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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism


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Jin-hyung Jung  (Jung Jh) 2 Articles
Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Big Data Articles (National Health Insurance Service Database)
Association of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Phenotypes with the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases and Mortality: A Cohort Study in Korea
Ga Eun Nam, Youn Huh, Jin-Hyung Jung, Kyungdo Han, Seon Mee Kim, on Behalf of the Taskforce Team of the Obesity Fact Sheet of the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity
Endocrinol Metab. 2022;37(2):261-271.   Published online April 25, 2022
  • 3,774 View
  • 146 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
We investigated whether low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and isolated and non-isolated low HDL-C levels are associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality among Korean adults.
We included 8,665,841 individuals aged ≥20 years who had undergone a health examination provided by the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) in 2009 and were followed up until the end of 2018. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for study outcomes were calculated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis.
During the 8.2 years of mean follow-up, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause mortality occurred in 81,431, 110,996, and 244,309 individuals, respectively. After adjusting for confounding variables (model 3), individuals with low HDL-C and lower HDL quartiles were associated with significantly increased risks of all three outcomes, compared to those with normal HDL-C and highest HDL-C quartile (all P<0.001), respectively. HRs for incident MI (1.28; 95% CI, 1.26 to 1.30), stroke (1.13; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.15), and all-cause mortality (1.07; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.08) increased in the non-isolated low HDL-C group compared to the normal HDL-C group. Isolated low HDL-C also showed an increase in the HRs of incident stroke (1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.08) and all-cause mortality (1.30; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.32).
Low HDL-C and non-isolated low HDL-C were associated with increased risk of MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality, and isolated low HDL-C was associated with incident stroke and all-cause mortality risk.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between HDL levels and stroke outcomes in the Arab population
    Aizaz Ali, Omar Obaid, Naveed Akhtar, Rahul Rao, Syed Haroon Tora, Ashfaq Shuaib
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of adiposity and fitness with triglyceride-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in youth
    Danladi Ibrahim Musa, Abel Lamina Toriola, Nurudeen O Abubakar, Sunday Omachi, Victor B Olowoleni, Kolade B Ayodele
    Annals of Pediatric Cardiology.2023; 16(3): 194.     CrossRef
  • Association between cholesterol levels and dementia risk according to the presence of diabetes and statin use: a nationwide cohort study
    You-Bin Lee, Min Young Kim, Kyungdo Han, Bongsung Kim, Jiyun Park, Gyuri Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jae Hyeon Kim, Sang-Man Jin
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Prevalence and Annual Incidence of Thyroid Disease in Korea from 2006 to 2015: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
Hyemi Kwon, Jin-hyung Jung, Kyung-Do Han, Yong-Gyu Park, Jung-Hwan Cho, Da Young Lee, Ji Min Han, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2018;33(2):260-267.   Published online June 21, 2018
  • 6,831 View
  • 131 Download
  • 39 Web of Science
  • 38 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   

The incidence of thyroid nodules has increased worldwide in recent years. Thyroid dysfunction is a potential risk factor for hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, arrhythmia, and neuropsychiatric disease. This study investigated the prevalence and annual incidence of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism in Koreans.


In this nationwide population-based cohort study, 51,834,660 subjects were included using the National Health Information database from 2006 to 2015, after the exclusion of subjects with thyroid cancer.


The prevalence in Korea in 2015 of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism in patients taking thyroid hormone, and hyperthyroidism in patients undergoing treatment was 15.82/1,000 population, 15.94/1,000 population, and 2.76/1,000 population, respectively. All these diseases were more prevalent among women than among men. The number of incident cases of these three thyroid diseases steadily increased from 2006 to 2012, and then decreased through 2015. The incidence of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism treated with thyroid hormone, and treated hyperthyroidism was 6.79/1,000 population, 1.76/1,000 population, and 0.55/1,000 population, respectively, in Korea in 2015. The use of methimazole continuously increased, from 33% of total antithyroid drug prescriptions in 2006 to 74.4% in 2015, and it became the most frequently prescribed antithyroid drug in Korea. In contrast, the use of propylthiouracil continuously decreased.


This was the first nationwide study of the prevalence and annual incidence of thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism to take into account recent changes and to include the current status of patients receiving treatment.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • New-onset atrial fibrillation in seropositive rheumatoid arthritis: association with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs treatment
    Hyung Woo Kim, Minkyung Han, Inkyung Jung, Sung Soo Ahn
    Rheumatology.2024; 63(3): 630.     CrossRef
  • Endocrine and metabolic comorbidities in primary cicatricial alopecia: A nationwide population‐based study
    Da‐Ae Yu, Seong Rae Kim, Soo Ick Cho, Ohsang Kwon
    The Journal of Dermatology.2024; 51(3): 429.     CrossRef
  • Risk of non-thyroidal autoimmune diseases in patients with Graves’ disease: a nationwide retrospective cohort study
    Seo Young Sohn, Jiyeon Ahn, Min Kyung Lee, Jae Hyuk Lee, Ji-Won Kwon, Ji-Min Kweon, Ju-Yeun Lee
    Rheumatology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cancer Risk in Graves Disease with Radioactive131I Treatment: A Nationwide Cohort Study
    Kyeong Jin Kim, Jimi Choi, Kyoung Jin Kim, Eyun Song, Ji Hee Yu, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sin Gon Kim
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine.2024; 65(5): 693.     CrossRef
  • Long-term Effect of Thyrotropin-binding Inhibitor Immunoglobulin on Atrial Fibrillation in Euthyroid Patients
    Jung-Chi Hsu, Kang-Chih Fan, Ting-Chuan Wang, Shu-Lin Chuang, Ying-Ting Chao, Ting-Tse Lin, Kuan-Chih Huang, Lian-Yu Lin, Lung-Chun Lin
    Endocrine Practice.2024; 30(6): 537.     CrossRef
  • Myotonic dystrophy type 1 in South Korea: a comprehensive analysis of cancer and comorbidity risks
    Incheol Seo, Jin-Mo Park
    Neurological Sciences.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The relationship between dietary total flavonoids and thyroid function in U.S.adults, NHANES 2007–2010
    Jie Wu, Chuyu Jia, Zirui Zhang, Zebin Hou, Yanhua Cui, Yuyan Wang
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(5): e0303169.     CrossRef
  • Association of ITM2A rs1751094 polymorphism on X chromosome in Korean pediatric patients with autoimmune thyroid disease
    Won K. Cho, In‐Cheol Baek, Sung E. Kim, Mirae Kim, Tai‐Gyu Kim, Byung‐Kyu Suh
    Immunity, Inflammation and Disease.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Preoperative Risk Stratification of Follicular-patterned Thyroid Lesions on Core Needle Biopsy by Histologic Subtyping and RAS Variant-specific Immunohistochemistry
    Meejeong Kim, Sora Jeon, Chan Kwon Jung
    Endocrine Pathology.2023; 34(2): 247.     CrossRef
  • Cancer and Mortality Risks of Graves’ Disease in South Korea Based on National Data from 2010 to 2019
    Young Ju Choi, Kyungdo Han, Won Kyoung Cho, Min Ho Jung, Byung-Kyu Suh
    Clinical Epidemiology.2023; Volume 15: 535.     CrossRef
  • Acromegaly and the long-term fracture risk of the vertebra and hip: a national cohort study
    Hyemi Kwon, Kyung-Do Han, Bong-Sung Kim, Sun Joon Moon, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
    Osteoporosis International.2023; 34(9): 1591.     CrossRef
  • Association of Thyroid Hormone Medication Adherence With Risk of Dementia
    Saemi Han, Seogsong Jeong, Seulggie Choi, Sun Jae Park, Kyae Hyung Kim, Gyeongsil Lee, Yoosun Cho, Joung Sik Son, Sang Min Park
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 109(1): e225.     CrossRef
  • Increased risk of incident gout in patients with hyperthyroidism: a nationwide retrospective cohort study
    Ju-Yeun Lee, So-Yeon Park, Seo Young Sohn
    Rheumatology International.2023; 44(3): 451.     CrossRef
  • The Current Status of Hyperthyroidism in Korea
    Hyemi Kwon
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(4): 392.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence, Treatment Status, and Comorbidities of Hyperthyroidism in Korea from 2003 to 2018: A Nationwide Population Study
    Hwa Young Ahn, Sun Wook Cho, Mi Young Lee, Young Joo Park, Bon Seok Koo, Hang-Seok Chang, Ka Hee Yi
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(4): 436.     CrossRef
  • Comprehensive analysis of chemokine gene polymorphisms in Korean children with autoimmune thyroid disease
    Chungwoo Shin, In-Cheol Baek, Won Kyoung Cho, Tai-Gyu Kim, Byung-Kyu Suh
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer Among Young Adults in South Korea
    Hyemi Kwon, Kyung-Do Han, Sun Joon Moon, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Analysis of the status of treatment of benign thyroid diseases — a public health problem aggravated in the COVID-19 pandemic era
    Giulianno Molina Melo, Antonio José Gonçalves, Fernando Walder, Carolina Ferraz, Murilo Catafesta Neves, Marcio Abrahão, Onivaldo Cervantes
    Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology.2022; 88(6): 982.     CrossRef
  • Graves’ disease and the risk of Parkinson’s disease: a Korean population-based study
    Yoon Young Cho, Bongseong Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Jinyoung Youn, Ji Oh Mok, Chul-Hee Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Kyungdo Han, Tae Hyuk Kim
    Brain Communications.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Graves’ Disease and the Risk of End-Stage Renal Disease: A Korean Population-Based Study
    Yoon Young Cho, Bongseong Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Hye Ryoun Jang, Bo-Yeon Kim, Chan-Hee Jung, Jae Hyeon Kim, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Kyungdo Han, Tae Hyuk Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(2): 281.     CrossRef
  • Incidence of hypothyroidism after treatment for breast cancer: A Korean population-based study
    Jongmoo Park, Choongrak Kim, Yongkan Ki, Wontaek Kim, Jiho Nam, Donghyun Kim, Dahl Park, Hosang Jeon, Dong Woon Kim, Ji Hyeon Joo, Claudio Andaloro
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(6): e0269893.     CrossRef
  • Genome-wide association study of hyperthyroidism based on electronic medical record from Taiwan
    Ting-Yuan Liu, Wen-Ling Liao, Tzu-Yuan Wang, Chia-Jung Chan, Jan-Gowth Chang, Yu-Chia Chen, Hsing-Fang Lu, Hsien-Hui Yang, Shih-Yin Chen, Fuu-Jen Tsai
    Frontiers in Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Graves’ disease, its treatments, and the risk of atrial fibrillation: A Korean population-based study
    Yoon Young Cho, Bongseong Kim, Dughyun Choi, Chul-Hee Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Jee Soo Kim, Seung-Jung Park, Sun Wook Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Kyungdo Han, Tae Hyuk Kim
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk of autoimmune diseases in recurrent aphthous ulcer patients: A nationwide population study
    Young Chan Lee, Su Jin Jeong, Young‐Gyu Eun, Ran Song, In‐Hwan Oh
    Oral Diseases.2021; 27(6): 1443.     CrossRef
  • Hyperthyroidism Prevalence in China After Universal Salt Iodization
    Chuyuan Wang, Yongze Li, Di Teng, Xiaoguang Shi, Jianming Ba, Bing Chen, Jianling Du, Lanjie He, Xiaoyang Lai, Yanbo Li, Haiyi Chi, Eryuan Liao, Chao Liu, Libin Liu, Guijun Qin, Yingfen Qin, Huibiao Quan, Bingyin Shi, Hui Sun, Xulei Tang, Nanwei Tong, Gui
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comorbidity network analysis related to obesity in middle-aged and older adults: findings from Korean population-based survey data
    Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021018.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism and its Correlation with Serum Antithyroglobulin among patients in Kirkuk-Iraq ‎
    Sabah Mohammed Salih, Wijdan Abdullameer Kamel, Mohammed Talat Abbas, Kasim Sakran Abass
    Journal Of Advanced Pharmacy Education And Research.2021; 11(2): 57.     CrossRef
  • A nationwide study of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance with a 10-year follow-up in South Korea
    Ka-Won Kang, Ji Eun Song, Byung-Hyun Lee, Min Ji Jeon, Eun Sang Yu, Dae Sik Kim, Se Ryeon Lee, Hwa Jung Sung, Chul Won Choi, Yong Park, Byung Soo Kim
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Incidence and Mortality of Myocardial Infarction and Stroke in Patients with Hyperthyroidism: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Korea
    Hyun Jung Kim, Taeuk Kang, Min Ji Kang, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Seo Young Sohn
    Thyroid.2020; 30(7): 955.     CrossRef
  • Vitamin D supplementation does not prevent the recurrence of Graves’ disease
    Yoon Young Cho, Yun Jae Chung
    Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Binding and Activity of Tetrabromobisphenol A Mono-Ether Structural Analogs to Thyroid Hormone Transport Proteins and Receptors
    Xiao-Min Ren, Linlin Yao, Qiao Xue, Jianbo Shi, Qinghua Zhang, Pu Wang, Jianjie Fu, Aiqian Zhang, Guangbo Qu, Guibin Jiang
    Environmental Health Perspectives.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome and its components in Chinese patients with a range of thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations
    Kun Tang, Qiao Zhang, Nian-chun Peng, Miao Zhang, Shu-jing Xu, Hong Li, Ying Hu, Chun-ju Xue, Li-xin Shi
    Journal of International Medical Research.2020; 48(11): 030006052096687.     CrossRef
  • The Association of Overt and Subclinical Hyperthyroidism with the Risk of Cardiovascular Events and Cardiovascular Mortality: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Cohort Studies
    Seo Young Sohn, Eunyoung Lee, Min Kyung Lee, Jae Hyuk Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 35(4): 786.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Thyroid Disease in Patients Surgically Treated for Pituitary Disease
    Kim, Cho, Ku, Jung, Moon, Kim, Shin, Kim, Lee
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2019; 8(8): 1142.     CrossRef
  • Association of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and Thyroid Hormones with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Euthyroid Children and Adolescents Aged 10–18 Years: A Population-Based Study
    Cheol Gyu Ma, Young Suk Shim
    Scientific Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Weight change is significantly associated with risk of thyroid cancer: A nationwide population-based cohort study
    Hyemi Kwon, Kyung-Do Han, Cheol-Young Park
    Scientific Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the relationship of subclinical hypothyroidism with metabolic syndrome and its components in adolescents: a population-based study
    Min-Kyung Lee, Yoo Mee Kim, Seo-Young Sohn, Jae-Hyuk Lee, Young Jun Won, Se Hwa Kim
    Endocrine.2019; 65(3): 608.     CrossRef
  • Autoimmune thyroiditis and central serous chorioretinopathy may have a relation
    Brijesh Takkar, Harsha Saxena, Anubha Rathi, Rekha Singh
    Medical Hypotheses.2018; 121: 180.     CrossRef
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism