6 weeks of SR lanreotide, given every 14 days at a dosage of 30 mg, im, were analyzed. All the patients completed the 6-week period of therapy. RESULTS: SR lanreotide injection produced 45% suppression of area under the curve of GH levels from the basal value on oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT). GH values on OGTT were normalized (< 2ng/mL) in 30% of patients after 6 weeks, whereas insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels were normalized in 50% of patients. No correlation was found between pretreatment GH levels and GH response to SR lanreotide or between changes in GH and IGF-I during therapy, The significant differences in response to SR lanreotide were shown between the patients with residual mass and no visible mass. During treatment, there was the significant reduction in the percentage of patients complaining of joint pain, hyperhydrosis, and paresthesias. Changes in soft tissue swelling were documented by a significant decrease in the diameter of fingers. Mild diarrhea and fatigue were the most frequent side-effects (20 30%) when SR lanreotide therapy was started. However, these side effects decreased progressively. Significant changes were noted in carbohydrate tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that SR lanreotide at a dose of 30 mg, im, every 14 days is an effective treatment in most unselected acromegalic patients, especially in patients with no visible mass. Tolerability to SR lanreotide therapy is high. The use of a new sustained release formulation of somatostatin analog is clearly advantageous in improving patient compliance with medical treatment for acromegaly.
A Case of Osteosarcoma induced Oncogenic Osteomalacia Detected by MRI.
Sung Kil Lim, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Ki Hyun Park, Kyung Rae Kim, Soon Won Hong, Jae Hyun Nam, Jong In Yook, Byung Joo Choi, Mi Kyung Kim, Kyu Ho Shin
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(2):401-409.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Oncogenic osteomalacia is a syndrome characterized by phosphaturia, hypophosphatemia, decreased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level and specific signs and symptoms of osteomalacia. It is associated with the presence of neoplasm originated from mesenchyme. Until now, less than 100 cases of oncogenic osteomalacia have been reported. The pathophysiology of oncogenic osteomalacia has not been fully understood, but it has been suggested that a certain substance released by tumor may inhibit not only la-hydroxylase activity and reduce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D level in part, but directly inhibit reabsorption of phosphate. And then, reduced phosphaturia, hypophosphatemia and eventually osteomalacia develop. We report a case of osteosarcoma induced oncogenic osteomalacia detected by MRI in 59 year old woman.
Anabolic Effects of Recombinant Human Parathyroid Hormone (1-84) on Bone Histomorphometry in Overiectomized Rats.
Young Jun Won, Du Hong Park, Jae Hyun Nam, Jong In Yook, Jin Kim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Sung Kil Lim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(1):81-90.   Published online January 1, 2001
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To evaluate the anabolic effects of human recombinant parathyroid hormone [hrPTH(1-84)], we examined effect of low-dose and high-dose of [hrPTH(1-84)] and estradiol on bone histomorphometry in ovariectomized rats. Sixty Sprague-Dawley female rats aged 8~10 weeks were used. Eight weeks after ovariectomy, or sham operation, rats were given daily sc injection of hrPTH (1-84), 30 pg/kg (OVX+L group), 150 pg/kg (OVX+H group), 17-estradiol (30 pg/kg, OVX+E group) or vehicle (OVX+V group) for 4 weeks. After double tetracycline labeling, all rats were killed at day 84. We completed the histomorphometric analysis of distal femoral metaphyseal cancellous bone for trabecular bone volume (TBV), mean trabecular plate thickness (MTPT), mean trabecular plate density (MTPD), mean trabecular plate separation (MTPS), mean osteoid seam width (OSW) and appositional rate (AR). The histomorphometric parameters (TBV, MTPT, OSW and AR) of trabecular bone mass in (OVX+E) group were higher than those in (OVX+V) group. The TBV of trabecular bone in PTH treated groups were higher than that in sham operated, (OVX+V) and (OVX+E) group. The histomorphometric parameters (TBV, MTPD, OSW and AR) of trabecular bone mass in (OVX+H) group showed a tendency to be higher than those in (OVX+L) group, but statistically not significant. In conclusion, Low dose (30 mg/kg) hrPTH (1-84) also shows a sufficient anabolic effect on trabecular bone.
Growth Hormone Therapy with Diet Restriction in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Su Youn Nam, Kyung Rae Kim, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(1):27-39.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Insulin resistance in obesity constitutes an independent risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Insulin resistance in obese DM can be improved by a decrease in visceral fat and an increase in skeletal muscle which may influence insulin sensitivity via its capacity to uptake glucose load. Diet restriction as a treatment for obesity causes protein catabolism which results in a decrease in muscle mass. Growth hormone (GH) therapy accelerates a lipolysis and promotes protein conservation. We evaluated the effects of GH therapy with diet restriction on lipolysis and anabolism, which can change body composition, insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in obese DM. METHODS: Eighteen newly-diagnosed obese type 2 DM patients (42-56 yrs) were treated with recombinant human GH (GH; 0.06 unit/kg ideal body weight#/day, 3 times/wk) and with diet restriction (25 kcal/kg ideal body weight/day) for 12 weeks. They underwent anthropometric measurement, bioelectrical impedence for total body fat and lean body mass, as well as computed tomography for visceral and subcutaneous fat at the umbilicus level and the muscle area at the mid-thigh level. All subjects underwent a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and GH response to L-dopa stimulation. The glucose disposal rate was measured during an euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study. RESULTS: 1. The fraction of body weight lost as fat was significantly greater and the visceral fat area was decreased more in the GH-treated group than in the control group. There was a significant loss of lean body mass and muscle area in the control group, whereas there was an increase in lean body mass and muscle area in GH-treated group. 2. The glucose disposal rate was significantly increased only in the GH-treated group and it was negatively correlated with the ratio of the visceral fat area/muscle area. The serum glucose levels, insulin-area under the curve (AUC) and free fatty acid (FFA)-AUC during OGTT and HbAlc were significantly decreased after GH treatment. The decrease in FFA-AUC was positively correlated with the decrease in the visceral fat area. 3. Total cholesterol and triglyceride were decreased in both groups. LDL-cholesterol was decreased in only the GH-treated group. 4. The GH response to L-dopa stimulatian was blunted in aU subjects and after treatment, the GH response was increased. The insulin-like growth factor-I level was inereased 1.6-fold after the GH treatment. CONCLUSION: This study suggested that in obese DM fed a hypocaloric diet, GH treatment exerted a decrease in visceral fat and an increase in muscle mass via accelerated lipolytic and anabolic effects which could result in the improvement of insulin resistance, glucose metabolism and dyslipidemia.
Structure and Function Analysis of alpha-MSH Analogues.
Sung Kil Lim, Song Chul Lee, Won Tae Lee, Jung Hoon Lee, Soo Yeon Nam, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(1):18-26.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma Diagnosed by Selective Adrenal Venous Catheterization.
Sung Kil Lim, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Min Kyung Song, Hyun Soo Kim, Kyung Rae Kim, Seok Won Park, Yoo Mi Lee, Yong Suk Yoon, Suk Ho Kwon, Jae Hyun Nam, Sul Hye Han, Do Yeon Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):652-658.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Primary aldosteronism, not a common cause of high blood pressure, is a syndrome which results from excessively secreted aldosterone from adrenal gland and it accounts for 0.05-2.2% of unselected hypertension. In this case the lesion was not visualized on routine abdominal computed tomographic scan due to its small size. Therefore the selective adrenal venous catherterization & venous sampling was done. As there is some difficulty of sampling from Rt. adrenal vein, the method of measuring aldosterone vs. cortisol ratio of Lt. adrenal vein and inferior vena cava was used to localize the aldosterone-producing adenoma. Clinical symptoms normalized and laboratory data returned to normal range after the surgical adrenalectomy.
2 Cases of Peripheral Nerve Tumors of Anterior Neck Simulating Thyroid Nodule.
Sung Kil Lim, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Soo Yeon Nam, Byung Ki Choi, Sang Soo Chung, Kyung Wook Kim, So Rae Choi
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):640-645.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Peripheral nerve tumors are mostly benign and can arise on any nerve trunk or twig. Although peripheral nerve tumors can occur anywhere in the body, including the spinal roots and cauda equina, many cases are subcutaneous in location and present as a soft swelling, sometimes with a purplish discoloration of skin. There are two major catagories, schwannoma(neurilemmoma), and neurofibroma. Schwannomas are usually solitary and grow in the nerve sheath, rendering them relatively easy to dissect free. In contrast, neurofibromas tend to be multiple, grow in the endoneural substance, which renders them difficult to dissect, may undergo malignant changes, and are the hallmark of von Recklinghausens neurofibromatosis. Masses in the anterior part of neck may be initially thought to be thyroid nodule and then other cervical masses should be considered. The diagnosis rests on clinical suspicion and diagnostic support may be obtained by CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and substraction angiography in the literature. After imaging, fine needle aspiration for cytology may be helpful. If they are resected unrecognized and/or without regard to their nerve origin, major and permanent nerve defects can unnecessarily occur. We experienced 2 cases of peripheral nerve tumors of anterior neck simulating a thyroid nodule.
Effects of B3-adrenergic Receptor Gene Mutation on the Body Fat Distribution and Weight Loss in Obese Subjects.
Sung Kil Lim, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Seok Won Park, Seok Joo Kwon, Eun Young Cho, Jong Ho Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):590-600.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Recently, missense mutation of the B3-adrenergic receptor gene has been shown to be associated with early onset of type 2 diabetes, abdominal obesity and an increased capacity to gain weight. This study was performed to investigate the effects of Trp64Arg mutation in the B3-adrenergic receptor gene on body fat distribution and weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Determination of the B3-adrenergic receptor gene mutation with restriction enzyme digestion method, anthropometry, various biochemical studies, including oral glucose tolerance test were performed in 99 obese and 35 control subjects. Body fat distributions were also evaluated by computerized tomography before and after weight-reduction program. RESULTS: I) There were no differences in the frequencies of Trp64Arg mutation in the B3-adrenergic receptor gene between obese and control subjects (15.2 vs 12.9 %). 2) The obese subjects with Trp64Arg mutation had higher waist to hip circumference ratio(WHR) (0.93 +/- 0.05 vs 0.87 +/- 0.04, p<0.001), visceral fat area (115.0 +/- 25.9 vs 86.4 +/- 41.4 cm, p=0.01), but decreased plasma free fatty acid (618.0 +/- 163.1 vs 817.5 +/- 248.2 pEq/L, p=0.001), and triglyceride level (118.7 +/- 36.2 vs 158.4 +/- 105.8 mg/dL, p=0.015) than those without mutation. 3) The obese subjects with Trp64Arg mutation had smaller decreases in weight (-3.4 vs -5.1 kg, p<0.001), body fat content (-2.1 vs -3.8 %, p<0.001), WHR (-0.01 vs -0.03, p=0.025), and abdominal fat masses (total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat) after weight-reduction program than those without mutation. CONCLUSION: Trp64Arg mutation in the B3-adrenergic receptor gene might be one of genetic loci contributing to central obesity and a predictor of difficulty in losing weight in obese subjects.
Serum Immunoreactive-Leptin Concentrations and its Relation to Adiposity and Other biochemical Parameters in Korean Males.
Sung Kil Lim, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Eun Sook Kim, Sang Kyu Na, Jae Ho Shin, Kyung Rae Kim, Soo Yeon Nam
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(2):216-223.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Leptin, the product of obese(ob) gene, is thought to be a lipostatic hormone that contributes to body weight regulation through modulating food intake and energy expenditure. Animals with leptin deficiency are obese and lose body weight when they are given leptin. However little is known about the physiologic actions of leptin in humans. Plasma leptin concentrations are shown to be elevated in obese humans. So far, the factors that regulate plasma leptin concentrations remain to be identified. This work is undertaken, therefore, to examine the basal leptin concentrations in lean and obese korean males, and relation between leptin concentrations, body fat and other biochemical pararneters. METHODS: We measured the height, weight, waist/ hip ratio, fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid and leptin concentrations in 45 obese and 45 normalweight males without medical and surgical problems. RESULTS: Means of percent IBW were 136.3+/-10.3%(mean+/-SD) and 97.2+/-6.5% in obese and control group respectively. Pasting blood sugar, free fatty acid, total cholesterol concentrations were not different between obese and control group. But the insulin and triglyceride concentrations were higher in obese group than those in control group(p< 0.05). Also, the mean leptin concentrstion was higher in obese group than that in control group(5.8+/-3.5 vs 3.0+/-2.1). The leptin concentrations were not correlated with fasting blood sugar, free fatty acid, total cholesterol levels, triglyceride, insulin or age, but correlated with WHR(r2=0.203), BMI and percent IBW. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the leptin coneentrations are positively correlated with adiposity. The mean serum leptin concentrations in korean obese males were lower than those reported in other studies, probably because the subjects of this study were only males and had lower fat amount compared to other studies, and the change of body weight and calorie intake before study was not considered.
Hyperemesis Gravidarum and Thyroid Function.
Kyung Rae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):12-15.   Published online January 1, 2001
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No abstract available.
A Case of Carney Complex.
Sung Kil Lim, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Young Joon Won, Suk Ho Kwon, Ru Tha Lee, Bo Young Chung, Kwang Kil Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(4):633-641.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Carney Complex is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by multiple neoplasias, including myxomas at various sites and endocrine tumors, spotty pigmentations and schwannomas. The criteria for diagnosis of the complex is the presence of two or more of the following conditions: 1) cardiac myxoma, 2) cutaneous myxoma, 3) mammary myxoma, 4) spotty mucocutaneous pigmentation, 5) primary pigmented nodular adrenal cortical disease (Cushing's syndrome), 6) testicular tumors (sexual precocity), 7) pituitary adenoma secreting growth hormone (acromegaly or gigantism). It is thought that the genetic defects which are responsible for Carney complex maps to the short arm of chromosome 2 (2p16). There are about 200 patients with Carney complex reported in the world. We encounted a patient who had a cardiac myxoma with a family history of cardiac myxoma, acromegaly, lentigosis, testicular mass with calcification and left adrenal nodule. This patient met the criteria for the diagnosis of the complex. Therefore, we think this patient represents clinical presentation of the Carney complex and we report this case with reviews of the literatures.
A Case of Central Diabetes Insipidus Caused by Metastatin Malignant Lymphoma.
Sung Kil Lim, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Hyun Soo Kim, Kyung Rae Kim, Yoo Mi Lee, Yong Suk Yoon, Suk Ho Kwon, Jae Hyun Nam, Sang Hak Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(4):596-601.   Published online January 1, 2001
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The causes of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) are numerous; some primary cases are idiopathic while most secondary cases are surgically induced or the result of tumor. The frequency of metastatic tumor as a cause of DI is 6% to 20% of cases, Variety of malignancies including breast, lung, colon, prostate cancer, and leukemia/lymphoma have been reported to metastasize to the pituitary, although most patients are asymptomatic. Clinical manifestations of pituitary metastases include anterior pituitary failure, visual disturbance, and extraocular muscle weakness. DI is the most common clinical manifestation of hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) metastases. Anatomical basis far this clinical picture is that most metastases occur in the posterior lobe. We report on a 35-year-old male patient with meningeal involvement of malignant lymphoma that was thought to be associated with DI. Confirmation of primary malignancy was made by biopsy at site of cervical lymph node and tonsil, Pituitary involvement was suspected on brain MRI, and satisfactory symptornatic relief was obtained with vasopressin. Because of the progres-sion of underlying lymphorna that has shown no response to combined anticancer chemotherapy, the patient expired on 60th hospital day.
The Benificial Effects of Growth Hormone Therapy with Diet Restriction in Obese Adults.
Sung Kil Lim, Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Eun Sook Kim, Jae Ho Shin, Kyung Rae Kim, Soo Yeon Nam
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(4):571-583.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Carolic restriction as a treatment for obesity causes catabolism of body protein stores and produces negative nitrogen balance. GH administration causes acceleration of lipolysis and promotion of nitrogen conservation. We evaluated the effects of GH treatment and caloric restriction on lipolysis, anabolic effects and body composition in obese subjects. METHODS: 24 obese (20% over IBW) subjects (22 women and 2 men; 22-46yr old) were fed a diet of 25kcal/kg IBW with 1.2g protein/kg IBW daily during treatment. The subjects were assigned at random to either treatment with recombinent human GH (n=12, 0.06U/kg IBW every other day) or placebo (n 12, vehicle injection) for 12 weeks. Body fat was assessed by impedence and abdominal fat, visceral fat area at the umbilicus level and muscle area of mid thigh level were measured using computed tomography. RESULTS: Fraction of body weight lost as fat lost was significantly greater in GH treatment than in placebo group (1.21+-0.48%/kg, vs 0.52+-0.28%/kg, p0.05). GH treatment caused significant decrease in visceral fat area (35.3% vs 28.5%, p<0.05). In placebo group, there were significant loss of muscle area (-4.8 +-2.6cm ) and lean body mass (-2.62 +-1.51kg) after treatment. In contrast, GH treatment group had more increase in muscle area (3.5+-2.3cm ) and lean body mass (1.13 +-1.04kg) and positive nitrogen balance (1.81+-4.06g/day). GH injections cuased a 1.6-fold increase in IGF-I, despite caloric restriction. GH responses to L-dopa stimulation were blunted in all subjects and GH responses were increased after treatment. Both group showed hyperinsulinemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and after treatment, they had decreased in insulin secretion. However, GH treatmnent group had not significant decrease, because GH might induce insulin resistance. FFA response areas during OGTT markedly decreased after treatment in both group. In GH treatment group, more decrease of FFA responses might result from the antilipolytic effect by higher level of insulin or more decrease in amount of fat. CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that in obese subjects fed hypocaloric diet, GH accelerates body fat loss and exerts anabolic effects.
Clinical and Sellar MR Findings in Central Diabets Inspidus.
Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Su Youn Nam, Eun Jig Lee, Sei Chang Oh, Byung Hee Lee, Dong Ik Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):285-292.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Background
s: Diabetes insipidus(DI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by excretion of copious volumes of dilute urine combined with persistent intake of abnormally large quantities of fluid. Central DI, caused by lack of antidiuretic hormone(ADH), most often results from lesions in the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal axis. Magnetic resonance(MR) imaging is particularly useful in documenting the presence of a structural lesion, as opposed to assigning a diagnosis of idiopathic DI for which only symptomatic therapy is prescribed. Recently, several reports have described a specific MR finding in central DI, that is absence of normal posterior pituitary bright spot(PPBS). Methods: We retrospectivesly studied the clinical and MR findings in 25 patients with central DI, diagnosed by warter deprivation test. Results: 1) The subjects included 17 males and 8 females, between the ages of 2 and 58 years. 2) 24-hour urine volumes were 2,340~13,750 mL, and mean urine osmolarity was 147.7±65.8 mOsm/kg. The 23 subjects diagnosed complete central DI by warter deprivation test. 3) We found that the most common cause of cntral DI was infiltrative lesions of hypothalmic-neurohypophyseal axis(60%). Germ cell tumor was the single leading cause in present study, accounting for 36% of cases. The other causes were found, including pituitary apoplexy, meningitis, and trauma. Idiopathic central DI accounted for 20% of all cases. 4) Growth hormone deficiency was the most common accompanying anterior pituitary deficit, and panhypopituitarism was found in 7 cases, Hyperprolactinernia was seen in 6 cases. 5) In all patients, PPBS on Tl weighted MR images were not observed. A thickened pituitary stalk was seen in 15 cases(9 patients with germ cell tumor, 3 patients with histiocytosis X, 1 patient with tuberculosis, 2 patients with unknown origin). Conclusion: In our results, the most common causes of central DI was suprasellar infiltrative lesions. MR is currently the imaging methods of choice in the evaulation of dysfunction of the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system in patients with central DI. A specific MR finding, that is loss of normal PPBS allows a confirmative diagnosis of central DI.
Reduction of Central Dopamine Release in Hyperprolactinemia.
Bong Soo Cha, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Su Youn Nam, Eun Jig Lee, Bong Chul Chung, Jung Han Kim, Sei Chang Oh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):277-284.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Background
Prolactin(PRL) secretion is tonically inhibited by doparnine that originates from the hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular tract and reaches the lactotroph via the hypophyseal portal vessel. Hyperprolactinemia associated with oligomenorrhea-amenorrhea, galactorrhea and/or infertility is mainly due to PRL-secreting pituitary adenoma(PA). The diagnosis of idiopathic hyperprolac- tinemia(IHP) is made, when hyperprolactinemia is sustained and all causes of hyperprolactinemia are excluded without radiological abnormality. It is not known, whether IHP and PA are two distinct entities or two subsequent phases of the same disease. The etiology of both disorders remains unresolved. We investigated that PRL hypersecretion in patients with IHP and PA may be the result of a defect in the central nervous system(CNS)-dopamine release, and that there may be some differences in pathogenesis of both diseases. Methods: We measured 24 hour-urinary dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and serum and 24 hour-urinary VMA(vanillyl rnandelic acid), HVA(homovanilic acid), DOPAC(3,4-dihydroxy phenylaceticacid), MHPG(3-methoxy 4-hydroxy phenylglycol) in 10 normal controls, 9 patients with IHP, and 17 patients with PA in the early follicular phase. Results: Urinary HVA and DOPAC concentrations, the major metabolites of CNS dopaminergic activity, were signficantly lower in both patients with IHP and PA compared with those in normal controls(p 0.05), whereas they were not different in both disease groups. Dopamine, norepine-phrine, epinephrine, MHPG concentrations were similar to those of the normal controls. Although VMA concentrations of both disease groups were significantly higher than those of normal controls, all of them were within normal range. Conelusion: Although our data are unable to establish the precise biochemical defect responsible for central dopamine deficiency in pathogensis of IHP and PA, we can support the presence of a pathological reduction of brain dopamine activity in IHP and PA.
A Case of Adult Fanconi Syndrome with Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia.
Ji Hyun Lee, Young Sup Byun, Bong Soo Cha, Moon Suk Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Jin Kim, Jong In Yook
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(1):93-101.   Published online November 7, 2019
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The Fanconi syndrome is characterized by generalized disturbance of tubular function. It leads to excessive losses of amino acids, glucose, phosphate, bicarbonate, and other organic and inorganic substrates handled by the proximal tubules. The metabolic consequences are acidosis, hypophosphatemia, hypocalemia, dehydration, rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and growth retardation. This syndrome may either be congenital or acquired, primary or secondary. Acquired Fanconi syndrome may result from multiple myeloma, Wilsons disease, primary amyloidosis, light chain nephropathy, and heavy metal poisoning such as lead, mercury, and cadmium. A 33-year-old female presented with multiple bone pain, and progressive proximal muscle weakness for 15 months. The blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, and uric acid were 12.1 mg/dL, 1.5 mg/dL, 8.4 mg/dL, 1.8 mg/dL, and 1.7 mg/dL, respectively. The urine volume, protein, calcium, phosphate, and creatinine clearance were 2,330 ml, 343.7 mg, 146 mg, 424 mg, and 44.6 ml/min, respectively in 24 hour collection urine study. The tubular reabsorption rate of phosphate was decreased. In arterial blood gas analysis study, pH was 7.348, bicarbonate was 17.6 mmol/L, which means metabolic acidosis. In chest X-ray, fracture was seen in eighth and ninth left ribs. The whole body bone scan revealed hot uptake at both first and second ribs, right third rib, both eighth and ninth ribs, left sacroiliac joint and right hip joint. Bone densitometry showed moderate osteopenia in spine and femur neck. After NE4Cl loading, the urine pH was decreased below 5.0 at two and third hour, which means proximal renal tubular acidosis. Amino acid such as, hydroxyproline, threonine, serine, asparagine, glutamine excreted much more than normal in 24 hour urine. Bone biopsy showed the presence of increased osteoid volume and osteoid seam width and marked decreased mineral appositional rate as evidence for osteomalacia. The patients symptoms, including bone pain and proximal muscle weakness, were relieved after supplement of calcitonin, Vitamin D and calcium carbonate. We report a case of Fanconi syndrome with hypophosphatemic osteomalacia with brief review of literature.
A Case of Anterior Cervical Lipoma Mimicking Diffuse Goiter.
Eun Jig Lee, Moon Suk Nam, Su Youn Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Jun Sik Na, Yee Hyun Nam, Jeon Hong Kang, Jung Ki Seo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(4):418-423.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Lipoma is a benign fatty tumor that can arise in any location of the body where fat is present. It is found most commonly in the upper half of the body, particularly the head and neck, shoulders, and back. A mass in the antero-inferior part of the neck may be initially thought to be thyroid masses and then other cervical masses should be considered. Ultrasongraphic examination of benign lipoma demonstrates solid and echogenic mass and may differentiate nonthyroid from thyroid masses. Although the location of tumors, its consistency, and its motion with deglutition, seperation from the thyroid on sonographic examination, all pointed to nonthyroidal origin, did not rule out a possible mass that isolated from the lobes of the thyroid. Fine needle aspiration and biopsy can provide clear answer.We herein report a case of anterior cervical mass in a 48-yr-old male patient presenting a non-tender, slightly hard and nodular mass slowly growing for several years and moved with swallowing, and diagnosed his case as benign lipoma using thyroid scan and ultrasonography. When we encounter patients with anterior neck mass, we should consider benign lipoma mimicking diffuse goiter.
Clinical and Endocrinologic Differences between Prolactinoma and Pseudoprolactinoma Proven by Immunohistochemical Study.
Jae Wha Jo, Eun Jig Lee, Moon Suk Nam, Su Youn Nam, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Tae Seung Kim, Sun Ho Kim, Kyung Rae Kim, Bong Soo Cha, Ji Hyun Lee, Sung Kil Lim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(4):362-369.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Hyperprolactinemia is the most common hypothalamo-pituitary disorder encountered in clinical endocrinology. Excluding the drug-induced hyperprolactinemia, the most common cause of this disorder is a pituitary tumor. Prolactinoma is mainly made up of prolactin-secreting cells but pseudoprolactinoma is tumor that does not secrete prolactin itself. The pseudoprolactinoma interrupts the flow of prolactin inhibiting factor, dopamine, from the hypothalamus through the pituitary stalk to the normal pituitary. The differentiation prolactinoma from pseudoprolactinoma is vitally important since true prolactinomas are most commonly responded well in terms of tumor shrinkage to medical treatment using dopamine agonist therapy, whereas pseudoprolactinomas do not. Thus surgical treatment is clearly indicated as first-line treatment if we know that a lesion is a pseudoprolactinoma. We compared prolactinoma with pseudoprolactinoma in clinical and endocrinologic characteristics of 48 cases after immunohistochemical diagnosis. We could not find any differential point of both tumors in clinical and radiological characteristics although some differences were exist. But we had found the relationship between the mean level of pretreatment serum prolactin and the presence of positive immunohistochemical stain for prolactin. The pretreatment serum prolactin level was significantly higher in patients with tumors showing many prolactin immunohistochemical staining cells than in those with none(p<0.05). When the pretreatment serum prolactin exceeded 100ng/ml, the tumors contain 94% of prolactin positive cells in stain. So, if the pretreatment serum prolactin exceeds 100ng/ml, we primarily suspect prolactinoma and medical treatment should be considered. If the pretreatment level below 100ng/ml, we suspect pseudoprolactinoma and surgical treatment should be considered.
Immunohistochemical Study of c - Myc, c - Fos and c - Jun Oncoprotein Expression in the Human Pheochromocytoma.
Jae Wha Jo, Eun Jig Lee, Moon Suk Nam, Kyung Rae Kim, Su Youn Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Yong Hye Lee, Tae Seung Kim, Kwan Woo Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1995;10(1):26-34.   Published online November 6, 2019
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A large number of studies for genes involved in oncogenesis have been done during last decade. Over 20 oncogenes have been isolated characterized, and the oncogene expressions in human tumors have been examined. The proto-oncogenes of c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun, which modulate the transcription factors, have overexpressed in a variety of human cancers. Immunohistochemical method was used in this study to examine c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun oncoprotein expression in 31 patients with human pheochromocytoma 28(90.0%) were benign and 3(10.0%) malignant. C-Myc oncoprotein immunoreactivity was found in 24 cases(77.4%), c-Fos in 29(93.5%), and c-Jun in 25(80.6%). Twenty-one(67.7%) showed positive immunoreactivity for all these oncoproteins, six(19.4%) for 2 oncoproteins, 3 for one oncoprotein. Only 1 case showed negative immunoreactivity for all 3 oncoproteins. The oncoprotein immunoreactivity did not correlate with the amount of 24 hour urinary catecholamine excretion. Although the number of malignant pheochromocytomsa was not so many, most of them showed that the immunoreactivity for oncoprotein was more than 30 percent of tumor cells.The expression of c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun oncoprotein were frequently found in human pheochromocytoma. These results suggest that the oncoprotein expression may play an important role in tumorogenesis and proliferation of human pheochromocytoma.
Complication and Prognosis of Craniopharyngioma According to the Age of Onset.
Eun Jig Lee, Moon Suk Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Kun Hoon Song, Bong Soo Cha, Ji Hyun Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;10(3):262-272.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Craniopharyngioma is the most common tumor involving the hypothalamo-pituitary area in childhood and adolescence. Recently, we carried out collective review of 70 patients with craniopharyngioma treated from January 1980 to December 1994 in order to inverstigate the endocrine outcome and survival according to the age of onset.The following results were obtained:1) The male to female ratio was 1:1. Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 to 64 years(mean age: 23) with the greatest frequency in the 2nd decade of life(28.6%). Of the 70 cases, the first group, 27 cases were under the age of 15, and the other group, 43 cases were over 15 year-old.2) The most common symptom at diagnosis in both groups was headache. In the adult group, symptoms related to hypogonadism(amenorrhea, decreased libido, galactorrhea etc.) were not uncommon. The lag of time between onset of symptom and hospital visit ranged from 3 days to 156 months(mean: 20 months).3) The main site of tumor was suprasellar region in both groups. The most common CT finding in both groups was calcification in sella turcica.4) In pre-operative combined pituitary function test, the most common, abnormal responses were shown in growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone in both groups. In addition, prolactin frequently showed abnormal response in the adult group.In post-operative combined pituitary function test, more hormones tended to reveal abnormal response in the group treated with surgery plus radiation therapy.5) The operation by subtotal removal followed by radiation therapy was the most commonly used method in treatment of both groups. After treatment, panhypopituitarism was occurred more frequently in the group treated with RT after surgery than those treated with surgery alone, but the difference was not statistically significant(p=0.136 in childhood, 0.436 in adults). Except the cases with panhypopituitarism, the most commonly encountered endocrine abnormalities were growth retardation in the children group, and hypogonadism in adult. The recurrence was clinically observed in 11 cases. The recurrence rate were 11.1% in children, and 18.6% in adult respectively. The mean time from the initial treatment to recurrence was 23 months. There was no significant difference in recurrence rate between the group treated with RT after subtotal removal and the group treated with total removal(p=0.475).The overall five-year survival rate after treatment was 82.8%. According to the treatment modalities, the patients undergone RT after subtotal removal survived much longer than those treated with other modalities such as subtotal removal only or total removal, but the differences in survival were not statistically significant(Log rank test, p=0.0539).
The Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor - α on Extra Thyroidal Conversion of T4 to T3 in Slices and Extracts of Porcine Liver and Kidney.
Jae Wha Jo, Moon Suk Nam, Su Youn Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Eun Jig Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;10(3):242-248.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Abnormal thyroid function is seen in a wide variety of patients with acute and chronic nonthyroidal-illness, consisting of reduction in both thyroid function and peripheral T_4 to T_3 conversion including decreased serum thyroxin(T_4), decreased triiodothyronine and normal or slightly increased serum TSH. Recently increasing awareness of the role tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) in systemic illness led us to consider a possible contribution of TNF-alpha to thyroid dysfunction in this setting. So we hypothesized that TNF-alpha might affect peripheral conversion of T_4 to T_3. We, therefore, explored the effects of TNF-alpha in slices and extracts of porcine liver and kidney. Thyroxine(T_4, 5ug/ml) was incubated in 0.15M phosphate buffer(PH 7.4) with slices(approximately 0.3 g-equivalent of tissue) and extracts(approximately 0.23 g-equivalent of tissue) of porcine liver and kidney with various concentrations(0-500pg/ml) of recombinant human TNF-alpha for 2 hours at 37 degree, and the T_3 generated during incubation was measured by radioimmunoassay of an ethanol extracts of the extracts and the homogenates of the slices. The slices produced more T_3 than extracts and the kidney was more active than the liver. TNF-alpha inhibited T_4 to T_3 conversion in dose-dependent manner in slices and extracts of porcine liver and kidney. Our data suggest that TNF-alpha have inhibitory effect of T_4 to T_3 conversion in liver and kidney(J Kor Soc Endocrinol 10: 242-248, 1995).
The Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor - α on the Thyroglobulin Synthesis and TSH Action in Cultured Porcine Thyroid Cells.
Jae Wha Jo, Eun Jig Lee, Moon Suk Nam, Su Youn Nam, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;10(3):220-228.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Abnormal thyroid function is seen in a wide variety of patients with acute and chronic nonthyroidal-illness, consisting of reduction in both thyroid function and peripheral T_4 to T_3 conversion including decreased serum thyroxin(T_4), decreased triiodothyronine and normal or slightly increased serum TSH. Recently increasing awareness of the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) in systemic illness led us to consider a possible contribution of TNF-alpha to thyroid dysfunction in this setting. So we hypothesized that TNF-alpha might affect the function of the thyroid gland. We, therefore, explored the effects of TNF-alpha on the cultured porcine thyroid cells in TSH-stimulated and TSH-nonstimulated conditions. Primarily cultured porcine thyroid cells were incubated with various concentrations(-500pg/ml) of recombinant buman TNF-alpha and bTSH(1mu/ml), with measurement of secreted thyroglobulin(Tg) and cyclic AMP(c-AMP) as the end points of stimulation, and produced intracellular Tg by pulse-labelling. TNF-alpha significantly inhibited TSH-stimulated intracellular Tg synthesis and extracellar Tg secretion at 200 and 500pg/ml concentration. TNF-alpha didn't affect c-AMP production at any concentration tested. So we conclude that increased in serum TNF-alpha may be responsible for reduced thyroid function in patients with acute and chronic nonthyroidal-illness.
Signal Transduction Related Oncogenes in Human Adrenal Cortical Tumor; Gsα Giα, CREB.
Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Sung Kil Lim, eun Kyung Jung, Hyung Chun Park, Woo Hee Jung, Dong Whan Shin, Hyun Suk Lee, Yung Dae Yoon
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):350-357.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Functioning adrenal cortical tumors are originated form a distinct zone(zonna glomerulosa, zonna fasciculata or zonna reticularis) or the transitonal zone of adrenal gland. Each zone of the gland is regulated by their specific hormons or cytokines, and their signal transduction systems are different. The oncogenes of many endocrine tumors were mutated proteins involved in signal transduction, however gip is the only reported oncogene in adrenal cortical tumors. Therefore we decided to reevaluate whether gsp might be detected as an oncogene in several different functioning adrenal tumors, and we also tested whether CREB protein is a tentative oncogene or not. In our study, gsp was not detected in 13 patients, however gip was not also detected unexpectedly. There were no mutations in the phosporylation site of CREB("P" box) in adrenal cushing syndrome. We concluded that gip was not a oncogene detected frequently in adrenal cortical tumor, and CREB protein was not considered as a tentative oncogen, because there might be no amplification of the signals due to its extreme distal component of PKA or PKC system.
The Effect of Methimazole on the Thyroglobulin Synthesis in Cultured Porcine Thyroid Cells.
Eun Jig Lee, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Mi Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):332-336.   Published online November 6, 2019
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The thioureylene drugs, propylthiouracil and methylmercaptoimidazol(MMI), exert their antithyroid effect primarily through inhibition of thyroid peroxidase-catalyzed iodination of thyroglobulin. Recently the interest about the effect to the thyroglobulin synthesis of these drugs have been increasing. So we studied the MMI effect to the thyroglobulin synthesis in cultured porcine thyroid cells. Porcine thyroid cells were isolated by sequential trypsinization in the presence of EGTA, seeded at high density(1X10^6 cells/cm^2) and cultured. One week later, MMI was added in different concentrations(0, 0.2, 1, 5mM) with TSH only or with 4H(b-TSH, Insulin, Transferrin, Hydrocortisone) or without hormone. Medias were collected after 24 hours and compared the amount of thyroglobulin secreted. And also pulse-labeling were performed with S^35 cysteine/methionine(1-2uCi/well) for 30, 60, 90min at the same conditions.There was no significant change in the amount of the secreted thyroglobulin by MMI, and there was no significant change in the pulse-labeled interacellular thyroglobulin by MMI. And also there was no significant change in the secretion of TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin by MMI. So we conclude that MMI has no effect on the thyroglobulin synthesis in cultured porcine thyroid cells and also MMI has no effect on the TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin synthesis in cultured porcine thyroid cell.
The Effect of Iodine on the thyroglobulin Synthesis in Cultured Porcine Thyroid Cells.
Eun Jig Lee, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Kyung Rae Kim, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Mi Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):318-324.   Published online November 6, 2019
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The amount of thyroglobulin synthesized from thyroid cells and stored in colloid space in very important in thyroid hormone synthesis. The thyroglobulin synthesis is mainly regulated by TSH secreted from the pituitary gland. But recently there were some reports about the possibility that iodine regulated the thyroid protein synthesis. So our studied were conducted to determined whether iodine could have inhibitory effect on thyroglobulin synthesis and methimazole could abolish the inhibitory effect of idoine.Porcine thyroid cells were isolated by sequential trypsinization in the presence of EGTA, seeded at high density(1X10^6 cells/cm^2) and cultured. One week later, Nal was added in different concentrations(10^-7, 10^-6, 10^-5, 10^-4M). 24hour medias were collected and checked the amount of thyroglobulin secreted. And also pulse-labeling were performed with[^35S] cysteine/methionine(1-2 uCi/well) for 1 hour at the same conditions. We used 3mM methimazole and 10^-4M NaI to observe the blocking effect of methimazol in iodine.The extracellular thyroglobulin secretion was significantly decreased by iodine in dose dependent manner(82.4%, 80.7%, 76.8% and 73.1% of control). And also intracellular thyroglobulin synthesis was significantly decreased by iodide in dose dependent manner(100.5%, 83.4%, 82.3% and 79.4% of control). The inhibitory effect of iodide was abolished by methimazole(74.7% to 101.3% of control). These data indicate that high iodide inhibit the thyroglobulin synthesis and secretion from the thyroid cells, and furthermore autoregulation by iodide may include thyroglobulin synthesis. And also this effect is dependent on the generation of an organic form of iodine because methimazole abolish the inhibitory effect of iodide.
The Iodine and the Thyroid Disease.
Kyung Rae Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):284-289.   Published online November 6, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Seasonal Variation in Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in The Elderly in Korean.
Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Young Duk Song, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Choon Hee Chung, Sung Kil Lim, Yoon Sok Chung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):121-127.   Published online November 6, 2019
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The seasonal variations in the parameters of calcium metabolism including 25-hydroxyvitamin D were analyzed in 19 free-living elderly subjects (mean age:68.7±6.7 yr) in Seoul. Mean serum total calcium concentration was 9.0±0.3 mg/dl in March and had risen to 9.3±0.3mg/dl in the following September(p<0.001). Despite their comparable calcium intake. Serum phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not show any seasonal variations, whereas serum PTH concentrations were significantly lower in September than in March(20.1±8.6 vs. 32.5±8.4 pg/ml, p<0.001). Seasonal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were also found between the value(17.3±6.9 ng/ml) in March and that (28.5±7.4 ng/ml) in September(p<0.001). There was a significant correlation between seasonal increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and seasonal reduction in serum PTH/Cr(r=-0.5394, p<0.05). This study suggests that the winter minimum of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and the elevated PTH may be a contributing risk factor for the development of osteopenia especially in the elderly individuals. When exposure to sunlight is reduced, as in the case of nursing home population, an additional exogenous form of the vitamin D may be advisable.
In Situ Hybridization Analysis of Human Growth Hormone and Prolactin Secreting Pitultary Adenomas.
Jae Wha Jo, Eun Jig Lee, Moon Suk Nam, Kyung Rae Kim, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Tae Seung Kim, Sun Ho Kim, Joong Uhn Choi, Kyu Chang Lee, Hyun Joo Jung, Sang Seop Chung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(2):82-92.   Published online November 6, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A non-isotopic in situ hybridization method with biotin-labelled oligonucleotide probes was used to examine growth hormone(GH) and prolactin(PRL) gene expression in 32 patients with pituitary adenomas; 13 were prolactinomas, 8 GH secreting adenomas, and 11 mixed GH and PRL secreting adenomas.Positive immunostaining for GH was found in all patients with GH secreting adenomas, and mixed GH and PRL secreting adenomas. Positive immunostaining for PRL was found in all patients with prolactinomas and 9(81.8%) of 11 mixed GH and PRL secreting adenomas, 5(62.5%) of 8 GH secreting adenomas. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 13 were lactotrope adenomas, 5 somatotrope adenomas, and 14 GH and PRL cell adenomas.In situ hybridization revealed that GH mRNA expression was found in all the patients with somatotrope adenomas and GH and PRL cell adenomas, and 6(46.1%) of 13 lactotrope adenomas. PRL mRNA expression was 100% in lactotrope and GH and PRL cell adenomas, and 4(80.0%) of 5 somatotrope adenomas.The patients with a clinical diagnosis of acromegaly had detectable PRL mRNA in their neoplasm and it is suggested that the PRL cells in the adenomas did not result from dedifferentiation, but from the neoplastic stimulus for some mixed tumors probably occurred in cells previously committed to produce PRL and GH. In lactotrope adenomas, the PRL cells of the patients without expression of GH mRNA may be arised from cells programmed to secrete PRL or precussor PRL cells rather than from mixed GH-PRL cells. The finding that some patients produced mRNA detectable by in situ hybridization, but no hormone detectable by immunohistochemistry within tumor was suggested of a silent adenoma.These observations indicated that in situ hybridization studies may improve the classification of pituitary adenomas and may provide a precise knowledge of the biology of these neoplasms.
The effects of different hormone conditions on the structure of the thyroglobulin from cultured pig thyroid cells.
Kyung Rae Kim, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(3):310-317.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 802 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Thyroglobulin synthesis in cultured porcine thyroid cells.
Kyung Rae Kim, Eun Jig Lee, Kyoung Mi Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(3):303-309.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 810 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against FRTL-5 cells in korean postpartum thyroiditis.
Hyun Chul Lee, Kwan Woo Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Eun Jig Lee, Kwang Jin Ahn, Jai Hee Jung, Yun Sok Chung, Mi Rin Kim, Hyeon Man Kim, Sung Kil Lim, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(3):296-302.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 748 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
A clinical study of cushing's disease.
Chan Hee Lee, Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Kyeong Mi Lee, Jae Sik Cho, Hyun Chul Lee, Dong Ik Kim, Doe Heum Yoon, Young Soo Kim, Sang Seop Chung, Kyu Chang Lee, Tae Seung Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(3):273-280.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 921 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Growth hormone response to L-dopa and pyridostigmine in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Kyeong Mi Lee, Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Byung Seok Lee, Ki Hyun Park, Hee Dong Bae, Yoon Sok Chung, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(3):265-272.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 887 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
The effect of ipriflavone on postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Young Joon Weon, Yoon Sok Chung, Ki Young Hong, Yoo Kyoung Park, Hee Son Kim, Jong Ho Lee, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(3):259-264.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 920 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
A case of cushing's syndrome due to bilateral macronodular adrenocortical hyperplasia associated with empty sella syndrome.
Jin Ahn Kim, Kyung Mi Lee, Yoon Sok Chung, Eun Tack Shin, Uk Hee Won, Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Ki Whang Kim, Hee De Lee, Woo Hee Jung
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(2):203-210.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 870 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
The correlation between body composition and bone mineral density in pre-and postmenopausal women.
Moon Suk Nam, Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Kyung Mi Lee, Yoon Sok Chung, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Byung Suk Lee, Ki Hyun Park, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(2):180-186.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 840 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Comparision of bone mineral density in acromegalic pateints according to the gonadal status.
Seog Won Park, Young Soo Kim, Woon Sok Chung, Kyung Mi Lee, Eun Jig Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(2):149-156.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 819 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
alpha-subunit secretion of pituitary adenomas.
Kyeong Mi Lee, Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Yoon Sok Chung, Byoung Kwon Lee, Seg Won Park, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Doe Heum Yoon, Young Soo Kim, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(2):127-133.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 960 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
A case of pituitary metastasis from periampullary carcinoma.
Eun Tack Shin, Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Kyung Mi Lee, Hee Dong Bae, Kwan Sik Lee, Yoon Sok Chung, Kwang Jin Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(1):88-93.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 792 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Hereditary influence in determinig peak bone mass.
Ki Young Hong, Yoon Sok Chung, Sung Kil Lim, Young Duk Song, Moon Jeong Shim, Yoo Kyung Park, Jong Ho Lee, Hyun Yong Song, Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Soo Jae Moon
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1993;8(1):66-71.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 770 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Thyrotropin secreating pituitary adenoma.
Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyeon Man Kim, Yoon Sok Chung, Kwang Jin Ahn, Kyung Mi Lee, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Duk Hi Kim, Dong Ik Kim, Doe Heum Yoon, Yong Gu Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1992;7(4):331-342.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 1,008 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Estrogen receptors of human pituitary adenomas.
Eun Jig Lee, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Yoon Sok Chung, Kwang Jin Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Mi Rim Kim, Chang Mi Kim, Kyung Za Ryu, Do Heum Yoon, Sang Seop Chung, Kyu Chang Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1992;7(3):208-215.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 980 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Empty sella syndrome associated with diabetes insipidus: report of two cases.
Jae Hee Chung, Eun Jig Lee, Yoon Seog Chung, Eui Suk Whang, Kwang Jin Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1992;7(1):66-70.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 837 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Clinical review of pheochromocytoma.
Shin Kee Ahn, Kwang Jin Ahn, Eun Jig Lee, Yoon Sok Chung, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Cheong Soo Park, Jin Moo Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1991;6(3):245-253.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 955 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Clinical aspexts on craniopharyngioma.
Jae Hee Chung, Hyun Chul Lee, Nae Choon Yoo, Yoon Sok Chung, Seong Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Kap Bum Huh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1991;6(2):163-169.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 806 View
  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
A case adult onset hypophosphatemic osteomalacia.
Hyun Chul Lee, Young Duk Song, Kwang Jin Ahn, Mi Rim Kim, Kwan Woo Lee, Seong Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Kap Bum Huh, Chang dong Han, Je Geun Chi
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1991;6(1):75-81.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 820 View
  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.

Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism