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Hyeon Kyu Kim  (Kim HK) 19 Articles
A Case of Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis with Rhabdomyolysis.
Seo Hee Lee, Seong Yeol Kim, Hae Ri Lee, Jun Goo Kang, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Chul Sik Kim, Byung Wan Lee, Seong Jin Lee, Eun Gyoung Hong, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(6):425-429.   Published online December 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.6.425
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Hyperthyroidism combined with rhabdomyolysis is extremely rare. There are only 6 reported cases of hyperthyroidism accompanied with rhabdomyolysis in the medical literature. Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome involving the breakdown of skeletal muscle, and this causes myoglobin and intracellular protein to leak into the circulation. The causes of rhabdomyolysis include trauma, electrolyte abnormality, infection, drug, toxin and hypothyroidism. We report here on a patient who presented with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis and rhabdomyolysis with hypokalemia. He complained of lower leg paralysis along with muscle tenderness, and the laboratory findings showed elevated creatine kinase (CK) levels. After treatment by hydration, potassium replacement and drug medication, including propylthiouracil and beta-blocker, his CK levels were normalized and his symptoms were much improved. For patient with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis and muscle tenderness, the possibility of rhabdomyolysis should be clarified by examining the CK levels.
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A Case of Unilateral Exophthalmos Caused by a Dural Arteriovenous Malformation in Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.
Sun Ryoung Choi, Seong Jin Lee, Hae Ri Lee, Jun Goo Kang, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Chul Sik Kim, Byung Wan Lee, Eun Gyung Hong, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):51-55.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.1.51
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  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is associated with thyroid dysfunction, particularly Graves' disease, and is manifested as eye signs, including proptosis. In cases of unilateral exophthalmos with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, other causes such as orbital neoplasm, carotid-cavernous fistula, cavernous sinus thrombosis, and dural arteriovenous malformation (AVM) should be excluded. Dural AVM, an abnormal dural arteriovenous connection, is a rare neurovascular entity that mimics thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. When eye involvement is unilateral or asymmetric, dural AVM can be considered in the differential diagnosis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. A twenty-six year-old woman presented with unilateral exophthalmos in Graves' disease. By orbital magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral angiography, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and dural AVM were diagnosed. The unilateral exophthalmos improved after coil embolization of the dural AVM. In summary, we report the first case of a dural AVM with Graves' disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

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  • Proptosis as a Primary Symptom of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation
    Jong Eun Lee, Jin Sook Yoon, Keun Young Park
    Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery.2020; 36(2): e53.     CrossRef
  • Ophthalmopathy Induced by Bilateral Carotid Cavernous Fistula in a Patient with Graves' Disease
    Jong Kun Ha, Ji Hye Suk, A Ra Jo, Chan Woo Jung, Bong Jae Kim, Seong Oh Park, Sang Su Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2011; 26(4): 335.     CrossRef
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The Clinical Significance of Retinoic Acid Receptor beta Expressions in Primary and Recurred Metastatic Lymph Node Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas.
Jae Pil Han, Seong Jin Lee, Kyung Chan Choi, Young Euy Park, Hae Ri Lee, Jun Goo Kang, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Chul Sik Kim, Byung Wan Lee, Eun Gyung Hong, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Hyung Joon Yoo, Moon Gi Choi
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2007;22(6):419-427.   Published online December 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2007.22.6.419
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The present study was designed to investigate the correlations of retinoic acid receptor beta(RARbeta) expression for primary and recurred metastatic lymph node (LN) papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues and the correlations of RARbeta expression with the uptake of I(131) as detected on a whole body scan (WBS). METHODS: Primary and metastatic LN PTC tissues were examined by immunohistochemical methods. Staining positivity was calculated, and staining intensity was graded as negative (0), weak (1+), moderate (2+) and strong (3+). Nuclear staining intensity (NSI) of cells from tissues was also examined. RESULTS: Seventeen patients who had regional cervical LN metastasis without distant metastasis were included in the study, and 13 patients had the abnormal uptake of I(131) as detected on a WBS. In primary PTC tissues, RARbeta staining positivity and intensity of carcinoma cells were significantly higher than those of normal cells but NSI was significantly higher in normal cells than carcinoma cells. Between primary and metastatic LN PTC tissues, RARbeta staining intensity was correlated after controlling for age. Primary PTC tissues from 14 (82.4%) out of 17 patients were concordant between NSI and the uptake of I(131) as detected on a WBS. NSI predicted the I(131) uptake as detected on a WBS with 81.3% positive predicted value (PPV) and 100% negative predicted value. Metastatic LN PTC tissues from 13 (76.5%) out of 17 patients were concordant between NSI and the uptake of I(131) as detected on a WBS. NSI predicted the uptake of I(131) as detected on a WBS with 76.5% PPV. When the results of NSI taken either as positive or negative were correlated with those of the uptake of I(131) as detected on a WBS in primary and metastatic LN PTC tissues, the correlation was not significant after controlling for age. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that nuclear RARbeta expression may be decreased in PTC tissues than normal thyroid tissues, and RARbeta expression in primary PTC tissues as well as in recurred metastatic LN PTC tissues may predict the uptake of I(131) as detected on a WBS.
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A Novel Mutation of the Vasopressin-Neurophysin II Gene in a Familial Neurohypophyseal Diabetes Insipidus.
Mi Jung Kim, Byung Wan Lee, In Kyung Jeong, Jun Goo Kang, Seong Jin Lee, Eun Gyung Hong, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2007;22(2):118-124.   Published online April 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2007.22.2.118
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (adFNDI) is a rare form of central diabetes insipidus (DI), and this malady is clinically characterized by polydipsia and polyuria, and it is caused by mutation in the vasopressin-neurophysin II. We identified a Korean family that suffered with adFNDI and we found a novel mutation in the NP II molecule. The index subject's DI symptoms dated to childhood, and his familial history was consistent with autosomal transmission. The diagnosis of central DI was done by performing a water deprivation test and a vasopressin challenge test. For molecular analysis, the genomic DNA was extracted and the AVP-NP II gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from four clinically-affected members and seven clinically-nonaffected members. Genetic analysis of AVP-NP II revealed new a heterozygous missense mutation in exon 2 of the AVP-NP II gene (+1692C > A) and this amino acid substitution (Cys105Stop) was predicted to have occurred in four clinically-affected subjects. In summary, in the present study we have described a novel mutation of the AVP-NPII gene in a Korean family suffering with adFNDI.
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The Changes in Atherosclerotic Markers and Adiopocytokines after Treatment with Growth Hormone for the Patients with Hypopituitarism and Growth Hormone Deficiency.
Hyun Won Shin, In Kyung Jeong, Goo Yeong Cho, Cheul Young Choi, Jong Yeop Kim, Yeong Je Chae, Min Ho Cho, Byung Wan Lee, Seong Jin Lee, Chul Young Park, Eun Gyoung Hong, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Ki Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(6):515-525.   Published online December 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.6.515
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
It is known that patients with hypopituitarism have a high mortality rate due to the presence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and stroke. The aim of this study was the effect of growth hormone (GH) on the atherosclerotic markers and the adipocytokine levels. METHOD: The study was conducted on 13 adult patients with hypopituitarism and growth hormone deficiency (GHD), and they had been stabilized after receiving hormone replacement therapy for other insufficient pituitary hormones, other than GH, for more than one year. Before treatment with GH, we compared the lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cardiovascular risk factors and adipocytokine levels, including adiponectin, leptin, TNF-alpha and IL-6, between the GHD patients and 13 healthy adults who were of a similar age and gender distribution. Patients with GHD were treated with 1 U/day of GH for 6 months. We measured insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), blood pressure, body composition, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and hs-CRP, cardiac function, adiponectin, leptin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels, flow mediated vasodilation (FMD) and nitroglycerin mediated vasodilation (NMD) before and after GH treatment. RESULTS: The patients with hypopituitarism and GHD showed significantly higher levels of total cholesterol (P = 0.002), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.036), hs-CRP (P = 0.0087) and leptin (P < 0.001) than did the normal healthy adults. However, there was no difference between the normal adults and the patients with GHD for the systolic and diastolic BP, the levels of apoA, apoB, fasting blood glucose(FBG) and HOMA-IR. In the subjects with GHD after treatment with GH, the level of fat mass (P = 0.0017), total cholesterol (P = 0.004), LDL-C (P = 0.001), leptin (P = 0.013), TNF-alpha (P < 0.001) and hs-CRP (P = 0.0001) were significantly reduced, while lean body mass (P = 0.0161), FFA (P = 0.049) and FMD (P = 0.0051) showed a significant increase. However, there was no significant difference in the level of the systolic and diastolic BP, LDL-C, apoA, apoB, LP (a), HOMA-IR, ejection fraction, left ventricular posterior wall, E/A ratio, intraventricular septum, NMD, intima-media thickness, adiponectin, IL-6, FBG and fasting insulin before and after GH treatment. CONCLUSION: The subjects with GHD were vulnerable to cardiovascular disease. GH therapy for 6 months had a positive effect on their various cardiovascular risk factors.

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  • Molecular Biology of Atherosclerosis
    In-Kyung Jeong
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2010; 25(3): 166.     CrossRef
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Duration of Preparation for Postoperative Radioiodine Administration in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.
Hyeon Kyu Kim, Min Ho Cho, Choel Young Park, Seong Jin Lee, Gi Weon Oh, In Kyung Jeong, Eun Gyung Hong, Sung Hee Ihm, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park, Jin Hwan Kim, Young Soo Rho
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(5):460-466.   Published online October 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.5.460
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Radioiodine treatment is effective for the removal of remnant thyroid tissues after thyroidectomy in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. To induce the elevation of serum TSH level which facilitates the uptake of radioiodine into remnants, a 4 to 6 week interval between thyroidectomy and radioiodine administration has been established. During the period of preparation, most patients have experienced overt symptoms of hypothyroidism which have led to the development of alternative strategies. Some reports have suggested that the interval could be reduced to about 3 weeks with less symptoms. We reevaluated the adequate time needed for the elevation of serum TSH level above 30microU/mL after thyroidectomy. METHODS: Forty five patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma were investigated. Serum TSH and free T4 levels were measured one or more times within 3 weeks after operation(total 97 blood samples). Eighty nine blood samples were obtained within 15 days. RESULTS: In 41 patients (91.1%) serum TSH levels increased to 30 microU/mL until 15 days after operation. Until postoperative 21 days, serum TSH levels in all the other patients reached 30microU/mL. In linear equation, the daily increment of serum TSH levels was 2.62microU/mL for the first 8 days after operation and 5.34micorU/mL for the next 7 days. The half-life of serum free T4 levels showed marked individual variations. CONCLUSION: Measurement of serum TSH level at about 15 days after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma may be useful in determining the time of radioiodine administration.
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A Case of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis with Transient T3-Thyrotoxicosis Induced by Hydatidiform Mole.
Ji Youn Yoo, Hong Ju Moon, Cheol Young Park, Seong Jin Lee, In Kyung Jeong, Eun Gyung Hong, Gi Weon Oh, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Men Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park, Soo Kee Min
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(3):294-298.   Published online June 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.3.294
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Human chorionic gonadotropin(HCG) is a member of the glycoproteins family synthesized by the placenta, which consists of 2 noncovalently joined subunits(alpha(alpha) and beta(beta)). The alpha- and beta-subunits have a structural homology with the alpha- and beta-subunits of TSH and LH. The thyrotropic action of HCG results from its structural similarity to TSH, so beta-HCG can bind to the TSH receptor in the thyroid gland. A high level of HCG accompanied by an increased thyroid hormone level, can be observed in gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), such as a hydatidiform mole or a choriocarcinoma, but the clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism are rarely observed. We experienced a case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, where the patient was diagnosed with T3-thyrotoxicosis, which had initially been induced by excess beta-HCG due to an H-mole; after evacuation of the H-mole, the condition was diagnosed as hypothyroidism. It has been speculated that a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis could have hyperthyroidism, induced by beta-HCG, due to an H-mole

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  • Transient T3 toxicosis associated with Hashimoto’s disease
    Sarah Jaroudi, Meredith Gavin, Kathryn Boylan, Alan N. Peiris
    Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings.2019; 32(1): 80.     CrossRef
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A Case of Apical Hypertrohic Cardiomyopathy Associated with Pheochromocytoma.
Joon Ho Moon, Sung Woo Park, Sung Hee Ihm, Cheol Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Cheol Soo Choi, Seong Jin Lee, In Kyung Jung, Eun Gyung Hong, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, So Young Ku, Soo Kee Min
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2004;19(5):522-527.   Published online October 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pheochromocytomas often present with cardiovascular manifestations, such as arrhythmia, angina pectoris and acute myocardial infarction and so on. Both dilated and nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are also rare complications of pheochromocytomas. In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, an apical variant form constitutes about 25% of cases in Japan, but only 1 to 2% of those in non-Japanese populations, including Korea. The cause of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHC) remains unknown. Recently, some cases of AHC associated with pheochromocytomas have been reported, with catecholamine thought to be an important cause. AHC associated with a pheochromocytoma has never been previously reported in Korea. Herein is reported our experience of a case of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated a pheochromocytoma with a review of the literature
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A Case of Masked Hypoglycemia during Lactic Acidosis.
Hee Seon Kim, Ho Sung Yoon, Chang Ok Koh, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Choel Young Park, Seong Jin Lee, Gi Weon Oh, In Kyung Jeong, Eun Gyung Hong, Cheol Soo Choi, Doo Man Kim, Sung Hee Ihm, Jae Myung Yu, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park, Dong Jin Oh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2004;19(4):406-410.   Published online August 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Severe hypoglycemia induces neuroglycopenic symptoms, including mental alteration, as glucose is the exclusive fuel for the central nervous system. However, some reports have shown that non-glucose fuels, like lactates and ketones, could be utilized by the brain during severe hypoglycemia. Herein, a case of extreme hypoglycemia in a 44-year old woman, subsequently diagnosed as congestive heart failure accompanied by ischemic hepatitis and lactic acidosis, is presented. In two episodes of extreme hypoglycemia, she was fully alert without obvious neurological deficits. In this unusual case, an increased supply of lactate might have maintained the cerebral function and prevented cerebral injury during the hypoglycemia that was induced as a result of starvation and hepatic and cardiac dysfunctions
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A Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytoma.
Seong Jin Lee, Ho Gwon Lee, Cheol young Park, In Kyung Jeong, Eun Gyung Hong, Gi Weon Oh, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2004;19(1):82-89.   Published online February 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Oncocytomas are neoplasms, histologically are composed of epithelial cells, with abundant, acidophilic and granular cytoplasm. Electron microscopic studies of oncocytomas have shown that the cytoplasm of oncocytes is packed with mitochondria. The adrenal gland is a very rare anatomical site for oncocytomas, and to the best of our knowledge, only thirty-six cases of adrenal oncocytomas have been described. Herein, a case of a large adrenal mass in a forty-year-old man, which was incidentally detected by abdominal ultrasonography, is presented. This patient demonstrated no clinical manifestation associated with adrenal hyperfunction. Hormonal studies showed no abnormal findings, except for a mild elevation of the 24-hour urinary VMA level. Abdominal computed tomography with enhancement revealed a large, well-defined left adrenal mass, measuring 5.0x.2 x.0cm. The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy, and a light microscopic examination confirmed an adrenocortical oncocytoma, with characteristic oncocytes and polygonal, abundant, eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm. The tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin and vimentin as well as S-100, but negative for chromogranin on immunohistochemical staining. An electron microscopic examination demonstrated closely packed mitochondria, containing intramitochondrial inclusions. After surgery, there was no evidence of a recurrent or distant metastatic disease at the 5 month follow-up. In summary, an extremely rare case of a man with an adrenocortical oncocytoma is reported, which was confirmed by histological examinations, including electron microscopy.
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The Change of Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Graves'Disease Before and After Treatment.
Taek Man Nam, Han Soo Cho, Jin Seo Lee, Young Rim Song, Doo Man Kim, Young Cheoul Doo, Cheol Young Park, In Kyung Jeong, Eun Gyung Hong, Seong Jin Lee, Gi Weon Oh, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(5):465-472.   Published online October 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Exertional symptoms, dyspnea and impaired effort tolerance are common in patients with Graves' disease. Proposed explanations include: high-output left heart failure, ineffective oxygen utilization and respiratory muscle weakness. In addition, pulmonary hypertension has also been reported in patients with Graves' disease. A high prevalence of hypothyroidism and positive thyroid autoantibody were also observed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Therefore, the pulmonary artery pressure in patients with Graves' disease was evaluated. METHODS: Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic examinations (Hewlett Packard Sonos 2500) were performed to determine the pulmonary artery (PA) pressure in 26 Graves' disease patients, both before and after treatment (23 patients with propylthiouracil and 3 with RAI), and in 10 euthyroid controls. The changes in the PA pressure after treatment were evaluated in 13 patients with Graves' disease, who became euthyroid after treatment. RESULTS: The pulmonary artery pressure was increased in the untreated Graves' disease patients compared to the normal controls (23.5+/-2.32 vs. 29.6+/-10.3 mmHg). 38.5% of the Graves' disease patients (10/26) showed pulmonary arterial hypertension (PA>30 mmHg) and the serum TBII levelwas higher in the Graves' disease patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension than in those with normal PA pressure (P<0.05). In the Graves' patients who became euthyroid after treatment, the PA pressure was significantly decreased. CONCLUSION: 38.5% of the untreated Graves' disease patients showed pulmonary arterial hypertension, and the pulmonary artery pressure was significantly decreased in those who became euthyroid after treatment. The pathogenesis and clinical importance of pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves' disease requires further studies.
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The Effect of T3 on Thyroid Hormone Receptor Dynamics in Thyroid Hormone Response Element of Chicken Lysozyme Silencer.
Seong Jin Lee, Cheol Young Park, In Kyung Jeong, Eun Gyung Hong, Cheol Soo Choi, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park, P Reed Larsen
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(4):379-391.   Published online August 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The regulation of gene transcription can be controlled by both positive (enhancer) and negative (silencer) regulatory sequences. Several enhancer and silencer elements have been described in the 5' region of the chicken lysozyme gene. The silencer located at -2.4 kb upstream of the chicken lysozyme gene is composed of two separate modules (F1 and F2) that can function as silencers by themselves, but also show synergistic repression after multimerization. The F1 module is bound by a protein termed NeP1 and F2 module, a F2 thyroid hormone response element (F2-TRE), and can be bound by the thyroid hormone receptor (TR). F2-TRE has an inverted palindromic structure, with high affinity to TR. Although many current reported results have tried to explain the regulatory mechanism of chicken lysozyme gene expression due to the thyroid hormone, there have been few studies that clarify the TR dynamics in the F2-TRE of the chicken lysozyme gene, either with or without exposure of the thyroid hormone. Here, the changes in the TR binding patterns in the F2-TRE of the chicken lysozyme gene are described, both before and after T3 stimulation over time. METHODS: Using the stably transfected rat pituitary somatotroph tumor cell line, GC8 cells, with the F2-TRE inserted 5' to the thymidine kinase (TK) promoter, together with a mouse TRalpha- expressing plasmid, a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique was employed to reveal the TR-TRE interaction before and after T3 stimulation. Following the cross-linking and sonication of the cells, the immunoprecipitation was performed overnight, at 4 degrees C, with TRalpha1, TRbeta1 and TRbeta2 antibodies, respectively. The binding patterns and amounts of TRalpha1, TRbeta1 and TRbeta2 to the F2-TRE, before and after 12 hours of 100 nM T3 stimulation, were analyzed using conventional and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (RQ-PCR). The ChIP technique was used to give a basal value for 20 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 hours after the 100 nM T3 stimulation, and RQ-PCR was then performed. Western blot with TRalpha1, TRbeta1 and TRbeta2 antibodies were also performed. RESULTS: After 12 hours of 100 nM T3 stimulation of the GC8 cells, the TRalpha1 and TRbeta2 binding to the F2-TRE increased, but the TR 1 binding to the F2-TRE decreased, by conventional PCR. Although all the TR isoforms were bound to the F2-TRE by RQ-PCR, the TR 1 binding to the F2-TRE, after 12 hours of 100 nM T3 stimulation, was significantly increased (1.01-->2.73, delta=+170.3%, p<0.05), but the change in the amount of TRbeta2 binding was not significant (2.53-->2.98, delta=+17.8%). The TRbeta1 binding was significantly decreased compared with that of the basal level (4.59-->2.06, delta=-55.1%, p<0.05). The total TR bindings to the F2-TRE had a tendency to decrease after 12 hours of 100 nM T3 stimulation (8.13-->7.77, delta=-4.4%). The binding patterns and amounts of TRalpha1, TRbeta1 and TRbeta2, both before and after the 100 nM T3 stimulation, were also identified over time. While the TRbeta1 bindings to the F2-TRE after 1 hour of 100 nM T3 stimulation were acutely reduced, those of the TRalpha1 at 20 minutes and 6 hours were increased. The TRbeta2 bindings showed a maximal increase at 20 minutes. The directions of the TR binding patterns, between the before and after 2 hours of 100 nM T3 stimulation, were identical to those for between 4 and 6 hours of T3 stimulation. There was no significant difference in the TR bindings to the F2-TRE in relation to the amounts (1.5 vs. 4.5 microliter) of TR antibodies used during the ChIP assays. The Western blots showed no significant change of the levels of each TR isoform proteins, either before or after 12 hours of exposure to 100 nM T3. CONCLUSION: These results show the dynamic binding patterns of the TR isoforms to the F2-TRE of the chicken lysozyme gene, both before and after T3 stimulation, over time. Further investigation, however, will be needed to clarify the mechanisms of our observations. The ChIP technique may then be used to reveal the dynamic models of the cofactors, as well as TR isoforms, in the TR-regulated transcription machinery.
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Thyroid Hormone Receptor Dynamics in Thyroid Hormone Response Elements of the Human Type 1 Iodothyronine Deiodinase Gene.
Seong Jin Lee, Cheol young Park, In Kyung Jeong, Eun Gyung Hong, Cheol Soo Choi, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park, P Reed Larsen
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(3):283-295.   Published online June 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1), the product of the hdio1 gene, is involved in thyroid hormone activation by the deiodination of thyroxine (T4) to form 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine (T3). Recent studies have identified two thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the 5 flanking region of the hdio1 gene. TRE1, proximal to TRE in the hdio1 gene, consists of a direct repeat of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) binding octamers with 10 bp separating the two TR binding sites. The upstream TRE, TRE2, is a classical direct repeat of retinoid X receptor (RXR)/TR binding half-sites with a 4-bp separation. There are few studies clarifying the TR dynamics in the TRE of a specific gene with or without the exposure of activated thyroid hormone. We evaluated TR binding patterns in the proximal and distal TREs of the hdio1 gene before and after T3 stimulation. METHODS: We employed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technique to investigate the TR-TRE interaction before and after T3 stimulation in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line.Following cross-linking and sonication of the cells, immunoprecipitation was performed overnight at 4degrees C with TR 1, TR 1 and TR 2 antibodies. We analyzed the binding patterns and amounts of TR 1, TR 1 and TR 2 to TRE1 and TRE2 before and after 12 hours stimulation with 100 nM T3 by using conventional and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (RQ-PCR). Reverse transcriptional PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot with TR 1, TR 1 and TR 2 antibodies were performed to measure the levels of hdio1 mRNA and TR 1, TR 1 and TR 2 proteins before and after 12 hours exposure to 100 nM T3. RESULTS: In TRE1, TR 1 binding was significantly decreased after 12 hours stimulation with 100nM T3 (3.74-->1.97, delta=-47.3%, p<0.05), but TR 1 and TR 2 bindings were not detected by conventional PCR and RQ-PCR. Although all TR isoforms were bound to TRE2, the binding patterns were quite different. While TRalpha1 and TR 1 bindings to TRE2 after 12 hours stimulation with 100 nM T3 were significantly decreased (10.41-->3.01, delta=-71.1%, p<0.05; 12.56 --> 2.93, delta=-76.7%, p<0.05, respectively), TR 2 binding was increased but not significantly (9.17 --> 9.84, delta=+7.3%). Total TR bindings in TRE2 were significantly decreased after 12 hours stimulation with 100 nM T3 (32.14 --> 15.78, delta=-50.9%, p<0.05). The TR bindings to TRE1 and TRE2 were not significantly different by the amounts of TR antibodies used during ChIP assays. The levels of hdio1 mRNA were significantly increased, 2.03 times, after 12 hours exposure to 100nM T3 (p<0.001). Western blot showed no significant change of the level of each TR isoform protein before and after 12 hours exposure to 100 nM T3. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate the dynamics of TR 1 at proximal TRE (TRE1) and the switching phenomenon of TR isoforms at distal TRE (TRE2) of the hdio1 gene after T3 stimulation. Further investigation, however, is needed to clarify the mechanisms of these observations.
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Lymphocytic Hypophysitis associated with Pregnancy.
Seong Jin Lee, Hyang Lim Lee, In Kyung Chung, Eun Gyung Hong, Cheol Soo Choi, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yoo, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(5):705-712.   Published online October 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland that is often recognized as a cause of hypopituitarism and may be due to the autoimmune pituitary destruction that usually occurs in women in the peripartum period. We report a rare case of lymphocytic hypophysitis in a 26 year-old woman presenting with nausea and headaches for 2 months after an artificial abortion of her second pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging, with enhancement, showed an expanding 1.0x1.0 cm sized sellar mass. The patient underwent transsphenoidal surgery with a preoperative diagnosis of pituitary macroadenoma. A histological examination revealed diffuse lymphocytes and plasma cells infiltration which are characteristic of lymphocytic hypophysitis. Here, we present the first reported case of a pregnant woman with lymphocytic hypophysitis with a review of the literature on this increasingly recognized condition.
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A Case of Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome associated with Tuberculous Meningitis.
Seung Hyuk Rho, Ji Yong Choi, Taek Man Nam, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Seong Jin Lee, In Kyung Jeong, Eun Gyung Hong, Cheol Soo Choi, Doo Man Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park, Hyoung Cheol Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(5):698-704.   Published online October 1, 2002
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Hyponatremia in patients with central nervous system disorders is suggestive of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), and volume restriction is recommended for its correction. However, if volume depletion is present in a situation otherwise compatible with SIADH, cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) should be considered as the cause of the hyponatremia to avoid hypovolemic shock that may be induced by the standard management of SIADH, i.e. volume restriction. We present a case of a 17-year-old male patient with CSWS associated with tuberculous meningitis. The clinical feature of the patient comprised hyponatremia, excessive natriuresis, polyuria, and hypovolemia. Following the administration of saline and fludrocortisone, natriuresis and polyuria were decreased, and the hyponatremia improved
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A Case of Postpregnancy Spinal Osteoporosis.
Ji Young Seo, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Cheol Soo Choi, Doo Man Kim, Sung Hee Lim, Jae Myung Yoo, Moon Gi Choi, Huung Joon Yoo, Sung Woo Park, Jin Young Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(2):265-270.   Published online April 1, 2001
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Osteoporosis is a common disease of the elderly and occurs especially in the postmenopausal women. Rarely, it occurs during a pregnancy or shortly thereafter and is accompanied by a substantial bone loss, resulting in fractures. The clinical significance of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis has been noted since the 1950s. Although its etiology is still unknown, it has recently been proposed that PTHrP may be an important causative factor in pregnancy-associated osteoporosis. There are three types of the pregnancy-associated osteoporosis, (1) a transient osteoporosis of the hip pregnancy, (2) a postpregnancy spinal osteoporosis and (3) a lactation-associated osteoporosis. Postpregnancy spinal osteoporosis typically occurs within three months after a first delivery and usually involving the axial skeleton accompanied by back pain, bone loss and a fracture. We present a case of postpregnancy spinal osteoporosis that developed three months after a first delivery. Our patient also showed multiple compression fractures in her lumbar spine and biochemical evidence of increased bone resorption.
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The Clinical Characteristics of Hyperthyroidism Combined with Ocular Myasthenia Gravis: Report of Six cases.
Ji Young Seo, Doo Man Kim, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Cheol Soo Choi, Sung Hee Ihm, Jae Myung Yoo, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Jun Yoo, Sung Woo Park, Hyeung Cheul Kim, Hong Ki Song, Deuk Hwan Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2000;15(4-5):606-613.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease characterized by impaired neuromuscular transmission due to circulating antiacetylcholine receptor autoantibodies. The relation between myasthenia gravis and thyroid disease remains unclarified. The association is thought to be uncommon and approximately 0.2% of myasthenia gravis has been reported in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Clinical expression of myasthenia gravis varies, ranging from a mild localized disease such as ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) to a severe generalized disease. A higher frequency of thyroid antibodies has been observed in OMG compared to generalized myasthenia gravis, but the exact mechanisms of this increased association between OMG and thyroid autoimmunity has not been confirmed. The "see-saw" relationship between hyperthyroidism and myasthenia gravis is presented by some authors, while others reported that the optimal maintenance of euthyroid status was essential in treatment. Today many authors agree to the latter and we think that the adequate control of hyperthyroidism is more important. We have experienced six cases of hyperthyroidism combined with OMG and it was somewhat difficult to diagnose myasthenia gravis when the patient have Graves' ophthalmopathy.
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A Clinical Study on Hypopitutiarism: Significance of Combined Pituitary Stimulation Test.
Bo Youn Cho, Hong Gyu Lee, Chang Soon Koh, Hyung Kyu Park, Sook Kyung Kim, Chan Soo Shin, Seong Yeon Kim, Jae Seok Chun, Kyung Soo Park, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Sun Wook Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(3):268-276.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Background
Hypopituitarism can be caused by various diseases. Its clinical manifestations vary, depending on the extent and severity of the pituitary hormone deficiency. And some patients may initially present with SIADH-like features. Combined pituitary stimulation test has been used for the diagnosis of hypopituitarism and subsequent hormone replacement therapy. However, the test is laborious, expensive and uncomfortable to the patients, So we performed this study to know whether combined pituitary stimulation test can be replaced with clinical features and simple basal hormone concentrations. Methods: Fifty-four patients who were diagnosed as hypopituitarism by combined pituitary stimulation test were included in this study. Clinical features and basal hormone data were compared with the results of combined pituitary stimulation test for the evaluation of pituitary-gonadal, pituitary-thyroid, and pituitary-adrenal axes, using X2 test. Results: 1) In pituitary-gonadal axis, the evaluation of clinical features and basal gonad hormone concentrations were significantly consistent with stimulation test(p<0.05), 2) In pituitary-thyroid axis, the evaluation of basal thyroid hormone concentrations were more helpful than stimulation test though results of the two tests were not consistent. 3) In pituitary-adrenal axis, all patients whose basal cortisol concentrations were low showed inadequate responses to stimulation test. However, stimulation test revealed adrenal insufficiency in some patients with normal basal cortisol concentrations. 4) 9 patients who presented with SIADH-like features were older than the others and had all corticotropin deficiency. Conclusion: In patients with suspected hypopituitarism, the evaluation of clinical features and basal hormone concentrations can be sufficient for the diagnosis of hypopituitarism and hormone replacement therapy. However, stimulation test is necessary to investigate adrenal function in patients with normal basal cortisol concentrations. And hypopituitarism should be considered in old patients who present with SIADH-like features.
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A Case of Symptomatic Severe Hypercalcemia as Initial Manifestation of Hyperthyroidism.
Hye Young Park, Won Bae Kim, Hyeon Kyu Kim, Chan Soo Shin, Seong Yeon Kim, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Gyu Lee, Chang Soon Koh
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(1):124-126.   Published online November 7, 2019
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No abstract available.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism