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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism


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Ho Jun Chin 1 Article
Clinical Study
Glycemic Efficacy and Metabolic Consequences of an Empagliflozin Add-on versus Conventional Dose-Increasing Strategy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled by Metformin and Sulfonylurea
Yujin Shin, Ji Hye Moon, Ho Jun Chin, Ele Ferrannini, Soo Lim
Endocrinol Metab. 2020;35(2):329-338.   Published online June 24, 2020
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  • 11 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
We assessed the glucose-lowering efficacy of adding empagliflozin versus dose escalating existing medications in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2D).
This was a 6-month retrospective case-control study in subjects with uncontrolled T2D (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] >7%) on conventional treatment. The study group started add-on therapy with empagliflozin (10 mg once a day) while the control group was up-titrated with existing medication, using either monotherapy or a combination of metformin, sulfonylurea, and a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor. The primary endpoints included changes in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hour postprandial glucose (PP2) levels. Secondary outcomes included changes in body composition, body mass index (BMI), and serum ketone bodies, and urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, and glucose.
After treatment, the reduction in HbA1c was significantly greater in the empagliflozin group than in controls (from 8.6%±1.6% to 7.6%±1.5% vs. 8.5%±1.1% to 8.1%±1.1%; P<0.01). Similar patterns were found in FPG and PP2 levels. Empagliflozin decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, and abdominal visceral fat area decreased significantly while lean body mass was maintained. Total ketones, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate levels increased significantly after empagliflozin.
In addition to glucose lowering, an empagliflozin add-on regimen decreased blood pressure and body fat, and improved metabolic profiles significantly. Empagliflozin add-on is superior to dose escalation in patients with T2D who have inadequate glycemic control on standard medications.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Hun Jee Choe, Won Chang, Matthias Blüher, Steven B. Heymsfield, Soo Lim
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Long-term comparison of renal and metabolic outcomes after sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor or glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy in type 2 diabetes
    Minji Sohn, Seoungyeon Nam, Michael A. Nauck, Soo Lim
    BMC Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, Empagliflozin, is associated with significant reduction in weight, body mass index, fasting glucose, and A1c levels in Type 2 diabetic patients with established coronary heart disease: the SUPER GATE study
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    Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -).2022; 191(4): 1647.     CrossRef
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    Metabolism Open.2022; 13: 100161.     CrossRef
  • Initial combination of metformin, sitagliptin, and empagliflozin in drug‐naïve patients with type 2 diabetes: Safety and metabolic effects
    Soo Lim, Minji Sohn, Yujin Shin, Ele Ferrannini
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(4): 757.     CrossRef
  • Correlation of dynamic membrane fluctuations in red blood cells with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risks
    Minji Sohn, Ji Eun Lee, MinGeun Ahn, YongKeun Park, Soo Lim
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison betweeen dapagliflozin add-on therapy and insulin dose escalation in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes treated with insulin: DVI study
    Yujin Shin, Haeri Choi, Soo Lim
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 175: 108843.     CrossRef
  • Impact of COVID-19 and Associated Preventive Measures on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in South Korea
    Minji Sohn, Bo Kyung Koo, Ho Il Yoon, Kyoung-Ho Song, Eu Suk Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Soo Lim
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2021; 30(3): 248.     CrossRef
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