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Hong Kyu Kim  (Kim HK) 24 Articles
A Case of Malignant Pheochromocytoma Presenting as Inverted Takotsubo-Like Cardiomyopathy.
Jung Eun Jang, Hyuk Hee Kwon, Min Jung Lee, Chang Hee Jung, Sung Jin Bae, Hong Kyu Kim, Woo Je Lee
Endocrinol Metab. 2012;27(1):98-104.   Published online March 1, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2012.27.1.98
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Takotsubo cardiomyopathy or stress induced cardiomyopathy is characterized by acute transient left ventricular apical ballooning without significant coronary artery disease. The pathophysiology of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy remains unclear, but it has been suggested that the stress related neurohumoral factors, especially catecholamines, play an important role. Recently, several reports have described an inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by the dysfunction of the basal and mid-ventricular segments sparing the apex of the heart. In this report, we present a case of a 50-year-old female with a transient left ventricular dysfunction in an inverted Takotsubo pattern, that later was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma.
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Association between Cigarette Smoking and Thyroid Function in Adults without Previous History of Thyroid Disease.
Bo Hyun Kim, Won Bae Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Seong Hoon Jeon, Chang Won Lee, Young Kee Shong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(2):123-128.   Published online April 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2008.23.2.123
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Cigarette smoking has a significant impact on thyroid function. However, the association between smoking and thyroid function is incompletely understood. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 90,970 adults (age range: 20 to 79) who had visited the health promotion center at Asan Medical Center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2003. Those subjects with previous known thyroid disease, a history of thyroid operation, a history of thyroid function altering medication (herb, estrogen or digestive) or a family history of thyroid disease were excluded. Finally, 47,577 subjects (males: 30,726, females: 16,851) were included in this study. We calculated the age-adjusted geometric mean of the serum TSH and the age-adjusted mean of the serum free T4 among the current, former and never smokers. We also analyzed the age-adjusted prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism among each group. RESULTS: Among men, the geometric mean TSH level was significantly low in the current (1.40 mIU/L, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-1.41) and former smokers (1.59 mIU/L, 95% CI: 1.57-1.61) compared with the never smokers (1.65 mIU/L, 95% CI: 1.63-1.68). The mean free T4 level was high in the current smokers (1.236 ng/dL, 95% CI: 1.234-1.239) compared with the never smokers (1.234 ng/dL, 95% CI: 1.230-1.238). Similarly, among women, the geometric mean TSH level was low in the current smokers (1.75 mIU/L, 95% CI: 1.67-1.87) compared with the never smokers (1.85 mIU/L, 95% CI: 1.83-1.87). The mean free T4 level was high in the current smokers (1.149 ng/dL, 95% CI: 1.139-1.159) compared with the never smokers (1.138 ng/dL, 95% CI: 1.135-1.140). Among the current male smokers, heavy daily smoking (over 2 packs per day) was more associated with low TSH levels than moderate smoking (less than 1 pack per day). In men, the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was low in the current smokers compared with the never smokers (odds ratio: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.43-0.66). CONCLUSION: We found that current smokers had lower TSH levels and higher free T4 levels than never smokers in both men and women and smoking was associated with a low prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in men, which may be of importance when evaluating subjects with subclinical hypothyroidism in Korea.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Reference interval for thyrotropin in a ultrasonography screened Korean population
    Mijin Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Soo Han Kim, Yunkyoung Lee, Su-yeon Park, Hyung-don Kim, Hyemi Kwon, Yun Mi Choi, Eun Kyung Jang, Min Ji Jeon, Won Gu Kim, Young Kee Shong, Won Bae Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2015; 30(3): 335.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Review of Thyroid Dysfunction in the Subjects for Health Check-up
    Ji Eun Park, Ho Chan Cho
    Journal of Korean Thyroid Association.2012; 5(1): 52.     CrossRef
  • Thyroid Dysfunction of North Korean Women Living in South Korea, Focusing on Subclinical Hypothyroidism
    Joo Hyung Kim, Sol Ah Park, Nam Hoon Kim, Jae Hee Ahn, Yoon Jung Kim, Myongjin Cho, Yoon Jung Lee, Hye Jin Yoo, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Sin Gon Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2012; 27(3): 200.     CrossRef
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Prevalence of Ultrasonographically-Detected Thyroid Nodules in Adults without Previous History of Thyroid Disease.
Ji Hye Suk, Tae Yong Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Won Bae Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Seong Hoon Jeon, Young Kee Shong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(5):389-393.   Published online October 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.5.389
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  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The prevalence of palpable thyroid nodules in the general population is about 5%, and is 3~5 times higher in women than in men. However, much higher prevalence, up to 50%, was reported from autopsy data. Recently, the use of high resolution ultrasonography for routine check-up has resulted in much more detection of non-palpable thyroid nodules. We studied the prevalence of thyroid nodules in healthy adults without history of thyroid disease, and compared the prevalence in relation to palpability, age and gender. METHODS: The prevalence of thyroid nodules was studied in adults aged from 20 to 79 years who had visited the health promotion center at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from Jan 2002 to Dec 2003. Subjects with previous thyroid disease were excluded. 7,440 subjects (6,168 female, 1,272 men) were included in this study. Thyroid palpation was performed and followed by ultrasonography using a 12-MHz real-time scanner. RESULTS: Thyroid nodules were detected in 3,040 of the 7,440 subjects (41%). Palpable nodules were present in 213 (3%), and non-palpable, but ultrasonographically detected thyroid nodules were present in 2,827 (38%). Thyroid nodules were present in 2,602 women (42.2%) and 370 men (29%). Among them, 159 women (2.6%) and 54 men (4.2%) had palpable thyroid nodules and 2,443 women (39.6%) and 316 men (24.8%) had non-palpable but ultrasonographically detected nodules. A significant linear trend was found between age and the prevalence of thyroid nodules. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of ultrasonographically detected thyroid nodules in adults with no previous history of thyroid disease was 41%. The prevalence of palpable nodules and non-palpable, but ultrasonographically detected nodules were 3% and 38%, respectively. Thyroid nodules were detected in 42.2% of women and 29% of men, showing that thyroid nodules are very common in healthy adults, even in men.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules and the Morphological Analysis of Malignant Nodules on Ultrasonography
    An Hyun, Ji Tae-jeong, Lee Hyo-young, Im In-chul
    Journal of Radiological Science and Technology.2019; 42(3): 201.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of thyroid nodules and their associated clinical parameters: a large-scale, multicenter-based health checkup study
    Jae Hoon Moon, Min Kyung Hyun, Ja Youn Lee, Jung Im Shim, Tae Hyuk Kim, Hoon Sung Choi, Hwa Young Ahn, Kyung Won Kim, Do Joon Park, Young Joo Park, Ka Hee Yi
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2018; 33(4): 753.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Annual Incidence of Thyroid Disease in Korea from 2006 to 2015: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
    Hyemi Kwon, Jin-hyung Jung, Kyung-Do Han, Yong-Gyu Park, Jung-Hwan Cho, Da Young Lee, Ji Min Han, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2018; 33(2): 260.     CrossRef
  • An Iodine Database for Common Korean Foods and the Association between Iodine Intake and Thyroid Disease in Korean Adults
    Mi-Rhan Han, Dal Lae Ju, Young Joo Park, Hee-Young Paik, YoonJu Song
    International Journal of Thyroidology.2015; 8(2): 170.     CrossRef
  • Management of Thyroid Nodules and Cancers Arising in the Elderly
    Eunyoung Kim, June Young Choi, Kyu Eun Lee
    Journal of Korean Thyroid Association.2012; 5(2): 99.     CrossRef
  • Screening of Thyroid Cancer and Management of Thyroid Incidentaloma
    Jung Jin Cho
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2010; 31(2): 87.     CrossRef
  • Postoperative Findings of the Cytological Diagnosis of Follicular Neoplasm or Hürthle Cell Neoplasm and the Risk of Malignancy
    Ji Hye Yim, Eui Young Kim, Won Gu Kim, Tae Yong Kim, Gyungyup Gong, Suck Joon Hong, Won Bae Kim, Young Kee Shong
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2010; 25(4): 316.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules Detected by Ultrasonography in Adults for Health Check-up and Analysis of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology
    Jae Hoon Chung
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2008; 23(6): 391.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules Detected by Ultrasonography in Adults for Health Check-Ups and Analysis of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology
    Won Jun Kim, Joo Hyong Kim, Dong Won Park, Chang Beom Lee, Yong Soo Park, Dong Sum Kim, Woong Hwan Choi, Tae Wha Kim, You Hern Ahn
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2008; 23(6): 413.     CrossRef
  • Trends Analysis of Characteristics of Thyroid Cancer Patients in One Medical Center
    Seung Hun Lee, Tae Yong Kim, Jin-Sook Ryu, Gyungyub Gong, Won Bae Kim, Seong Chul Kim, Suck Joon Hong, Young Kee Shong
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2008; 23(1): 35.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Thyroid Nodules Detected by Ultrasonography in Adult Men Attending Health Check-ups
    Jung Hyun Kim, Sang Jun Park, Sang Eok Kim, Kwang Hee Lee, Il Kwon Cho, Sun Ik Jang, Jin Kwan Lee, Keum Soo Seo, Hyuck Po Kwon, Sung Chang Chung
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2007; 22(2): 112.     CrossRef
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Association between Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver and Metabolic Diseases.
Hong Kyu Kim, Chan Jong Suh, Hyo Joong Yoon, Yong Ha Hwang, Kee Young Lee, Hye Young Park, Kap Hwan Kim, Moon Ho Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(4):526-534.   Published online August 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is known to be frequently associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Recently, the diagnosis of fatty liver disease, based on ultrasonographic findings, has increased. Therefore, we examined the association between NAFLD and various metabolic diseases, such as obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension or metabolic syndrome, and tried to find out whether NAFLD was independently related to insulin resistance. METHODS: From April to June 2000, 262 subjects, attending for routine physical check-ups, were screened. Of these, 115 one hundred fifteen subjects were studied, with the other 147 excluded due to significant alcohol consumption, evidence of viral or toxic hepatitis, significant liver or renal dysfunction, and overt thyroid disease. Fatty liver was diagnosed if the subject had a "bright" liver on ultrasonographic examination. All diagnoses were made by a single experienced radiologist. RESULTS: Of the 115 subjects. 30 (26%) showed NAFLD. 1. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, body weight, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting insulin levels and HOMA IR (homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index) were higher in the subjects with NAFLD than in the controls. 2. Multiple logistic regression analysis, including age, sex, BMI, waist to hip ratio, fasting serum glucose, lipids and insulin levels, HOMA IR, and hypertension showed that BMI, total cholesterol and HOMA IR were independently related with NAFLD. 3. 27% of the subjects with NAFLD showed metabolic syndrome, and 53% of subjects with metabolic syndrome had NAFLD. 4. The percentage of subjects who had more than two factors of metabolic syndrome was three times higher in the subjects with NAFLD compared to the controls. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NAFLD may be independently related with insulin resistance. Metabolic diseases, such as glucose intolerance, obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension, were more prevalent in the subjects with NAFLD than in the controls. Therefore, we should try to assess the status of the metabolic diseases, and treat them in patients with NAFLD.
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A Case of Adrenocortical Adenoma Causing Cushing's Syndrome with Contralateral Nonfunctioning Adenoma.
Sun Young Kyung, Hye Sook Hahn, Hyo Joong Yoon, Young Ha Hwang, Chan Jong Seo, Yeon Sil Jeong, Hong Kyu Kim, Hye Young Park, Hyung Sik Kim, Jeong Nam Lee, Seung Yeon Ha, Moon Ho Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(2):286-291.   Published online April 1, 2002
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We report the case of a 43-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome showing bilateral adrenococortical adenomas. We performed bilateral selective adrenal vein samplings. Hypersecretion of cortisol on the left sided adrenal tumor was observed, but no evidence of cortisol hypersecretion from the adrenal tumor on the right side was observed. The left adrenal tumor was resected selectively, but the right adrenal gland was reserved. The left adrenal tumor was histologically diagnosed as a adrenal adenoma without any evidence of nodular hyperplasia. Following the resection of the left adrenal gland, no cortisol hypersecretion from the remaining adrenal tumor on the right side was observed until now, suggesting that a selective adrenalectomy of functioning adenoma may be an acceptable treatment modality.
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Recurrence of Subacute Thyroiditis: Report of Two Cases.
Hyo Joong Yoon, Yong Ha Hwang, Ki Young Lee, Hong Kyu Kim, Hye Young Park, Moon Ho Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2002;17(1):124-129.   Published online February 1, 2002
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Subacute thyroiditis is a self-limited inflammatory disease of viral etiology. Patients of subacute thyroiditis usually recover completely with no sequelae and recurrences are infrequent. We report two cases of recurrent subacute thyroiditis. Case 1) A 21-year-old female visited the hospital for evaluation of neck pain. She had a history of antecedent upper respiratory infection, which had been followed for 10 days. She experienced heat intolerance, sweating, palpitation and tremor. On physical examination, her heart rate was 108/min and diffuse, firm and tender goiter was palpated. Thyrotoxicosis and decreased uptake on thyroid scan were found. We diagnosed subacute thyroiditis and she recovered with salicylate and beta blocker treatment. Two years later, she revisited our hospital with the same complaint. Typical findings of subacute thyroiditis were noticed. She recovered once more with the same treatment regimen. Case 2) A 54-year-old female visited the hospital for evaluation of neck pain. She had a history of antecedent upper respiratory infection, which was followed for 14 days. She experienced heat intolerance, sweating, palpitation and weight loss. On physical examination, her heart rate was 112/min and diffuse, firm and tender goiter was palpated. Thyrotoxicosis and decreased uptake on thyroid scan were found. We diagnosed subacute thyroiditis and recovered with prednisolone and beta blocker treatment. About eight months later, she revisited our hospital with the same complaint. Typical findings of subacute thyroiditis were noticed.We report two subjects who experienced recurrent episodes of subacute thyroiditis separated by periods of 24 and 8 months. These cases serve as a reminder that recurrence of subacute thyroiditis can occur.
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A Case of Adrenalectomy after Preterm Delivery in Cushing's Syndrome of Third Trimester Pregnant Woman.
Kwang Sik Song, Jae Kyung Hwang, Ki Tak Ju, Hang Jin Lee, Suk Ho Song, Ki Young Lee, Chan Jong Suh, Hong Kyu Kim, Hyu Young Park, Dal Mo Yang, Young Ha Oh, Moon Ho Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(1):134-139.   Published online February 1, 2001
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A renin- or angiotensin-II responsive aldosterone producing tumor is a rare cause of primary hyperaldosteronism. This tumor can be identified by tests that show that the aldosterone producing adrenal tumor is not fully autonomous. In other words partially it is responsible for the stimulation of aldosterone secretion that results aldosterone levels in an increase in serum in response to the upright posture and spironolactone treatment. Furthermore, the urinary 18-hydroxycortisol level is within the normal range. Because of different responses to surgical removal, the differential diagnosis of the causes of primary aldosteronism can't be overemphasized even for rare causes of primary aldosteronism such as unilateral nodular hyperplasia or a renin-responsible aldosterone producing tumor. We should consider renin or angiotensin-II responsive adrenal adenoma in the differential diagnosis of primary aldosteronism when biochemical data shows atypical results. Here we present the first case in Korea of a renin-responsive aldosterone producing adrenal adenoma which was fully accessible and was successfully treated by surgical removal. Also, sampling for aldosterone secretion just above the insertion site in the left renal vein before surgery showed a suspiciously abberant left adrenal vein drainage into the IVC, This was very helpful information during adrenal vein ligation in laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
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Association Between Peak Bone Mass and Genetic Polymorphisms of the Vitamin D Receptor, Estrogen Receptor, and Type I Collagen 1 Genes in Healthy Young Korean Women.
Hong Kyu Kim, Sang Wook Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Ghi Su Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2001;16(1):97-114.   Published online February 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Genetic suggest that strongest effect is observed in the premenopausal peak bone mass, which become less with age. However, the evaluation of candidate genes polymorphisms has been most frequently done in postmenopausal women and the results have been controversial. Therefore, we studied the possible association of the peak bone mass and candidate for osteoporosis genes polymorphism in premenopausal women. METHODS: The associations between BMD and polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (3'-end region by BsmI restriction enzyme and start codon by FokI restriction enzyme), estrogen receptor (by PvuII and XbaI restriction enzyme), and type I collagen 1 (Sp1 binding site by MscI and BalI restriction enzyme) genes were examined in 100 healthy young Korean women who had a peak bone mass (age 20-35 years). Bone mineral densities were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Dietary calcium intake was also measured using a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The frequencies of the B allele of the vitamin D receptor gene BsmI polymorphism and the X allele in the estrogen receptor gene, XbaI polymorphisms were lower in Koreans than those in Caucasians. The allelic frequencies of the vitamin vitamin D receptor gene FokI polymorphism and the estrogen receptor gene PvuII polymorphism were similar to those of Caucasians. No significant association was found between BMD and the vitamin D receptor genotype according to BsmI or FokI polymorphisms. There was also no significant relation between the PvuII or XbaI polymorphisms of the estrogen receptor gene and BMD. The associations between BMD and cross-genotypes combining the vitamin D receptor gene (BsmI and FokI) and estrogen receptor gene (PvuII and XbaI) polymorphisms were also analyzed. Among the subjects who lacked the Bf haplotype of the vitamin D receptor gene, the BMD of the femoral neck area was significantly higher in subjects lacking Px haplotypes of the estrogen receptor gene than in those having Px haplotype (p < 0.05). When dietary calcium intake was taken into consideration, there were significant differences in BMD according to the cross-genotype in the group having a low calcium intake (< 500 mg/day). The subjects that lacked the Bf and Px haplotypes had a significantly higher BMD in the femoral neck (p < 0.01), Ward's triangle (p < 0.05), and in the trochanteric area (p < 0.05) than those who lacked Bf but a Px haplotype. We did not find a polymorphism in the Sp1 binding site of the type I collagen 1 gene in our subjects. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a complex interaction of vitamin D and the estrogen receptor gene with the dietary calcium intake, rather than a polymorphism of a single gene, may influence peak bone mass in healthy young Korean women.
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Hepatic Injury during Treatment with Antithyroid Drugs in Patients with Hyperthyroidism.
Ki Young Lee, Yun Jeong Lee, Soon Hong Hong, Sung Kwoen Jung, Hwa Eun Lee, Chan Jong Seo, Yon Sil Jung, Sung Kwang Lee, Hong Kyu Kim, Hye Young Park, Moon Ho Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2000;15(4-5):554-560.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Propylthiouracil (PIV) and methimazole (MMI) were widely used for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Hepatic injury caused by these agents is a rare but serious complication. This study is to investigate the clinical features of hepatotoxicity from antithyroid drugs. METHODS: We reviewed 17 cases of hepatic injury during treatment with antithyroid drugs in patients with hyperthyroidism. Included were 6 cases we experienced and 11 cases reported in Korean literature from 1986 to 1999. We analyzed the clinical features of hepatic injury. RESULTS: Of 17 cases of hepatic injury, 12 were PTU cases and 5 MMI cases. The mean age of PTU cases was 40 years with 6/12 patients over 40 years old and 2/5 MMI cases were over 40 years old. The dose of PTU was 300 mg/d or more in 10/12 cases (83%) and the dose of MMI was 30 mg/d in 3/5 cases (60%). The hepatic injury occurred within 3 months in 8/12 PTU cases (67%) and within 2 months in 4/5 MMI cases (80%). The duration of hepatic injury tended to be longer in MMI cases than in PTV cases (median; 80 vs 41 days, p=0.102). In PTU cases, the duration of hepatic injury was correlated with the duration of drug use before hepatic injury (p<0.05). All of 8 biopsied cases who took PTU had predominantly hepatocellular necrosis. Two biopsied cases who took MMI had cholestatic jaundice and nonspecific abnormality, respectively. Biochemical findings of all MMI cases were compatible with cholestatic jaundice. As to the treatment of hyperthyroidism after hepatic injury, 4/12 PTU cases were treated with RAI therapy, 5 with MMI and one with surgery, and treatment was unknown in two. On the other hand 3/5 MMI cases interestingly entered into spontaneous remission after hepatic injury and 2/5 had RAI therapy. Hepatic dysfunction recurred in each one whom treatment by changing to MMI or PTU was tried on. CONCLUSION: Most of hepatic injury during treatment with antithyroid drugs developed within two to three months of drug use. The hepatic injury related to PTU was mainly cytotoxic whereas that related to MMI was cholestatic. Since there is a cross-reaction between PTU and MMI in hepatotoxicity, RAI therapy or operation shoud be considered as an alternative treatment of hyperthyroidism after hepatic injury.
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Brain Metastasis from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Report of 2 Cases.
Jung Gu Lee, Ki Young Lee, Yon Sil Jung, Hong Kyu Kim, Hye Young Park, Jong Ho Kim, Moon Ho Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(4):745-751.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Papillary carcinoma, the commonest thyroid malignancy, has an indolent clinical course and carries a good prognosis. Metastasis usually occurs to regional lymph nodes, including cervical and upper mediastinal nodes. Distant metastasis is uncommon, lung and bone being the commonest sites. Brain metastasis from papillary thyroid cancer is rare, with a frequency of less than 1% in several reported series and an extremely poor prognosis. The first case was a 74-year-old female patient with papillary cancer who took total thyroidectomy followed by 131I therapy 1 month later. Two days after 131I therapy, she developed headache, vomiting and left hemiplegia. Brain MRI and 131I whole body scan showed solitary brain metastasis in right parietal lobe. After a few weeks her condition improved enough to maintain her usual daily activity despite mild motor weakness. The second one, a 64-year-old female patient presented with headache and vomiting. Two years previously, she had taken total thyroidectomy and 131I ablation therapy after diagnosis of thyroid papillary cancer. Eight months before, she had undergone radical neck dissection because of relapse in cervical lymph nodes. Brain MRI revealed multple metastatic lesions including cerebellum. This patient did not report for follow-up after 2 months of discharge.
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Therapeutic Response to Radioactive Iodine Treatment in Graves' Disease.
Hye Young Park, Hee Sang Kong, Yon Sil Jung, Sung Kwang Lee, Hong Kyu Kim, Moon Ho Kang
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(4):679-687.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Prediction of therapeutic response to radioactive iodine (RAI) in Graves disease is poorly understood. Although thyrotropin binding inhibitor immunoglobulin (TBII) level is a strong index for relapse after antithyroid drug treatment, conflicting results are described regarding its prognostic significance in Graves disease treated with RAI. This study is to evaluate possible prognostic factors including TBII wbich affect the outcome of RAI therapy in Graves disease. METHODS: Two hundred and one patients with Graves disease who were followed for over 12 months after RAI treatment were studied retrospectively. The subjects were divided into hypothyroid, euthyroid and hyperthyroid groups, based on the thyroid function evaluated at 12 months after RAI therapy. We evaluated the association of clinical parameters including patients age, goiter size, degree of hyperthyroidism and TBII index with outcome of RAI treatment. RESULTS: In Graves disease, response rate to RAI was 70.1% (hypothyroid 22.4% and euthyroid 47.7%) until 12th month. The mean age of hypothyroid group was 40+/-11 years, significantly older than that other groups (euthyroid: 33+/-12, hyperthyroid: 35+/-13, p<0.05). Initial level of thyroid function, duration of antithyroid drug treatment prior to RAI, goiter size and dosage of RAI were not significantly different between the groups. There were 61 patients who had both TBII tests before and after RAI. Twelve had negative TBII and 49 had positive TBII before RAI admini-stration. The rate of unremitted hyperthyroidism after RAI therapy was significantly lower in patients with negative TBII than in those with positive TBII prior to RAI treatment( 0% versus 46.9%, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Graves patients with positive TBII prior to RAI therapy were associated with lower therapeutic response to RAI than those with negatve TBII. And old age was associated with the development of early hypothyroidism after RAI therapy. These results suggest these factors be also considered in the treatment of Graves disease with RAI.
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Thallium-291 Whole Body Scintigraphy in Postoperative Follow-up of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.
Eun Sook Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Sung Jin Lee, Jin Sook Ryu, Dae Hyuk Moon, Young Kee Shong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(1):63-70.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The advantages of thallium (Tl)-201 whole body scan in follow-up of patients with thyroid carcinoma include no need to discontinue thyroid hormone replacement, a shorter period of time between injection and imaging, a lower radiation dose, and preservation of affinity for subsequent therapeutic dose of 131I. To evaluate the reliability of whole body scintigraphy using Tl-201 in postoperative follow-up of thyroid carcinoma, this procedure was performed in patients after total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma. The results were compared with those of 131I scintigraphy. METHODS: One hundred nineteen cases (119 patients) with a median age of 43 years (range, 20 85 years) were included in the study. After optimal endogenous thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulation (>50 mIU/mL), 131I (4 mCi) scan and Tl 201 (3 mCi) scan were simultaneously performed. Concomitantly serum thyroglobulin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody levels were checked. If abnormal findings on any of the scintigraphic methods or high levels of thyroglobulin (> 10 ng/mL) were detected, high dose (150~200mCi) 131I was administered as therapy and then whole body scans were performed repeatedly after the therapy. The presence or absence of thyroid cancer was established by pathologic, radiologic, and/or high dose 131I scan findings. RESULTS: In 12 patients, ll-201 scan revealed positive accumulations which were not found on 131I scan, of whom 9 had elevated thyroglobulin levels. In these cases, 5 cases were interpreted to have normal thyroid remnant and 7 cases showed pathologic findings (1 lung, 2 lymph node, 1 bone, and 2 lung and lymph node metastasis, and 1 false positive accumulation of thallium). Metastasis were confirmed histologically in 2 and radiologically in 5 cases. Negative Tl-201 scans, despite of positive 131I scans, occurred in 20 patients, of whom 6 had abnormal thyroglobulin levels. Seventeen cases were interpreted to have thyroid remnant, 2 cases were diagnosed to have thyroid carcinoma metastasis (1 lung, 1 lung and lymph node), and 1 case was not confumed. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that 131I scan is superior to 11-201 scan for detection of residual or metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma. However, the use of combined modalities may provide a higher diagnostic yield. TI-201 scan can be useful especially in cases in which 'I scan is negative despite of abnormal thyroglobulin levels.
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Technetium-99m sestamibi whole Body Scintigraphy in Postoperative Follow-up of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.
Hong Kyu Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Young Ki Song, Jin Sook Ryu, Dae Hyuk Moon
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(4):572-579.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Recently technetium-99m sestamibi (99mTc MIBI), which dose not require withdrawal of thyroid hormone, has been used for imaging of thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical usefulness of Tc MIBI scintigraphy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma. The results were compared with those of standard 131I scintigraphy. METHODS: One hundred twelve patients with a median age of 44 years (range, 14-76 years) were included in the study. After optimal endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone stimulation (>50 mIU/mL), whole body scintigraphy using 4 mCi of 'I and 20 mCi of Tc sestamibi were done simultaneously. Concomitantly serum thyroglobulin and anti-thyroglobulin antibody levels were checked. If abnormal findings on any of the scintigraphic methods or high levels of thyroglobulin (> 10ng/mL) were detected, diagnostic imaging studies were done to confirm the existence of the disease. And high dose (150-200 mCi) 'I was administered as therapy and then whole body scans were performed again after the therapy. The presence or absence of thyroid cancer was established by pathologic, radiologic, and/or high dose I scan findings. RESULTS: In 11 patients, Tc MIBI scan revealed positive accumulations which were not found on 131I scan, of whom 6 had elevated thyroglobulin levels. In these cases, 5 cases were interpreted to have normal thyroid remnant and 6 cases showed pathologic findings (2 lung, 1 lymph node, 1 lung and lymph node, 1 local recurrent cancer, and 1 false positive accumulation of 99mTc MIBI). Metastasis or residual cancer were confirmed histologically in 1 and radiologically in 4 cases. Negative 99mTc MIBI scans, despite of positive I scans, occurred in 9 patients, of whom 2 had abnormal thyroglobulin levels. Seven cases were interpreted to have thyroid remnant, 2 cases were confirmed to have lung metastasis, and another one was misinterpreted due to breast shadow. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these results suggest that 99mTc MIBI scan may have similar sensitivity and specificity for the detection of residual or metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The 99mTc MIBI scan, especially in cases of negative 131I scan despite of abnormal thyroglobulin levels, can be used as a very useful complementary diagnostic tool.
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Percutaneous Ethanol Injection in Benigh Thyroid Nodules.
Hong Kyu Kim, Il Min Ahn, Eun Joo Lee, Jin Yub Kim, Mi Heon Lee, Sung Jin Lee, Ho Kyu Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(3):373-383.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Percutaneous ethanol injection(PEI) performed in guidance of ultrasonography has been used in cases of thyroid cyst and autonomous functiong thyroid nodule(AFTN). We performed this study to determine the feasibility of PEI on the various type of benign cold nodules(solid, pure cyst, complex cyst) and AFTN. METHOD: Ninety patients(age 41+12 years; 83 women and 7 men) with hot and cold nodule were included in this study. All cases were subjected to FNAB, and sono-guided in cases of complex cyst, at least twice with results of colloid nodule. T4 suppression treatment was done for cold solid nodules for at least 6 months and cases which had partial response(50% or more volume reduction but no further volume decrease on T4 suppression) were included in this study. After PEI, we classified AFTN into three different response groups; complete response (normali- zation of TFT and thyroid scan finding), partial response(normalized freeT4 but suppressed TSH or persistently suppressed scan), or failure group. Each subtypes(solid, pure cyst, complex cyst) of cold nodules were also classified into three groups in accordance with volume reduction; complete response(above 90% of volume reduction), partial response(50-90%), and failure(below 50% or increase in size) group. RESULTS: Overall responses rate of PEI for benign thyroid nodule were complete; 70(78%), partial; 18(20%), and failure; 2(2%). In 27 cold solid nodules, complete response was observed in 23(85%) and partial response in 4(15%). In 11 pure cysts, complete response was observed in 7(64%), partial response in 3(27%), and 1 case(9%) of failure was lost after 1 trial of PEI. In 45 cases of complex cyst, complete response was observed in 36(80%), partial response in 8 (18%), and 1 case(2%) of failure was subjected to operation with pathology report of Hiirthle cell adenoma. In 7 cases of AFTN, complete response was observed in 4(57%) and partial response in 3(43%). We observed complications during PEI therapy such as transient neck pain(n=10), transient unilateral vocal cord palsy(n=l), and intracavitary hemorrhage(n=2), transient hypotension during ethanol injection(n 1). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that efficacy of PEI(57%) in AFTN is inferior to conventional therapies like surgery and radioiodine, but still can be an alternative therapeutic modality in selected cases. In cold nodules, especially of solid type and complex cyst, PEI may have feasibility as a therapeutic modality in restricted cases. Further studies of prolonged follow-up for the possibility of neglecting occult malignancy are warranted.
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Expression of Human Sodium Iodide Symporter mRNA in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Hong Kyu Kim, Il Min Ahn, Young Il Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Hyun Soo Park, Ki Young Park, Seok Jun Hong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(2):181-188.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
The sodium iodide symporter(NIS) is a plasma membrane protein which is respoasibIe for iodide transport into thyroid cell. The cDNA sequence of NIS has recently been cloned from rat and human. Intrinsic ability and its differences in iodide accumulation have been exploited as a useful tool for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. It is also known that some differentiated thyroid cancers do not take up radioactive iodine at therapeutic dose. METHODS: To understand the expression and regulation of NIS in thyroid tumars, we measured the expressons of human NIS(hNIS), TSH-receptor(R), and thyroglohulin(Tg) mRNAs from papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC) tissues by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNase protection assay(RPA). RESULT: By RT-PCR analysis, 87% of PTC expressed hNIS mRNA, but the degree of expression were variable. Interestingly, 32% of PTC showed significant level of hNIS expression even though pre-operative technetium thyroid scan of all thyroid tumors were cold but the level was lower than normal control tissues. All of PTC showed the expressions of Tg and TSH-R mRNAs and there was a correlation between hNIS mRNA and TSH-R mRNA(Rsq 0.35, p=0.01). By RPA, the expression of hNIS and TSH-R in normal control tissue were detected with 20microgram and 40microgram of total RNA respectively, but the higher concentrations(> or =60microgram for hNIS and > or =40microgram for TSH-R) were required to detect in PTC, showing that tbe expression of hNIS in FTC was lower than TSH-R expression. CONCLUSION: PTC tends to lose hNIS mRNA expression earlier than TSH-R mRNA and the measurement of hNIS mRNA in PTC may be useful as an indicator of the therapeutic response to radioactive iodine.
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A Case of Adult Fanconi Syndrome and Osteomalacia associated with x-Light Chain Monoclonal Gammopathy.
Chul Hee Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Shi Jung Chung, Juog Min Ko, Soo Kil Park, Woo Kun Kim, Ki Soo Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):99-107.   Published online January 1, 2001
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The Fanconi syndrome is a complex tubulopathy, which is characterized by urinary hyperexcretion of amino acids of all classes, phosphate, glucose, bicarbonate, calkium, potassium, and otherions, and proteins with molecular weights under 50,000 daltons. This metabolic disease leads to hypophospatemia, hypokalemia, growth failure, metabolic acidasis, and rickets/osteomalacia. Fanconi syndrome may be inherited or acqulred. Most cases of adult Fanconi syndrome are acquired, and the acquired syndrome is associated with thermal burns, exposure to heavy metals or drugs, vitmnin D deficiency, renal transplantation, or light chain deposition. The most common cause of adult Fanconi syndrome is multiple myeloma. We ribe here a case of adult Fanconi syndrome and osteomalacia associated with x-light chain monoclonal gammopathy. A 47-year-old woman presented with multiple bane pain and proximal muscle weakness for 2 years. Laboratory findmgs showed hypophosphatemia, mild hypocalcemia, marked elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, metabolic acidosis, low 25-OH- vitamm D level and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Urinary excretion of protein, uric acid, phosphate, and glucose was mcreased, and tubular reabsorption of phosphate was decreased to 50%. Protein immunofixation electrophoresis of serum and urine showed x-light chain type monoclonal gammopathy. Bone marrow examination was normal except moderate elevation of plasma cell component(8.8%). The skeletal radiography showed fractures of both lower ribs and pseudofracture in right femoral lesser trochanter. We treated the patient with calcium, 1.25-(OH)2-vitamin D, phosphorus, bicarbonate, and potassium, and her clinical symptoms were gradually relieved.
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A Case of Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome.
Chul Hee Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Young Ki Song, Ki Soo Kim, Kyo Sang Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(4):672-676.   Published online January 1, 2001
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The polyglandular autoimmune syndrome is constellation of multiple endocrine insufficiencies often associated with diseases of nonendocrine organs occurring in individual patients and their families. In 1980, Neufeld classified this syndrome into three major types. Type II is characterized by adrenocortical insufficiency, autoimmune thyroiditis, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We experienced a case characterized by adrenocortical insufficiency, autoimmune thyroiditis, and ovarian failure and report with the review of the literature. A 38-year-old woman visited our clinic because of progressing brown colored pigmentation of skin and mucosa which is developed a year ago. Nine years ago prior to visit, amenorrhea was developed after right oophrectomy. Three years ago, she revealed feature of hyperthyroidism such as palpitation, loss of body weight (8kg/1-2years), heat intolerance, and sweating, so received antithyroid therapy for 14 months. Brown colored pigmentation of skin and mucosa, especially scar and gingiva, has been progressively aggravated during last year. She had no past or family history of other endocrine disease. Diffuse pigmentation of skin, loss of axillary and pubic hair, and diffuse enlargement of both thyroid glands were shown on physical examination. Blood cell count, serum chemistry and blood sugar test were all within normal range. Basal hormone levels were T3-uptake 29.7% (30~40), T3 153 ng/dL (85~185), T4 7.5ug/dL (5.5~11.5), TSH 2.4 IU (0.34~3.5), anti-TG antibody <100 U/mL (0~100), anti-microsome antibody <50 U/mL (0~100), TBII (thyrotropin binding inhibiting immunoglobulin) 2.2% ( (-15)~15), ACTH 989 pg/mL (0~37), cortisol 0.1 ug/dL (5~25), renin 7.1ng/mL/hr (1~2.5), aldosterone 81.0pg/mL (50~194), LH 115.2 mIU/mL (0.6~16.8), FSH 122 mIU/mL (1.6~19.0), and estradiol <10.0pg/mL (30~120). In ACTH stimulation test, levels of basal cortisol, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes were <0.1, <0.1, and <0.1 g/dL respectively. And, in glucagon stimulation test, levels of basal C-peptide, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes were 0.9, 5,1, 6.3, and 5.5 ng/dL respectively. Thyroid scan showed diffuse enlargement of bilateral thyroid glands and pelvic ultrasonogram showed atrophy of left ovary. We administered corticosteroid, estrogen, and progesterone which were deficient to the patient, and has followed up the clinical course of the patient.
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Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Preduction of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-11 in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells.
Chul Hee Kim, Dong Kwan Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Young Ki Song, Ki Soo Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(4):557-564.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It is well known that excessive thyroid hormone in the body is associated with bone loss. However, the mechanism by which thyroid hormone affects bone cell metabolism remains unclear. It has been shown that thyroid hormones stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption indirectly via some unknown mediators secreted by osteoblasts, This study was undertaken to determine if interleukin-6 (IL-6) or interleukin-11 (IL-l1) could be the mediator (s) of thyroid hormone-induced bone loss. METHODS: We treated primary cultured human bone rnarrow stromal cells with 3,5,3-triiodo-thyronine (T) and measured basal and interleukin-l (IL-1)-stimulated IL-6/IL-ll production. We also investigated the possible modulating effect of 17B-estradiol (17B-E2.) on thyroid hormone action. RESULTS: T3 at 10 (-12) ~ 10 (-8) M concentration, significantly increased the basal IL-6 production in a dose-dependent manner, and also potentiated the stimulatory effect of IL-1 on IL-6 production. However, T failed to elicit a detectable effect on basal or IL-1-stimulated IL-11 production. Treat#ment with l7B-E2. inhibited IL-1-stimulated IL-6 production, but the effects of T3 on IL-6 production were not affected by 17/B-E. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that thyroid hormone may increase bone resorption by increasing basal IL-6 production and potentiating IL-1-induced IL-6 production from osteoblast-lineage cells, and these effects were independent of estrogen status.
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The Role of Low-dose ACTH Stimulation Test in the Diagnosis of Adrenal Insufficiency.
Chul Hee Kim, Ghi Su Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Young Kee Shong, Ki Up Lee, Il Min Ahn, Sung Kwan Hong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(2):222-229.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Rapid adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation test using 250ug of ACTH (1-24) has been used as a standard test in the initial assessment of adrenal function. However, it has recently been suggested that a rnaximal cortisol response can be achieved with a much lower ACTH dose, and reducing the dose might further enhance the sensitivity of the test in the detection of mild adrenal insufficiency. This study was performed to evaluate the role of low-dose (lug) ACTH stimulation test in the assessment of adrenal function and the diagnosis of subtle adrenal insufficiency. METHODS: Twenty-two subjects with suspected adrenal insufficiency due to long-term corticosteroid use were included in this study. The correlations between clinical features and the serum cortisol responses to low dose (lug) and high dose (250 ug) ACTH stimulation were evaluated. RESULTS: In high dose test, 10 (67%) out of 15 subjects with clinical features of adrenal insufficiency showed decreased serum cortisol response (peak cortisol level <18 ug/dL), but 5 (33%) subjects showed normal response (peak cortisol level > 18ug/dL). On the other hand, 14 (93%) subjects with clinical features of adrenal insufficiency showed decreased serum cortisol response in low dose test, while only one showed normal response. In 7 subjects without clinical features of adrenal insufficiency, 5 subject (71%) showed normal response, and 2 subjects (29%) showed decreased response in both low and high dose tests. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the 1-ug low dose ACTH stimulation test might be more sensitive than conventional 250-ug test in the detection of mild adrenal insufficiency. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dose of ACTH and the criteria for normal response to ACTH stimulation.
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Piruitray Thyrotropin-Secreting Tumors in Korean.
Chul Hee Kim, Ghi Su Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Young Kee Shong, Sang Bum Hong, Jung Min Ko, Chang Jin Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(2):165-175.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma is an uncommon disease and about 150 cases has been reported in the world literature. In Korea, only seven cases were reported as yet. The authors recently experienced four cases of TSH secreting pituitary tumor and analyzed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of TSH-secreting tumors in Korean. METHODS: We analyzed clinical records of the four cases who had been recently treated at Asan Medical Center and the Korean literature which deals with the previously reported seven cases of TSH-secreting pituitary tumor. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 37 years (ranging from 11 to 55 years). Four were men and seven were women. After the detection of hyperthyroidism, TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma was diagnosed 3.6 years later on the average. Ten patients presented with hyperthyroidism, but one had primary hypothyroidism. Typical features of acromegaly were observed in two patients. Visual disturbance was present in three cases, and galactorrhea was present in one case. Serum TSH concentrations ranged from 1.5 to 42.5uIU/mL showing mildly elevated or unsup-pressed TSH levels despite of elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations. Among six cases in whom a-subunit level was measured, five showed elevated a-subunit level and a-subunit/TSH molar ratio. Two of 11 cases had microadenoma and the remainder had macroadeno#ma. Immunohisto-cheical studies were done in eight cases and revealed that three were positive for TSH only and five patients were positive for multiple hormones. Eight patients underwent transsphenoidal pituitary surgery and seven (88%) of them were cured. External irradiation or octreotide was used as adjunctive treatment in three cases. After treatment, TSH levels decreased in all six patients studied, hyperthyroidism was eliminated in all eight patients studied and visual disturbance was improved in two patients. CONCLUSION: Clinical characteristics of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma in Koreans were similar with world literature, but were more common in women, had less visual disturbance and better surgical results. Diagnosis was commonly delayed for several years. TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma may be diagnosed more frequently and earlier with widespread use of sensitive TSH assay and early and proper diagnosis would lead proper treatments with improved outcome.
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Clinical Features of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I in Koreans.
Chul Hee Kim, Ghi Su Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Young Kee Shong, Ki Up Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(2):163-174.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Background
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I(MEN I) is a rare, eomplex, and potentially lethal disease. In Korean, only five anecdotal cases were reported as yet. The authors rescently experienced four cases of MEN I, and analysed the clinieal characteristics of MEN I in Koreans. Methods: The authors evaluated nine cases of MEN I, retrospectively. Four cases were analysed by clinical records in patients admitted to Asan Medical Center and five cases were reviewed by previously reported Korean literature from 1986 to 1995. Results: The average age was 39 years(ranged from 33 to 59 years). Eight of the nine patients had hyperparathyroidism documented by elevated serum calcium and PTH level with or without evidence of parathyroid mass. Initial presenting manifestations were symptomatic urinary stone, hypoglycernia due to insulinoma, hypogonadism, acromegaly, or peptic ulcer. Eight of nine patients had pancreatic islet cell tumors, and three of them were be malignant by radiologic and/or pathologic findings. The pancreatic tumors produced various hormones, such as gastrin, insulin, glucagon, or combination of them. Six of the nine cases had pituitary lesion. The most cornmon pituitary tumor was prolactinoma and the remaining was GH or GH and TSH producing tumor. In addition to the major components of MEN I, four had adrenocortical hyperplasia or adenoma and two had carcinoid tumor. There was only one familial case. Conclusion: The clinical charateristics of MEN I in Korean are mostly not different from the previous reports except older age at diagnosis, more comrnon adrenal involvement(44%) and gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor(22%). Although only one case was familial, more cases could be found if careful screening were done for the family members of the MBN I patients. In addition, screening and close follow up for endocrine pancreatic tumors are required for MEN I patients without detectable pancreatic lesion becau~se the malignant potential of pancreatic tumors has beeome an increasing concem for the prognosis of MEN I.
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A Case of Nesidioblastosis in Adult with Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia.
Young Kee Shong, Hong Kyu Kim, Young Joo Min, Joong Yeol Park, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee, Duck Jong Han, Ho Jeong Lee, Ghi Su Kim, Gyung Yub Gong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;10(3):273-277.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Nesidioblastosis is a primarily childhood disease which is often associated with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. It is very rarely found in adults. Only a few well documented cases are found in the world interature. The authors have recently experienced a case of nesidioblastosis in an adult. A 55-year-old man was admitted due to repeated episodes of reversible loss of consciousness. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia was documented. Under the presumptive diagnosis of insulinoma, localization procedures were done but no definite tumor was found. Only suspicious gradient in insulin concentration was found around the head of pancreas by percutaneous transhepatic portal venous sampling. Exploratory laparotomy was performed and Whipple's operation was done. Seventy percent of proximal pancreas was removed. Histomorphometric study of the resected specimen revealed uneven graded hyperplasia of the islet cells with the most profuse hyperplasia in the head region and progressive decrease in the degree of hyperplasia to the body and tail. The patient remains euglycemia until 6 months after operation since immediate postoperative period and can tolerate 24 hour fasting without any medication.
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Clinical Significance of Thyrotropin Measurement as a Screening Test in Ambulatory Patients.
Young Kee Shong, Hong Kyu Kim, Ghi Su Kim, Dae Hyuk Moon
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;10(3):191-199.   Published online November 6, 2019
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The objective of this study is to determine the clinical significance of thyrotropin(TSH) measurement as a screening test in ambulatory patients. One hundred and nintynine patients with abnormal TSH levels detected at routine examinations were studied. The patients were examined and histories about the recent medications and nonthyroidal illness were taken. Additional thyroid tests were done including measuments of total T_3, free T_4, antithyroid autoantibodies, thyroid scan and radioiodine uptake. Of the total 199 patients, 107(54.7%) had thyroid diseases. 49 out of 101 patients with subnormal TSH had thyroid diseases, and the remainder had supressed TSH due to medications, associated nonthyroidal illness, and normal variations. 58 out of 99 patients with elevated TSH had thyroid diseases. Of those 47 patients whose TSH level was below 0.05 mIU/L, functional sensitivity of TSH assay in our laboratory, 37 had thyroid diseases. Of those 19 patients whose TSH level was above 7.0mIU/L, two times of upper normal limit, all had thyroid iseases.Simultaneous measurement of free T_4 disclosed 50(25.1%) out of total 199 patients with abnormal TSH levels had abnormal free T_4 values which is regarded as evidence of clinical thyroid dysfunction. In summary, a single measurement of TSH level alone seems to have high sensitivity but low specificity. Simultaneous measurement of free T_4 can reasonably compensate the low specificity of TSH measurement. In case of ambulatory patients without significant nonthyroidal illness, TSH values below functional sensitivity or above twice upper normal limit may predict thyroid disease and dysfunction with reasonable specificity.
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Nesidioblastosis in Adult with Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia.
Young Kee Shong, Hong Kyu Kim, Young Joo Min, Joong Yeol Park, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee, Duck Jong Han, Ho Jeong Lee, Gyung Yub Gong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;10(2):168-169.   Published online November 6, 2019
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism