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Jee Young Kim  (Kim JY) 2 Articles
Natural Course of Cytologically Benign Thyroid Nodules: Observation of Ultrasonographic Changes
Dong Jun Lim, Jee Young Kim, Ki Hyun Baek, Mee Kyoung Kim, Woo Chan Park, Jong Min Lee, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha
Endocrinol Metab. 2013;28(2):110-118.   Published online June 18, 2013
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  • 33 Download
  • 23 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The natural course of cytologically benign thyroid nodules remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ultrasonographic (US) changes are associated with changes in nodule volume during follow-up.


We retrospectively reviewed over 4 years of clinical records of patients with benign thyroid nodules as confirmed by fine needle aspiration (FNA). In total, 186 patients with 202 benign thyroid nodules were included for study. We assessed for changes in nodule volume and examined the cystic portion of the nodule as well as four US features (echogenicity, margin, calcification pattern, and shape).


During follow-up (mean, 21.7±10.7 months) and using 50% as a cutoff value, nodule volumes increased in 11.8%, exhibited no change in 79.9%, and decreased in 8.3% of patients. Proportion of nodules demonstrating at least one US change was 20.8% (42/202). The most common US changes (in descending order of frequency) were cystic change, margin change, and calcification pattern change. Nodule shape and echogenicity rarely changed. Increased nodule volume was not significantly associated with any US features or with the number of FNAs but was associated with younger age at time of diagnosis.


Although a portion of thyroid nodules confirmed as benign showed US changes or volume changes during the follow-up period, these findings may only represent the natural course of benign nodules. Frequent follow-up with US might be needed for only a small number of cases with suspicious US findings.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Follow-up of benign thyroid nodules confirmed by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy after inconclusive cytology on fine-needle aspiration biopsy
    Yoon Ji Hwang, Hye Ryoung Koo, Jeong Seon Park
    Ultrasonography.2023; 42(1): 121.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Characteristics, Diagnostic Approach and Outcome of Thyroid Incidental Findings vs. Clinically Overt Thyroid Nodules: An Observational Single-Centre Study
    Tom Jansen, Nike Stikkelbroeck, Annenienke van de Ven, Ilse van Engen-van Grunsven, Marcel Janssen, Han Bonenkamp, Martin Gotthardt, Romana T. Netea-Maier
    Cancers.2023; 15(8): 2350.     CrossRef
  • Association between various thyroid gland diseases, TSH values and thyroid cancer: a case–control study
    Leif Schiffmann, Karel Kostev, Matthias Kalder
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology.2020; 146(11): 2989.     CrossRef
  • TI-RADS und andere sonografische Klassifikationssysteme für Schilddrüsenknoten
    Julian M. M. Rogasch, Christoph Wetz, Winfried Brenner
    Onkologie up2date.2020; 2(03): 223.     CrossRef
  • TI-RADS und andere sonografische Klassifikationssysteme für Schilddrüsenknoten
    Julian M.M. Rogasch, Christoph Wetz, Winfried Brenner
    Radiopraxis.2020; 13(01): E1.     CrossRef
  • Changes of Nodular Size and Its Risk Factors in Iodine-Sufficient Area: a Retrospective Cohort Analysis of 7753 Thyroid Nodules
    Hwa Young Ahn, Kyung Won Kim, Hoon Sung Choi, Jae Hoon Moon, Ka Hee Yi, Min Kyung Hyun, Min Joo Kang, Jung Im Shim, Ja Youn Lee, Do Joon Park, Young Joo Park
    International Journal of Thyroidology.2020; 13(2): 118.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Natural Course between Thyroid Cancer Nodules and Thyroid Benign Nodules
    Kyun-Jin Yun, Jeonghoon Ha, Min-Hee Kim, Ye Young Seo, Mee Kyoung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Ki-Ho Song, Moo Il Kang, Ki-Hyun Baek
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2019; 34(2): 195.     CrossRef
  • Risk factors for hypothyroidism in euthyroid thyroid nodule patients with lymphocytic thyroiditis on fine needle aspiration cytology
    Jeong-Min Lee, Jeonghoon Ha, Kwanhoon Jo, Yejee Lim, Min-Hee Kim, Chan-Kwan Jung, So-Lyung Jung, Moo-Il Kang, Bong-Yun Cha, Dong-Jun Lim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2019; 34(6): 1287.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the natural course of thyroid nodules in patients with acromegaly
    Sema Ciftci Dogansen, Artur Salmaslioglu, Gulsah Yenidunya Yalin, Seher Tanrikulu, Sema Yarman
    Pituitary.2019; 22(1): 29.     CrossRef
  • TI-RADS und andere sonografische Klassifikationssystemefür Schilddrüsenknoten
    Julian M.M. Rogasch, Christoph Wetz, Winfried Brenner
    Der Nuklearmediziner.2019; 42(03): 206.     CrossRef
  • Molecular profiling of thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration cytology
    Markus Eszlinger, Lorraine Lau, Sana Ghaznavi, Christopher Symonds, Shamir P. Chandarana, Moosa Khalil, Ralf Paschke
    Nature Reviews Endocrinology.2017; 13(7): 415.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic accuracy of thyroid nodule growth to predict malignancy in thyroid nodules with benign cytology: systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Naykky Singh Ospina, Spyridoula Maraka, Ana Espinosa DeYcaza, Derek O'Keeffe, Juan P. Brito, Michael R. Gionfriddo, M. Regina Castro, John C. Morris, Patricia Erwin, Victor M. Montori
    Clinical Endocrinology.2016; 85(1): 122.     CrossRef
  • Rapid thyroid nodule growth is not a marker for well-differentiated thyroid cancer
    Claudius Falch, Steffen Axt, Bettina Scuffi, Alfred Koenigsrainer, Andreas Kirschniak, Sven Muller
    World Journal of Surgical Oncology.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Predicting the Size of Benign Thyroid Nodules and Analysis of Associated Factors That Affect Nodule Size
    Seok Ho Seo, Tae Hyun Kim, Soon Ho Kim, Seung Hyun Lee, Jong Taek Kim, Dae Won Park, Dong Chul Lee
    Chonnam Medical Journal.2015; 51(2): 97.     CrossRef
  • Thyroid ultrasound findings in a follow-up survey of children from three Japanese prefectures: Aomori, Yamanashi and Nagasaki
    Naomi Hayashida, Misa Imaizumi, Hiroki Shimura, Fumihiko Furuya, Noriyuki Okubo, Yasushi Asari, Takeshi Nigawara, Sanae Midorikawa, Kazuhiko Kotani, Shigeyuki Nakaji, Akira Ohtsuru, Takashi Akamizu, Masafumi Kitaoka, Shinichi Suzuki, Nobuyuki Taniguchi, S
    Scientific Reports.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Brief Review of Articles in 'Endocrinology and Metabolism' in 2013
    Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2014; 29(3): 251.     CrossRef
  • Natural Course of Cytologically Diagnosed Benign Thyroid Nodules
    Eun-Kyung Kim
    Journal of Korean Thyroid Association.2014; 7(2): 136.     CrossRef
  • Ruling in or ruling out thyroid malignancy by molecular diagnostics of thyroid nodules
    Markus Eszlinger, László Hegedüs, Ralf Paschke
    Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2014; 28(4): 545.     CrossRef
  • Insufficient Experience in Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspiration Leads to Misdiagnosis of Thyroid Cancer
    Jung Il Son, Sang Youl Rhee, Jeong-taek Woo, Won Seo Park, Jong Kyu Byun, Yu-Jin Kim, Ja Min Byun, Sang Ouk Chin, Suk Chon, Seungjoon Oh, Sung Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2014; 29(3): 293.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Non-Diagnostic Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology: Usefulness of the Thyroid Core Needle Biopsy
    Sung Hak Lee, Min Hee Kim, Ja Seong Bae, Dong Jun Lim, So Lyung Jung, Chan Kwon Jung
    Annals of Surgical Oncology.2014; 21(6): 1870.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Natural Course of Cytologically Benign Thyroid Nodules: Observation of Ultrasonographic Changes (Endocrinol Metab 2013;28:110-8, Dong Jun Lim et al.)
    Sun Wook Cho
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2013; 28(3): 241.     CrossRef
  • Natural Course of Benign Thyroid Nodules
    Kyung Won Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2013; 28(2): 94.     CrossRef
  • Response: Natural Course of Cytologically Benign Thyroid Nodules: Observation of Ultrasonographic Changes (Endocrinol Metab 2013;28:110-8, Dong Jun Lim et al.)
    Dong Jun Lim, Ki Hyun Baek
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2013; 28(3): 243.     CrossRef
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A Case of Lymphocytic Infundibuloneurohypophysitis Along with Central Diabetes Insipidus, and this Improved with Conservative Care.
Ji Myoung Lee, Sang Mi Park, Byung Hee Hwang, Hyun Sook Choi, Seong Su Lee, Jee Young Kim, Sung Rae Kim, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang, Soon Jib Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(2):142-147.   Published online April 1, 2008
  • 1,701 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus is most likely to occur in young patients who have a clinical history of autoimmune disease. The presentation of clinical findings such as central diabetes insipidus and pituitary stalk thickening on sellar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a young women would strongly suggest lymphocytic hypophysitis, which is a rare inflammatory process involving the pituitary stalk and the pituitary gland, yet this disease can sometimes regress.
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