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Jung Hee Han  (Han JH) 7 Articles
Percutaneous Ethanol Injection in Autonomous Functioning Thyroid Nodules and Complex Cysts: Five Years' Experience.
Seong Jin Lee, Jung Hee Han, Ha Young Kim, Jong Chul Won, Sang Wook Kim, Ho Kyu Lee, Il Min Ahn
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(1):57-68.   Published online February 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI) performed with ultrasonography guidance has recently been used in cases of autonomous functioning thyroid nodules (AFTN) and benign complex cysts. We performed this study to analyze the effects of PEI on AFTN and benign complex cysts. METHEODS: From September 1995 to September 2000, we performed PEI on 456 outpatients (47 men and 409 women, mean age 42.4+/-11.8 years) with AFTN or benign complex cysts. All cases were subjected to fine needle aspirations (FNA) by ultrasonography-guidance if necessary. FNA was performed at least twice with results of colloid nodule in cases of complex cysts. For AFTN, cases with FNA results of follicular neoplasm were also included. After PEI on AFTN, patients were classified into three response groups: complete response as judged by our new criteria (CR, normalization of TSH and free T4, disappearance of hot nodule on thyroid scan) along with the old criteria of previous studies (normalization of TSH and free T4, recovery of suppressed extranodular tissue on thyroid scan), partial response (PR, normalized free T4 but suppressed TSH, persistent hot nodule despite recovery in suppressed extranodular tissue) and no response (no change of hot nodule). Complex cysts were classified into three groups in accordance with volume reduction after PEI: complete response (CR, above 90% of volume reduction), partial response (PR, 50~89%) and no response (below 50%). RESULTS: Overall pre-treatment volumes were 15.3+/-12.1 mL and post-treatment volumes were 2.8+/-2.9 mL, with 66.4+/-19.9% of volume reductions in AFTN and complex cysts. Volume reductions were 71.5+/-18.0% in AFTN, and 66.1+/-15.0% in complex cysts. In 24 cases of AFTN, responses satisfying the previous criteria were 14 (58.3%) of CR, 6 (25.0%) of PR, and 4 (16.7%) of no response. However, by the new criteria there were 1 (4.2%) of CR, 10 (41.6%) of PR, and 13 (54.2%) of no response. In 432 cases of complex cysts, CR was observed in 82 (19.0%), PR in 261 (60.4%) and no response in 89 (20.6%). The volume reductions in complex cysts with pre-treatment volume larger than 15 mL were higher than those of groups with smaller volumes (p<0.001). Pre-treatment volumes were not correlated with post-treatment volumes, nor with volume reductions. Volume reductions were not correlated with the amounts of injected ethanol. Mild and transient complications were observed in 41 cases (9.0%) during PEI, consisting of transient neck pain (n=36, 7.9%), transient unilateral vocal cord palsy (n=3, 0.7%), intracavitary hemorrhage (n=1, 0.2%), and transient hypotension (n=1, 0.2%). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the efficacy of PEI on AFTN is temporary and does not usually induce long-term complete remissions. In complex cysts, however, PEI may have potential as an additive treatment modality to thyroid hormone suppressive therapy
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Clinical Applications of 18-FDG PET in Recurred Differentiated Thyroid Cancer with Negative 131I Whole Body Scintigraphy: A Comparative Analysis with 99mTc-MIBI Scintigraphy.
Jong Chul Won, Sung Jin Lee, Tae Yun Lee, Il Seong Nam-Goong, Sy Yeol Lee, Ha Young Kim, Jung Hee Han, Jin Sook Ryu, Dae Hyuk Moon, Il Min Ahn
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(4-5):481-493.   Published online October 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
In patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated by surgery and radioactive iodine ablation, serum thyroglobulin(Tg) and 131I whole body scan(WBS) are recognized as being the best cooperative indicators for detection of recurrence or metastasis. However, in some cases, 131I WBS shows no specific lesions despite elevated serum Tg. Therefore, 18-Fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography(PET) has emerged as a useful method for the detection of 131I WBS negative thyroid cancers. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this technique in detection and to compare the results with 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy(MIBI) in cases of final results being confirmed by histologic diagnosis and other imaging methods. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis amon 131I WBS negative recurred papillary thyroid carcinoma patients(male: female ratio=9:22, median age=42 yr). FDG PET was performed in 28 patients and MIBI 28 patients, 25 of whom were common to both groups. All patients had histologically proven recurrence/metastasis and negative 131I WBS results but persistently elevated serum Tg levels. In each case overall clinical evaluations were performed including histology, cytology, thyroglobulin level, other imaging methods, posttherapy 131I WBS and subsequent clinical course, to allow comparison with the results of FDG PET. RESULTS: In 19 cases of patients with negative 131I WBS, proven recurrence/metastasis lesions were detected in FDG PET. Compared with MIBI, FDG PET was found to be superior in 8 cases(including 2 patients with distant metastases). No FDG-negative/MIBI-positive tumor was observed. One FDG PET negative and MIBI negative case was proven 3 months later to be metastatic cervical lymph nodes, Sensitivities were 94.7% in the FDG PET group and 52.6% in MIBI. Diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET was superior to that of MIBI(93% vs. 62%, respectively, p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed the clinical usefulness of FDG PET for detection of 131I negative differentiated thyroid cancers and suggested the value of FDG PET as an initial diagnostic step, rather than MIBI, in these cases.
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Effectiveness of Percutaneous Ethanol Injection in Benign Cold Thyroid Nodules: Five Years' Experience.
Seong Jin Lee, Jung Hee Han, Ha Young Kim, Jong Chul Won, Sang Wook Kim, Ho Kyu Lee, Il Min Ahn
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):210-220.   Published online April 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI) which is performed with the guidance of ultrasonography has recently been used in patient who had benign cold thyroid nodules. We performed this study to analyze the long-term effects of PEI on benign cold thyroid nodules. METHOD: From September 1995 to September 2000, we treated 198 outpatients (12 men and 186 women, who had a mean age of 40.8 years, with a range of 15-71) who had benign cold thyroid nodules at the Asan Medical Center. The PEI was performed on 141 patients who had solitary nodules (SN) and on 57 patients who had prominent nodules or Questionable or typing error? multiple nodules (MN). All patients had fine needle aspirations (FNAs) at least twice which resulted in a diagnosis of the presence of a colloid nodule. Thyroid hormone was given to all patients along with TSH measurements. The thyroid hormone dose was titrated to correspond to TSH level of a low normal range. These patients were followed up for mean period of 37.6 months (range 18-60). Patients who were treated with PEI were classified into three groups according to their volume reduction: a complete response (CR, which was above 90% in volume reduction), a partial response (PR, which was a 50-89%) reduction and No Response (which was below 50% or an increased size) groups. RESULTS: The overall pre-treatment volumes of the nodules were 15.7+/-19.8 mL. The overall post-treatment volumes were 2.4+/-2.6 mL and consisted of volume reductions of 70.1+/-17.1%. The results of PEI for all of the patients were: a complete reduction (CR) in 34 cases (17.2%), a partial reduction (PR) in 142 cases (71.7%) and No Response in 22 patients (11.1%). In 141 patients in the SN group, in which there was a mean follow-up duration of 36.7+/-11.2 months, the volume reductions were 68.3+/-18.8%. CR was observed in 20 patients (14.2%), PR in 103 (73.0%) and No Response in 18 (12.8%). In twenty-two of the SN patients (22/141, 15.6%) we were able to discontinue the thyroid hormone suppressive therapy because those nodules had markedly decreased in volume after PEI without any further increase of nodule size during the follow-up period. In 57 patients in the MN group, over a mean follow-up durations of 37.1+/-11.4 months, the volume reductions were 74.3+/-12.1%. CR was observed in 14 patients (24.6%), PR in 39 (68.4%) and No Response occurred in 4 (7.0%). During the follow-up period after PEI, further volume reductions were observed for 36 months after thyroid hormone suppressive therapy in the Response Group. Differences in volume reductions between the SN and MN groups were not statistically significant but the volume reductions in patients who had a pre-treatment volume larger than 15 mL were higher than those in the smaller group (p<0.001). In the cases of the SN and MN groups, volume reductions did not correlate with either the amount of injected ethanol or the pre-treatment volumes, but the pre-treatment volumes correlated with post-treatment volumes in the patients who had SN (p<0.001, r=0.411) and MN (p<0.001, r=0.729). We observed mild, but transient complications in 32 patients (16.2%) during PEI which included a transient neck pain (n=27, 13.6%), a transient unilateral vocal cord palsy (n=4, 2.0%), and an abscess formation (n=1, 0.5%) which was cured. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PEI is a feasible adjunctive therapy to use in thyroid hormone suppressive therapy for benign cold thyroid nodules
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Differential Diagnostic Value of TSH Receptor Antibody Measurements in Thyrotoxic Postpartum Patients with History of Graves' Disease.
Seong Jin Lee, Yun Ey Chung, Ha Young Kim, Jung Hee Han, Jong Chul Won, Ahm Kim, Jin Sook Ryu, Dae Hyuk Moon, Il Min Ahn
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(1):75-84.   Published online February 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It is known that pregnancy markedly influences the clinical course of autoimmune thyroid diseases. In the postpartum period, various kinds of autoimmune thyroid dysfunctions can be observed. Thyroid dysfunction is found in 5.5-7.1% of postpartum women in the general population. Among those who show thyroid dysfunction after delivery, some will develop Graves' disease and others will develop postpartum thyroiditis. It is also known that patients with Graves' disease may manifest thyrotoxicosis in the postpartum period because of postpartum thyroiditis or relapse of the Graves' disease itself. We evaluated the clinical features of postpartum thyrotoxicosis in Graves' disease patients to find diagnostic indices that could be used in differentiating between postpartum thyroiditis and relapse of Graves' disease. METHOD: We reviewed the cases with postpartum thyrotoxicosis in patients that had a history of Graves' disease between 1995 and 2000. The diagnosis of postpartum thyroiditis had been made by means of a 99mTc thyroid scan or by the observation of a typical triphasic thyroid function change, in cases where a 99mTc thyroid scan was not possible because of breast feeding. We measured the serum TSH, free T4, free T3, TSH binding inhibiting immunoglobulin (TBII), anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody, and anti- thyroglobulin (Tg) antibody serially from the time of the diagnosis of Graves' disease to the time of postpartum thyroid dysfunction. RESULTS: Eleven patients, 5 patients in the postpartum thyroiditis (PPT group) and 6 patients with relapse of the Graves' disease (GD group), were identified. The mean values of TBII of two groups at the time of diagnosis of Graves' disease were 40.9+/-4.8 IU/mL (PPT group), 58.9+/-23.5 IU/mL (GD group) respectively, which were insignificant. The mean values of TBII of the two groups at early pregnancy were 3.2+/-1.9 IU/mL (PPT group), 41.6+/-22.6 IU/mL (GD group) and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.009). The mean values of TBII of the two groups at the time of postpartum thyrotoxicosis were 1.9+/-1.6 IU/mL (PPT group), 51.5+/-23.2 IU/mL (GD group) which were also statistically significant (p=0.003). The mean values of anti-TPO antibody, anti-Tg antibody, disease duration, and treatment duration between the two groups were not significantly different. The onsets of thyroid dysfunction after delivery in the two groups were 2.6+/-2.0 (PPT group), 4.0+/-3.9 (GD group) months which were statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the measurement of TBII at the time of the postpartum thyrotoxic period, could help to differentiate postpartum thyroiditis from a relapse of Graves' disease in those patients that have a history of Graves' disease especially when thyroid scan is not possible because of breast feeding.
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Lanreotide Therapy in Graves' Ophthalmopathy.
Il Seong Nam-Goong, Eun Ju Lee, Jung Hwoon Kim, Jong Chul Won, Woo jae Lee, Jung Hee Han, sung Jin Lee, Sang Wook Kim, Moo Kon Son, Ho Hye Lee, Il Min Ahn
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(1):18-25.   Published online February 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) is an autoimmune process that affects the orbital tissues. Patients with GO are usually treated with high doses of corticosteroids, retrobulbar irradiation, or by surgical decompression, however, those have some adverse effect. Recently, a synthetic somatostatin analogue has been reported for the treatment of GO. This study was performed prospectively to evaluate the therapeutic effects of lanreotide, a potent long acting synthetic somatostatin analogue, in patients that have GO. METHODS: Eight patients with moderate to severe GO (M:F=1:7, age 39.0+/-11.8 years) were included. Patients who had been treated with other modalities than GO, or had a systemic illness such as diabetes were excluded. Eight patients were given lanreotide, 40mg IM every 2 weeks over a period of 8 weeks. Their therapeutic responses were evaluated using an orbital CT or MRI and by ophthalmologic examinations. RESULTS: After 8 weeks' of lanreotide treatment, 4 patients showed decreased scores in the NOSPECS classification (p=0.059) as well as 5 patients in their clinical activity scores(p=0.109). All of the 8 patients showed improvements according to clinical evaluation criteria (p=0.008). Significant changes in the thickness of both the lateral rectus and superior rectus muscles were observed (p<0.05). No patient showed serious adverse effects related to lanreotide therapy during the follow-up periods. CONCLUSION: We conclude that lanreotide therapy has clinical benefits and show radiologic improvements in GO. Considering the minimal side-effects of lanreotide compared to those of corticosteroid, lanreotide therapy should be considered for use in selected patients that have Graves' ophthalmopathy
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The Role of Preoperative and Postoperative Thyroglobulin Measurements in The Detection of Well Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas Recurrence.
Seong Jin Lee, Jong Chul Won, Ha Young Kim, Jung Hee Han, Eun Ju Lee, Sang Wook Kim, Jin Sook Ryu, Dae Hyuk Moon, Suk Joon Hong, Il Min Ahn
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2000;15(4-5):542-553.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement is primarily used to monitor patients with well differentiated thyroid carcinomas (WDTC) for tumor recurrence. We evaluated the correlations between fold responses of thyroglobulin levels and TNM stages (and MACIS scores) at recurrent group. Also correlations between preoperative Tg levels and Tg (on or off replacement) levels at the time of recurrence were evaluated. Postoperative Tg levels between recurrent and non-recurrent groups were analyzed for the use of assessing risk of recurrence. METHODS: One hundred twenty five cases of WDTC who had total thyroidectomy and (131)I remnant thyroid ablation were finally included in this study. After optimal TSH stimulations (>30 microIU/mL), (131)I whole body scan (WBS) was performed. We interpreted as a recurrence only when abnormal findings on the (131)I WBS were detected. Preoperative, immediate postoperative and follow-up Tg tlevels were regularly measured. RESULTS: Difference of preoperative Tg levels between recurrent and non-recurrent groups was not significant (27.5+/-4.2 ng/mL vs. 16.0+/-10.9 ng/mL). Also differences of immediate postoperative Tg (on or off replacement) levels between two groups was not significant (2.4+/-3.8 ng/mL vs. 3.6+/-3.l ng/mL, 33.4+/-4.8 ng/ml vs. 24.5+/-4.8 ng/mL, respectively). Tg levels on replacement at 24 months after surgery between recurrent and non-recurrent groups were significantly different (2.2+/-4.8 ng/mL, 15.9+/-6.5 ng/mL, p<0.001) and also Tg levels off replacement between recurrent and non-recurrent groups were significantly different (4.0+/-6.6ng/mL vs. 49.4+/-9.3 ng/mL, p<0.001). Fold responses between recurrent and non-recurrent groups were significantly different (2.0+/-3.1 ng/mL, 5.0+/-4.1 ng/mL, p=0.009). Fold responses between recurrent and non- recurrent groups were significantly different according to TNM stages (p=0.002) but not different according to MACIS scores. Preoperative Tg levels were correlated Tg (on or off replacement) levels at the time of recurrence (p=0.02, r=0.4: p<0.001, r=0.6, respectively). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of Tg levels over 2 ng/mL on replacement were 95%, 73%, 84% but those of Tg levels over 7 ng/mL off replacement were 83%, 70%, 77%. CONCLUSION: Fold responses may predict prognosis of WDTC. Small postoperative increase in serum Tg levels may indicate a large increase of tumor mass in cases of normal or low preoperative Tg levels. Tg levels over 2 ng/mL on replacement or 7 ng/mL off replacement during follow-up may suggest the recurrence of WDTC.
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Allelotyping and Comparative Genomin Hybridization Studies in Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas and Follicular Adenomas.
Il Min Ahn, Eun Sook Kim, Hyun Soo Park, Ki Young Park, Seok Jun Hong, Kyung Yub Gong, Jin Yub Kim, Sung Bae Kim, Sang Hee Kim, Sung Jin Lee, Jung Hee Han, Kwan Ja Jee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(2):314-322.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
In our previous study, the prevalence of the known causes of thyroid tumorigenesis was relatively rare in Korean population, suggesting genetic and environmental differences exist. Screening of genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC) and follicular adenoma(FA) in whole genomic scale was needed prior to search on individual genes of possible causes. METHODS: Ten cases of PTC without ret/PTC-I, -2, -3 rearrangement and 5 cases of follicular adenoma were included in the study of microsatellite marker allelotyping. Sixty two microsatellite markers available, were chosen to cover the known sites of loss of heterozygosity(LOH) involved in thyroid tumors, tumor suppressor genes and terminal portion of each chromosomes. PCR was performed on tumor DNA and leukocytes DNA from each patient with MDE gel electrophoresis to detect LOH. Same specitnens as above, 3 case of normal thyroid tissues and NPA, ARO cell lines were included in the study of comparative genomic hybridization(CGH). Tumor and control DNAs were hybridized to metaphase chromosome with differential stainings with fluorescein and rhoda-mine-dUTP. Obtained results were analyzed by multicolor fluorescence computer assisted image analyzer. RESULTS: In allelotyping, LOH were detected in 5 cases of PTC, 2 cases on D10S1435, 1 case each on D2S1780, DSS1099, D11S1986, D16S539, 1 case of PTC revealed LOH on DSS1099, D11S1986. In FA, LOH were detected in 3 cases on D1S534, D1S226, Dl 1S907, D22S683, DXS9807. In CGH, Xp addition was noticed in 1 case of PTC, 12q and 10p addition was noticed in 1 case each, 16q deletion and 17q addition in 1 case of FA. CONCLUSION: No hot spot of LOH was noticed in microsatellite marker allelotyping, neither of common chromosomal change in CGH study suggesting unbalanced translocation or gene amplification more than 5-10 Mb may be involved in the genetic alteration of PTC and FA.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism