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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism


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Eun Young Kim  (Kim EY) 3 Articles
Obesity and Metabolism
Recurrent Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome Caused by α-Lipoic Acid in Type 2 Diabetes
Sang Mook Bae, Myoung Nam Bae, Eun Young Kim, Il Kyu Kim, Min Woo Seo, Jin Kyeong Shin, Sung Rae Cho, Gui Hwa Jeong
Endocrinol Metab. 2013;28(4):326-330.   Published online December 12, 2013
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  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) is characterized by spontaneous hypoglycemia caused by insulin autoantibodies in the absence of exogenous insulin administration. Some drugs containing sulfhydryl compounds are known to initiate the onset of IAS. A 67-year-old female who had diabetes for 5 years visited the outpatient clinic at our institution due to diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy. She was prescribed α-lipoic acid (ALA), which contains two sulfur atoms. Two weeks later, she complained of recurrent hypoglycemic symptoms. We detected a high level of insulin and high titers of insulin autoantibodies. Her human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype included the DRB1*0406 allele, which indicates a high level of susceptibility to IAS. She was treated with prednisolone. After this episode, she experienced two more hypoglycemic events after taking ALA for diabetic neuropathy in other hospitals. As ALA can be used to treat diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy, physician discretion is advised based on the possibility of IAS due to ALA in diabetic patients.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Long-term follow-up after discharge witnesses a slow decline of insulin autoantibodies in patients with insulin autoimmune syndrome complicated with Grave’s disease: a report of two cases
    Lili Zhao, Jinzhi He, Shandong Ye, Chao Chen, Jie Zhu, Chunchun Xiao, Tingni Wu, Zhicheng Liu
    BMC Endocrine Disorders.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia
    A. A. Akmedova, F. O. Ushanova
    FOCUS. Endocrinology.2023; 4(3): 74.     CrossRef
  • Effects of alpha lipoic acid on metabolic syndrome: A comprehensive review
    Nahid Najafi, Soghra Mehri, Mahboobeh Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
    Phytotherapy Research.2022; 36(6): 2300.     CrossRef
  • Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Glucose Metabolism: A Comprehensive Update on Biochemical and Therapeutic Features
    Umberto Capece, Simona Moffa, Ilaria Improta, Gianfranco Di Giuseppe, Enrico Celestino Nista, Chiara M. A. Cefalo, Francesca Cinti, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Antonio Gasbarrini, Andrea Giaccari, Teresa Mezza
    Nutrients.2022; 15(1): 18.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of the clinical characteristics of insulin autoimmune syndrome induced by alpha‐lipoic acid
    Zuojun Li, Yanhong Su, Dan Yi, Cuifang Wu, Weijin Fang, Chunjiang Wang
    Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.2021; 46(5): 1295.     CrossRef
  • Scientific opinion on the relationship between intake of alpha‐lipoic acid (thioctic acid) and the risk of insulin autoimmune syndrome
    Dominique Turck, Jacqueline Castenmiller, Stefaan de Henauw, Karen Ildico Hirsch‐Ernst, John Kearney, Helle Katrine Knutsen, Inge Mangelsdorf, Harry J McArdle, Androniki Naska, Carmen Pelaez, Kristina Pentieva, Alfonso Siani, Frank Thies, Sophia Tsabouri,
    EFSA Journal.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Management of Insulin Autoimmune Hypoglycaemia: Single‐centre experience from Western India with systematic review of world literature
    Muniraj Patel, Ravikumar Shah, Swati Ramteke‐Jadhav, Virendra Patil, Shivendra Kumar Patel, Anurag Lila, Nalini Shah, Tushar Bandgar
    Clinical Endocrinology.2020; 92(5): 409.     CrossRef
  • Glucose Changes in a Patient With Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome Demonstrated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring
    Shi-Dou Lin, Shang-Ren Hsu
    AACE Clinical Case Reports.2019; 5(1): e35.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome in a 25-Year-Old, Previously Healthy Kuwaiti Man
    Einas Alrashidi, Thamer Alessa
    Case Reports in Endocrinology.2019; 2019: 1.     CrossRef
  • Insulin autoimmune syndrome in an Argentine woman taking α-lipoic acid: A case report and review of the literature
    Valentina Izzo, Carla Greco, Diana Corradini, Marco Infante, Maria Teresa Staltari, Maria Romano, Alfonso Bellia, Davide Lauro, Luigi Uccioli
    SAGE Open Medical Case Reports.2018; 6: 2050313X1881960.     CrossRef
  • Assessment and Management of Anti-Insulin Autoantibodies in Varying Presentations of Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome
    David Church, Luís Cardoso, Richard G Kay, Claire L Williams, Bernard Freudenthal, Catriona Clarke, Julie Harris, Myuri Moorthy, Efthmia Karra, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann, Keith Burling, Alistair J K Williams, Alia Munir, T Hugh Jones, Dagmar Führer,
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2018; 103(10): 3845.     CrossRef
  • Current Status of Health Foods Including Their Interactions with Drugs and Adverse Events
    Yoshiro Saito
    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI.2018; 138(12): 1511.     CrossRef
  • Autoimmune hypoglycaemia caused by alpha-lipoic acid: a rare condition in Caucasian patients
    A Veltroni, G Zambon, S Cingarlini, M V Davì
    Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • GLP‑1R agonists ameliorate peripheral nerve dysfunction and inflammation via p38 MAPK/NF‑κB signaling pathways in streptozotocin‑induced diabetic rats
    Jingjing Ma, Min Shi, Xiangcheng Zhang, Xiaoning Liu, Juan Chen, Ridong Zhang, Xingzhou Wang, Hong Zhang
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Insulin autoimmune syndrome associated with alpha-lipoic acid in a young woman with no concomitant disease
    Sang Bae Lee, Min Young Lee, Ji Hong You, Seong Han Kim, Ji Sun Nam
    Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine.2017; 34(1): 115.     CrossRef
  • The insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) as a cause of hypoglycaemia: an update on the pathophysiology, biochemical investigations and diagnosis
    Adel A.A. Ismail
    Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM).2016; 54(11): 1715.     CrossRef
  • Brief Review of Articles in 'Endocrinology and Metabolism' in 2013
    Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2014; 29(3): 251.     CrossRef
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The Expression of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
Seunghwan Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Hye Sook Min, Kang Min Kim, Gye Jeong Yeom, Eun Young Kim, Kyu Eun Lee, Yeo Gyu Yun, Do Joon Park, Young Joo Park
Endocrinol Metab. 2013;28(3):192-198.   Published online September 13, 2013
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  • 47 Download
  • 41 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a tumorigenic role related to advanced staging and poor prognosis in many human cancers including thyroid cancers. Yet, a functional role of TAMs in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been established. The aim of this study was to investigate TAM expression in human PTC with lymph node (LN) metastasis.


Thirty-six patients who underwent surgery after being diagnosed with PTC with LN metastasis were included. Primary tumor tissues were immunohistochemically stained with an anti-CD68 antibody and clinical characteristics according to TAM density were evaluated.


The TAM densities (CD68+ cells) varied from 5% to 70%, in all tumor areas, while few cells were stained in adjacent normal tissues. TAMs were identified as CD68+ cells with thin, elongated cytoplasmic extensions that formed a canopy structure over tumor cells. Comparing clinicopathologic characteristics between tumors with low (<25%) and high (25% to 70%) TAM densities, primary tumors were larger in the high density group than in the low density group (2.0±0.1 vs. 1.5±0.1; P=0.009).


TAMs were identified in primary PTC tumors with LN metastasis and higher TAM densities were related to larger tumor sizes, suggesting a tumorigenic role of TAMs in human PTCs.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Single-cell RNA-seq reveals MIF−(CD74 + CXCR4) dependent inhibition of macrophages in metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma
    Wei Chen, Xinnian Yu, Huixin Li, Shenglong Yuan, Yuqi Fu, Huanhuan Hu, Fangzhou Liu, Yuan Zhang, Shanliang Zhong
    Oral Oncology.2024; 148: 106654.     CrossRef
  • Emerging therapeutic options for follicular-derived thyroid cancer in the era of immunotherapy
    Naimah Turner, Sarah Hamidi, Rim Ouni, Rene Rico, Ying C. Henderson, Maria Puche, Sayan Alekseev, Jocelynn G. Colunga-Minutti, Mark E. Zafereo, Stephen Y. Lai, Sang T. Kim, Maria E. Cabanillas, Roza Nurieva
    Frontiers in Immunology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • H2AFX might be a prognostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma
    Hailiang Hu, Tao Zhong, Suwei Jiang
    Cancer Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Tumor Microenvironment and the Estrogen Loop in Thyroid Cancer
    Nerina Denaro, Rebecca Romanò, Salvatore Alfieri, Alessia Dolci, Lisa Licitra, Imperia Nuzzolese, Michele Ghidini, Claudia Bareggi, Valentina Bertaglia, Cinzia Solinas, Ornella Garrone
    Cancers.2023; 15(9): 2458.     CrossRef
  • New Insights into Immune Cells and Immunotherapy for Thyroid Cancer
    Yujia Tao, Peng Li, Chao Feng, Yuan Cao
    Immunological Investigations.2023; 52(8): 1039.     CrossRef
  • Roles and new Insights of Macrophages in the Tumor Microenvironment of Thyroid Cancer
    Qi Liu, Wei Sun, Hao Zhang
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Construction of a Tumor Immune Microenvironment-Related Prognostic Model in BRAF-Mutated Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    Yuxiao Xia, Xue Jiang, Yuan Huang, Qian Liu, Yin Huang, Bo Zhang, Zhanjun Mei, Dongkun Xu, Yuhong Shi, Wenling Tu
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Identification and Validation of Prognostic Related Hallmark ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters Associated With Immune Cell Infiltration Patterns in Thyroid Carcinoma
    Lidong Wang, Xiaodan Sun, Jingni He, Zhen Liu
    Frontiers in Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Unraveling the Effects of Carotenoids Accumulation in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
    Alessandra di Masi, Rosario Luigi Sessa, Ylenia Cerrato, Gianni Pastore, Barbara Guantario, Roberto Ambra, Michael Di Gioacchino, Armida Sodo, Martina Verri, Pierfilippo Crucitti, Filippo Longo, Anda Mihaela Naciu, Andrea Palermo, Chiara Taffon, Filippo A
    Antioxidants.2022; 11(8): 1463.     CrossRef
  • What is the status of immunotherapy in thyroid neoplasms?
    Alejandro Garcia-Alvarez, Jorge Hernando, Ana Carmona-Alonso, Jaume Capdevila
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression by Immunohistochemistry in Intratumor Macrophages as Tumor-Associated Macrophage Marker of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
    Ni Wayan Armerinayanti, Samuel Widodo, Desak Putu Oki Lestari
    Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal.2022; 15(3): 1671.     CrossRef
  • Cell Component and Function of Tumor Microenvironment in Thyroid Cancer
    Eunah Shin, Ja Seung Koo
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(20): 12578.     CrossRef
  • Potential diagnostic of lymph node metastasis and prognostic values of TM4SFs in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients
    Kun Wang, Haomin Li, Junyu Zhao, Jinming Yao, Yiran Lu, Jianjun Dong, Jie Bai, Lin Liao
    Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Thyroid Cancer Stem-Like Cells: From Microenvironmental Niches to Therapeutic Strategies
    Elisa Stellaria Grassi, Viola Ghiandai, Luca Persani
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(7): 1455.     CrossRef
  • Immune Landscape of Thyroid Cancers: New Insights
    Elisa Menicali, Martina Guzzetti, Silvia Morelli, Sonia Moretti, Efisio Puxeddu
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • FOXE1-Dependent Regulation of Macrophage Chemotaxis by Thyroid Cells In Vitro and In Vivo
    Sara Credendino, Marta De Menna, Irene Cantone, Carmen Moccia, Matteo Esposito, Luigi Di Guida, Mario De Felice, Gabriella De Vita
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2021; 22(14): 7666.     CrossRef
  • Senescent Thyrocytes, Similarly to Thyroid Tumor Cells, Elicit M2-like Macrophage Polarization In Vivo
    Mara Mazzoni, Giuseppe Mauro, Lucia Minoli, Loredana Cleris, Maria Chiara Anania, Tiziana Di Marco, Emanuela Minna, Sonia Pagliardini, Maria Grazia Rizzetti, Giacomo Manenti, Maria Grazia Borrello, Eugenio Scanziani, Angela Greco
    Biology.2021; 10(10): 985.     CrossRef
  • Characterization of the Immune Cell Infiltration Landscape of Thyroid Cancer for Improved Immunotherapy
    Jing Gong, Bo Jin, Liang Shang, Ning Liu
    Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Thyroid Tumor Microenvironment: Potential Targets for Therapeutic Intervention and Prognostication
    Laura MacDonald, Jonathan Jenkins, Grace Purvis, Joshua Lee, Aime T. Franco
    Hormones and Cancer.2020; 11(5-6): 205.     CrossRef
  • Cancer Stem Cells in Thyroid Tumors: From the Origin to Metastasis
    Veronica Veschi, Francesco Verona, Melania Lo Iacono, Caterina D'Accardo, Gaetana Porcelli, Alice Turdo, Miriam Gaggianesi, Stefano Forte, Dario Giuffrida, Lorenzo Memeo, Matilde Todaro
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Immune Landscape of Thyroid Cancer in the Context of Immune Checkpoint Inhibition
    Gilda Varricchi, Stefania Loffredo, Giancarlo Marone, Luca Modestino, Poupak Fallahi, Silvia Martina Ferrari, Amato de Paulis, Alessandro Antonelli, Maria Rosaria Galdiero
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2019; 20(16): 3934.     CrossRef
  • Impact of tumor‐associated macrophages and BRAFV600E mutation on clinical outcomes in patients with various thyroid cancers
    Jae Won Cho, Won Woong Kim, Yu‐mi Lee, Min Ji Jeon, Won Gu Kim, Dong Eun Song, Yangsoon Park, Ki‐Wook Chung, Suck Joon Hong, Tae‐Yon Sung
    Head & Neck.2019; 41(3): 686.     CrossRef
  • Senescent thyrocytes and thyroid tumor cells induce M2-like macrophage polarization of human monocytes via a PGE2-dependent mechanism
    Mara Mazzoni, Giuseppe Mauro, Marco Erreni, Paola Romeo, Emanuela Minna, Maria Grazia Vizioli, Cristina Belgiovine, Maria Grazia Rizzetti, Sonia Pagliardini, Roberta Avigni, Maria Chiara Anania, Paola Allavena, Maria Grazia Borrello, Angela Greco
    Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Immune and Inflammatory Cells in Thyroid Cancer Microenvironment
    Silvia Martina Ferrari, Poupak Fallahi, Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Ilaria Ruffilli, Giusy Elia, Francesca Ragusa, Sabrina Rosaria Paparo, Armando Patrizio, Valeria Mazzi, Gilda Varricchi, Gianni Marone, Alessandro Antonelli
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2019; 20(18): 4413.     CrossRef
  • Aberrant Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Signaling Increases VEGF-A and CXCL8 Secretion of Thyroid Cancer Cells, Contributing to Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth
    Young Shin Song, Min Joo Kim, Hyun Jin Sun, Hwan Hee Kim, Hyo Shik Shin, Young A. Kim, Byung-Chul Oh, Sun Wook Cho, Young Joo Park
    Clinical Cancer Research.2019; 25(1): 414.     CrossRef
  • Novel targeted therapies and immunotherapy for advanced thyroid cancers
    George E. Naoum, Michael Morkos, Brian Kim, Waleed Arafat
    Molecular Cancer.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Potential involvement of neutrophils in human thyroid cancer
    Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gilda Varricchi, Stefania Loffredo, Claudio Bellevicine, Tiziana Lansione, Anne Lise Ferrara, Raffaella Iannone, Sarah di Somma, Francesco Borriello, Eduardo Clery, Maria Triassi, Giancarlo Troncone, Gianni Marone, Fabrizio Mattei
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(6): e0199740.     CrossRef
  • Bleomycin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in TPC‑1 cells through reversing M2‑macrophages polarization
    Hongwei Liu, Huilei Dong, Li Jiang, Zhendong Li, Xiande Ma
    Oncology Letters.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Pathological processes and therapeutic advances in radioiodide refractory thyroid cancer
    Marika H Tesselaar, Johannes W Smit, James Nagarajah, Romana T Netea-Maier, Theo S Plantinga
    Journal of Molecular Endocrinology.2017; 59(4): R141.     CrossRef
  • The immune network in thyroid cancer
    Maria Rosaria Galdiero, Gilda Varricchi, Gianni Marone
    OncoImmunology.2016; 5(6): e1168556.     CrossRef
  • Macrophage Densities Correlated with CXC Chemokine Receptor 4 Expression and Related with Poor Survival in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer
    Dae In Kim, Eunyoung Kim, Young A Kim, Sun Wook Cho, Jung Ah Lim, Young Joo Park
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2016; 31(3): 469.     CrossRef
  • CXCL16 signaling mediated macrophage effects on tumor invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma
    Sun Wook Cho, Young A Kim, Hyun Jin Sun, Ye An Kim, Byung-Chul Oh, Ka Hee Yi, Do Joon Park, Young Joo Park
    Endocrine-Related Cancer.2016; 23(2): 113.     CrossRef
  • Role of pulmonary macrophages in initiation of lung metastasis in anaplastic thyroid cancer
    Xiu Juan Li, Prakash Gangadaran, Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Ji Min Oh, Liya Zhu, Shin Young Jeong, Sang‐Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong‐Cheol Ahn
    International Journal of Cancer.2016; 139(11): 2583.     CrossRef
  • The Expression and Relationship of CD68-Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Microvascular Density With the Prognosis of Patients With Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    Shujun Sun, Xinliang Pan, Limin Zhao, Jianming Zhou, Hongzeng Wang, Yonghong Sun
    Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology.2016; 9(3): 270.     CrossRef
  • Cancers with Higher Density of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Were Associated with Poor Survival Rates
    Kyong Yeun Jung, Sun Wook Cho, Young A Kim, Daein Kim, Byung-Chul Oh, Do Joon Park, Young Joo Park
    Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine.2015; 49(4): 318.     CrossRef
  • Association of the Preoperative Neutrophil-to-ymphocyte Count Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Count Ratio with Clinicopathological Characteristics in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer
    Sang Mi Kim, Eun Heui Kim, Bo Hyun Kim, Jong Ho Kim, Su Bin Park, Yoon Jeong Nam, Kang Hee Ahn, Min Young Oh, Won Jin Kim, Yun Kyung Jeon, Sang Soo Kim, Yong Ki Kim, In Ju Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2015; 30(4): 494.     CrossRef
  • Quantitative Changes in Tumor-Associated M2 Macrophages Characterize Cholangiocarcinoma and their Association with Metastasis
    Malinee Thanee, Watcharin Loilome, Anchalee Techasen, Nisana Namwat, Thidarut Boonmars, Chawalit Pairojkul, Puangrat Yongvanit
    Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention.2015; 16(7): 3043.     CrossRef
  • Tumor-Associated Macrophage (TAM) and Angiogenesis in Human Colon Carcinoma
    Manal A. Badawi, Dalia M. Abouelfadl, Sonia L. El-Sharkawy, Wafaa E. Abd El-Aal, Naglaa F. Abbas
    Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences.2015; 3(2): 209.     CrossRef
  • Brief Review of Articles in 'Endocrinology and Metabolism' in 2013
    Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2014; 29(3): 251.     CrossRef
  • miRNA Expression in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinomas
    Aline Hébrant, Sébastien Floor, Manuel Saiselet, Aline Antoniou, Alice Desbuleux, Bérengère Snyers, Caroline La, Nicolas de Saint Aubain, Emmanuelle Leteurtre, Guy Andry, Carine Maenhaut, Raul M. Luque
    PLoS ONE.2014; 9(8): e103871.     CrossRef
  • The Expression of Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
    Bo Hyun Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2013; 28(3): 178.     CrossRef
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A Case of Isolated Familial Somatotropinoma.
Hwi Ra Park, Eun A Kim, Mei Hua Jiang, Chang Soo Jang, Kyoung Wook Lee, Seong Bin Hong, Eun Young Kim, Myung Kwan Lim, Moon Suk Nam, Yong Seong Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2004;19(4):398-405.   Published online August 1, 2004
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  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The familial occurrence of a pituitary adenoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 or Carney complex is a well-recognized entity. However, an isolated familial somatotropinoma is a rare inherited disease, which is characterized by clustering of a somatotrophic adenoma and acromegaly or gigantism in a family, but without other manifestations of MEN type 1, with only 68 cases, in 28 families, described in the literature. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant, with incomplete penetration, but the genetic background of these pituitary adenomas remains unknown. A family exists where both the father and son were affected. Endocrinological investigations confirmed hypersecretion of GH and IGF-1, and the pituitary adenomas were identified by magnetic resonance image in both cases. There was no symptom of MEN type 1 or other form of endocrine dysfunction. Herein is reported a case of an isolated familial somatotropinoma in Korea, with a review of the literature
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