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Chul Hee Kim  (Kim CH) 21 Articles
Thyroid
Risk of Malignancy in Thyroid Incidentalomas Identified by Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography
A Reum Chun, Hye Min Jo, Seoung Ho Lee, Hong Woo Chun, Jung Mi Park, Kyu Jin Kim, Chan Hee Jung, Ji Oh Mok, Sung Koo Kang, Chul Hee Kim, Bo Yeon Kim
Endocrinol Metab. 2015;30(1):71-77.   Published online March 27, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2015.30.1.71
  • 4,190 View
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  • 28 Web of Science
  • 26 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Thyroid incidentalomas detected by 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) have been reported in 1% to 4% of the population, with a risk of malignancy of 27.8% to 74%. We performed a retrospective review of FDG-avid thyroid incidentalomas in cancer screening subjects and patients with nonthyroid cancer. The risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentaloma and its association with the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in 18F-FDG PET/CT were evaluated to define the predictor variables in assessing risk of malignancy.

Methods

A total of 2,584 subjects underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT for metastatic evaluation or cancer screening from January 2005 to January 2010. Among them, 36 subjects with FDG-avid thyroid incidentalomas underwent further diagnostic evaluation (thyroid ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration cytology [FNAC] or surgical resection). We retrospectively reviewed the database of these subjects.

Results

Of the 2,584 subjects who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT (319 for cancer screening and 2,265 for metastatic evaluation), 52 (2.0%) were identified as having FDG-avid thyroid incidentaloma and cytologic diagnosis was obtained by FNAC in 36 subjects. Of the subjects, 15 were proven to have malignant disease: 13 by FNAC and two by surgical resection. The positive predictive value of malignancy in FDG-avid thyroid incidentaloma was 41.7%. Median SUVmax was higher in malignancy than in benign lesions (4.7 [interquartile range (IQR), 3.4 to 6.0] vs. 2.8 [IQR, 2.6 to 4.0], P=0.001).

Conclusion

Thyroid incidentalomas found on 18F-FDG PET/CT have a high risk of malignancy, with a positive predictive value of 41.7%. FDG-avid thyroid incidentalomas with higher SUVmax tended to be malignant.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Incidental 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake in thyroid nodules: Is guideline-directed management still appropriate?
    Kyla Wright, Jason C. Fisher, Gary D. Rothberger, Jason D. Prescott, John D. Allendorf, Kepal Patel, Insoo Suh
    Surgery.2024; 175(1): 228.     CrossRef
  • Prediction of Malignant Thyroid Nodules Using 18F-FDG PET/CT–Based Radiomics Features in Thyroid Incidentalomas
    Woo Seog Ko, Seong-Jang Kim
    Clinical Nuclear Medicine.2023; 48(6): 497.     CrossRef
  • KSNM60 in Nuclear Endocrinology: from the Beginning to the Future
    Chae Moon Hong, Young Jin Jeong, Hae Won Kim, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
    Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.2022; 56(1): 17.     CrossRef
  • The value of 99mTc-MIBI scan in the detection of malignancy potential of hypermetabolic thyroid incidentalomas of 18F-FDG PET/CT
    G. Tatar, G. Alçın, Ö. Erol Fenercioglu, E. Beyhan, H.Y. Barut, N. Ergül, T.F. Çermik
    Médecine Nucléaire.2022; 46(3): 139.     CrossRef
  • Diagnosis of thyroid nodules
    Erik K Alexander, Edmund S Cibas
    The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.2022; 10(7): 533.     CrossRef
  • PET/CT Variants and Pitfalls in Head and Neck Cancers Including Thyroid Cancer
    Jasna Mihailovic, Ronan P. Killeen, John A. Duignan
    Seminars in Nuclear Medicine.2021; 51(5): 419.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of malignant thyroid lesions on [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-Positron emission tomography (PET)/Computed tomography (CT)
    Hatem Nasr, Hussein Farghaly, Abdullah Alqarni, Seham Al-Salem, Mohamed Sayed
    European Journal of Radiology Open.2021; 8: 100373.     CrossRef
  • Focal Thyroid Incidentalomas on 18F-FDG PET/CT: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Prevalence, Risk of Malignancy and Inconclusive Fine Needle Aspiration
    J. F. de Leijer, M. J. H. Metman, A. van der Hoorn, A. H. Brouwers, S. Kruijff, B. M. van Hemel, T. P. Links, H. E. Westerlaan
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Thyroid incidentaloma: next to be neglected or investigated?
    S.I. Rybakov
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine).2021; 17(4): 361.     CrossRef
  • Metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the thyroid gland
    Mark M. Cruz, Gregory S. Schmidt, Jeptha T. Johnson, Thanh D. Hoang, Mohamed K. M. Shakir
    Clinical Case Reports.2020; 8(11): 2302.     CrossRef
  • Clinical significance of thyroid incidentalomas detected on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan (PETomas): An Indian experience
    AVSAnil Kumar, Gaurav Datta, Harkirat Singh, ParthaBrata Mukherjee, Shashindran Vangal
    World Journal of Nuclear Medicine.2019; 18(3): 273.     CrossRef
  • Risk of Malignancy in FDG‐Avid Thyroid Incidentalomas on PET/CT: A Prospective Study
    Chadi Nimeh Abdel‐Halim, Tine Rosenberg, Kristine Bjørndal, Anders Rørbæk Madsen, John Jakobsen, Helle Døssing, Mette Bay, Anders Thomassen, Anne Lerberg Nielsen, Christian Godballe
    World Journal of Surgery.2019; 43(10): 2454.     CrossRef
  • Is TI-RADS classification and Score Modified Method of thyroid nodules can be effective for evaluation of Thyroid Incidentalomas on FDG PET-CT imaging
    Kara Pelin Ozcan, Koc Zehra Pinar, Balci Yüksel, Arpaci Rabia Bozdogan
    Open Journal of Thyroid Research.2019; 2(1): 005.     CrossRef
  • Hounsfield unit value has null effect on thyroid nodules at 18F-FDG PET/CT scans
    Filiz Eksi Haydardedeoglu, Gulay Simsek Bagir, Nese Torun, Emrah Kocer, Mehmet Reyhan, Melek Eda Ertorer
    Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism.2018; 62(4): 460.     CrossRef
  • Utility of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in patients suspected of paraneoplastic neurological syndrome: importance of risk classification
    F. J. Pena Pardo, A. M. García Vicente, M. Amo-Salas, J. F. López-Fidalgo, J. A. Garrido Robles, J. Á. de Ayala Fernández, P. del Saz Saucedo, M. Muñoz Pasadas, A. Soriano Castrejón
    Clinical and Translational Oncology.2017; 19(1): 111.     CrossRef
  • Unusual Soft Tissue Uptake of F-18 Sodium Fluoride in Three Patients Undergoing F-18 NaF PET/CT Bone Scans for Prostate Cancer
    Andrew S. Hawkins, Brandon A. Howard
    Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.2017; 51(3): 274.     CrossRef
  • Molecular imaging of advanced thyroid cancer: iodinated radiotracers and beyond
    Prasanna Santhanam, Lilja B. Solnes, Steven P. Rowe
    Medical Oncology.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The assessment of incidental thyroid lesions on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomogrophy: A single centre experience
    Efnan Algin, Aytug Uner, Umit Ozgur Akdemir, Ozge Gumusay, Ozlem Kapucu, Ahmet Ozet
    Journal of Oncological Sciences.2017; 3(2): 57.     CrossRef
  • Cytological evaluation by fine needle aspiration biopsy of incidental focal increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in thyroid on positron emission tomography scan
    Yanchun Li, Min Cui, Nami Azar, Dean Nakamoto, Claire W. Michael
    Diagnostic Cytopathology.2017; 45(6): 501.     CrossRef
  • [18F]FDG-PET/CT texture analysis in thyroid incidentalomas: preliminary results
    M. Sollini, L. Cozzi, G. Pepe, L. Antunovic, A. Lania, L. Di Tommaso, P. Magnoni, P. A. Erba, M. Kirienko
    European Journal of Hybrid Imaging.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Management of PET diagnosed thyroid incidentalomas in British Columbia Canada: Critical importance of the PET report
    Jordan Wong, Kaidi Liu, Celia Siu, Steven Jones, Marlise Sovka, Don Wilson, Sam M. Wiseman
    The American Journal of Surgery.2017; 213(5): 950.     CrossRef
  • Incidental hypermetabolic PET positive lesions in thyroid and pituitary glands in a patient with lung cancer: A case of two uncommon findings in a single patient
    Pratima Nayak, Kyaw Soe, Mona Natwa, Taha Sachak, Ming Jin, Norman L. Lehman, Fadi Nabhan
    Journal of Clinical and Translational Endocrinology: Case Reports.2016; 2: 10.     CrossRef
  • The incidence of 18F-FDG PET/CT thyroid incidentalomas andthe prevalence of malignancy: a prospective study
    Mine ŞENCAN EREN, Özhan ÖZDOĞAN, Arzu GEDİK, Mehmet CEYLAN, Merih GÜRAY DURAK, Mustafa SEÇİL, Mehmet Ali KOÇDOR, Abdurrahman ÇÖMLEKÇİ, Hatice DURAK
    TURKISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES.2016; 46: 840.     CrossRef
  • Should the Prevalence of Incidental Thyroid Cancer Determine the Extent of Surgery in Multinodular Goiter?
    Krzysztof Kaliszewski, Marta Strutyńska-Karpińska, Agnieszka Zubkiewicz-Kucharska, Beata Wojtczak, Paweł Domosławski, Waldemar Balcerzak, Tadeusz Łukieńczuk, Zdzisław Forkasiewicz, Pei-Yi Chu
    PLOS ONE.2016; 11(12): e0168654.     CrossRef
  • The incidence of thyroid cancer in focal hypermetabolic thyroid lesions
    Martin Barrio, Johannes Czernin, Michael W. Yeh, Miguel F. Palma Diaz, Pawan Gupta, Martin Allen-Auerbach, Christiaan Schiepers, Ken Herrmann
    Nuclear Medicine Communications.2016; 37(12): 1290.     CrossRef
  • Incidental Detection of Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma in 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT Imaging
    Sait Sager, Betül Vatankulu, Lebriz Uslu, Kerim Sönmezoglu
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology.2016; 44(3): 199.     CrossRef
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A Case of Improved Diabetes Mellitus After Removal of Nonfunctioning Adrenal Incidentaloma Diagnosed as Pheochromocytoma.
Se Kyung Park, Duk Su Kim, Mi Oh Roh, Min Soo Song, Chan Hee Jung, Jung Hwa Jung, Hyeong Kyu Park, Yeo Ju Kim, Ji Oh Mok, Sang Jin Kim, Chul Hee Kim, Dong Won Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2009;24(3):189-194.   Published online September 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2009.24.3.189
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pheochromocytoma not only decreases insulin secretion but also increases insulin resistance. One third of patients with pheochromocytoma have diabetes mellitus and their clinical prognosis showed improvement after surgery. Until now, those patients whose prognosis for diabetes mellitus improved after the operation of pheochromocytoma had typical characteristics such as hypertension, palpitation, headache and elevated hormones such as Vanillylmandelic acid, metanephrine, epinephrine and norepinephrine. We present the case of a 75-year-old woman with asymptomatic adrenal incidentaloma identified as pheochromocytoma which exhibited normal biochemical test results, and after removal of the abdominal mass, her severe hyperglycemia improved.
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Retraction: 2-Bromopropane as a New Etiology of Primary Ovarian Failure.
Chul Hee Kim, Ghi Su Kim, Jung Min Ko, Eun Sug Sin, Hyo Jung Kim, Young Tak Kim, Kyoung Sik Cho, Ghil Suk Yoon
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2008;23(1):66.   Published online February 1, 2008
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A Case of Primary Hypothyroidism with Anti-Triiodothyronine Autoantibody.
Jae Ho Park, Ji Hoon Ahn, Mi Hee Kang, Jong Chul Won, Kyung Wook Lee, Yeo Joo Kim, Ji Oh Mok, Hyeong Kyu Park, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(5):428-432.   Published online October 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.5.428
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Antithyroid hormone autoantibodies can be present in the sera of patients with thyroid and non-thyroid disorders. Antithyroid hormone autoantibodies in a patient's serum interfere with radioimmunoassay of thyroid hormones. Clinically, this interference can result in discordance between the serum thyroid hormone levels and the clinical features of the patient, which can lead to misdiagnosis or inappropriate treatment. We experienced a woman who had primary hypothyroidism with unexpectedly high concentrations of serum total triiodothyronine (T(3)) and free T(3), and she had been treated for Graves' disease in the past. Through the use of a polyethylene glycol precipitation method, we detected the anti-triiodothyronine autoantibodies in her serum. We report on this case along with a review of the related literature.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Thyroxine (T4) Autoantibody Interference of Free T4 Concentration Measurement in a Patient With Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis
    Mi-Na Lee, Soo-Youn Lee, Kyu Yeon Hur, Hyung-Doo Park
    Annals of Laboratory Medicine.2017; 37(2): 169.     CrossRef
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A Case of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Combined with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in the Thyroid.
Kang Il Cheon, Kyung Wook Lee, Ji Oh Mok, Yeo Ju Kim, Hyung Kyu Park, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo, Hee Kyung Kim, Youn Woo Ko
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2006;21(1):85-89.   Published online February 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2006.21.1.85
  • 1,878 View
  • 21 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Metastasis to the thyroid from distant cancer is rarely diagnosed clinically and renal cell carcinoma is the most common group of neoplasm to metastasize to the thyroid. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is known as the most frequent primary thyroid cancer. But coexistence with metastatic renal cell carcinoma to thyroid and papillary thyroid carcinoma is very rare. We are reporting this highly unusual case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to thyroid, which harbored papillary thyroid cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in Korea. A 57-year-old woman presented with hoarseness and palpable anterior neck mass. She had a history of renal cell carcinoma of right kidney, which had been resected 10 years previously and had undergone lower anterior resection due to sigmoid colon cancer 2 months before. Fine needle aspiration cytology suggested follicular neoplasm, and total thyroidectomy was performed. The pathology from the thyroid nodules showed papillary thyroid cancer combined metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Case of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Thyroid Gland Mimicking as Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma
    Sooyeon Jo, Hyung Gyun Na, Chang Hoon Bae, Yoon Seok Choi
    Korean Journal of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.2021; 64(10): 755.     CrossRef
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A Case of Panhypopituitarism with Rhabdomyolysis.
Sung Wook Hong, Eun Jung Lee, Ji Young Park, Ji Sung Yoon, Ji O Mok, Yeo Joo Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Jae Woo Kim, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(2):174-178.   Published online April 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.2.174
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Rhabdomyolysis is the consequence of extensive muscle injury with the release of muscle cell constituents into plasma. It can arise from trauma and also from a variety of nontraumatic causes. Trauma, drugs, toxins and infection are the major causes of rhabdomyolysis, but it is rarely associated with metabolic disorders such as severe electrolyte disturbance, diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar nonketotic coma, hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis. There have been several reported cases of metabolic rhabdomyolysis, but panhypopituitarism as a cause has never been identified. We experienced a case of acute rhabdomyolysis associated with panhypopituitarism. Thus, So we report this case with the review of related literature. Metabolic disorder is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis, but it should always be considered in a patient having and unexplained increased of the creatine kinase concentration
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A Case of Kallmann's Syndrome with Unilateral Renal Aplasia and Diabetes Mellitus.
En Jung Lee, Sung Wook Hong, Yun Ki Hong, Ji Sung Yoon, Ji O Mok, Yeo Joo Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Dong Won Byun, Won Kyung Bae, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2005;20(1):96-102.   Published online February 1, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3803/jkes.2005.20.1.96
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  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Kallmann's syndrome is defined as the combination of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia/hyposmia. The syndrome is a result of defect in the embryonic migratory pathway of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which synthesizes neurons and olfactory axons. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism results due to absence of or incomplete pubertal development and may be associated with anosmia, hyposmia, midline defect(color blindness, cleft-lip, cleft-palate, unilateral renal agenesis, sensorineural deafness), cryptorchidism and skeletal anomaly. Till date in Korea, few cases of Kallmann's syndrome have been reported but there are no available reports on cases of Kallmann's syndrome with unilateral renal aplasia and diabetes mellitus. We handled a case of Kallmann's syndrome associated with unilateral renal agenesis and diabetes mellitus. In the current work, we present a peculiar case as afore mentioned with the review of related literature.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Case of Kallmann's Syndrome with Frontal Lobe Atrophy and Mental Retardation
    Soyoung Hyun, Seungguk Park, Dong Gu Kang, Seung Uk Jeong, Dea Ho Lee, Gwanpyo Koh
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2010; 25(2): 142.     CrossRef
  • A Case of Kallmann's Syndrome Mildly Presenting as Secondary Amenorrhea
    Na Rae Joo, Cheol Young Park, Hong Ju Moon, Jun Goo Kang, Sung Hee Ihm, Moon Gi Choi, Hyung Joon Yoo, Yul Lee, Ki Won Oh, Sung woo Park
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2007; 22(2): 130.     CrossRef
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A Case of Thyrotoxic Paraplegia.
Gun Wha Lee, Jin Woo Park, Ji Sung Yoon, Ji O Mok, Yeo Joo Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo, Du Shin Jeong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2004;19(4):419-425.   Published online August 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Hyperthyroidism may be associated or present with a variety of neuromuscular disorders, including thyrotoxic myopathy, exophthalmic ophthalmoplegia, periodic paralysis and myasthenia gravis. In contrast to muscle, peripheral nerve involvement in hyperthyroidism is exceedingly rare, and has received little attention. Paraplegia-like weakness during severe hyperthyroidism was first described by Charcot in 1889, and called Basedow's paraplegia' by Joffory in 1894. However, there has been no reported case in Korea. A 38-year-old woman was admitted for evaluation of progressive weakness and a gait disturbance. Her endocrinological results were compatible with hyperthyroidism. The polyneuropathy was also confirmed with sequential electrophysiological studies of the nerves and muscles. Drug therapy for hyperthyroidism resulted in resolution of the clinical neurological symptoms and progressive improvement of electrophysiological findings. Hyperthyroidisms are common medical disorders, which are often accompanied by diverse types of neurological and neuromuscular dysfunctions. All of these neurological manifestations are important, as they can serve as important clues to the diagnosis of a thyroid disorder. Furthermore, they are often related to the patient's presenting complaint. Therefore, the physician must be alert to the diverse manifestations of thyroid dysfunction, as they can lead to the diagnosis of potentially serious but treatable disorders. Herein is reported a case of myopathy and neuropathy associated with hyperthyroidism (Basedow's paraplegia), with a review of the literature
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Increased Activity of Insulin-like Growth Factor binding Protein-4 Protease in H-mole Patients.
Woo Seok Seo, Dong Won Byun, Ji Oh Mok, Ji Sung Yoon, Yeo Joo Kim, Hyung Kyu Park, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo, Hae Hyeog Lee, Soo Kyoon Rah
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2004;19(4):346-357.   Published online August 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Hydatidiform mole (H-mole) is characterized by the neoplastic proliferation of trophoblasts. Only 1~10% of patients with partial H-mole will develop a trophoblastic tumor, but 18~29% of those with complete H-mole will develop a persistent trophoblastic tumor. Therefore, the early diagnosis and monitoring after operation of an H-mole disease are very important. Recently, the pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) was proved to have a similar role as that of IGF binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) protease, which has shown an increasing function in fetal growth and development by degradation of IGFBP-4 and an increase in IGF in the serum during pregnancy. Our hypothesis is "the H-mole, which shows placental hyperplasia will also have an IGFBP-4 protease activity, which may be used as in the early diagnosis and monitoring of H-mole disease". METHODS: Serum samples from 6 non-pregnant, 18 pregnant (5 in the 1st trimester, 10 in the 2nd, and 3 in the 3rd), 12 postpartum women and 3 H-mole patients(2 with complete H-mole and 1with partial H-mole) were collected and measured for the -HCG, IGF and PAPP-A levels and IGFBP-4 protease activities by a IGF-II ligand blot analysis and electrophoresis method. The IGFBP-4 protease activity of the serum during normal pregnancy was compared with that of H-mole disease. RESULTS: The results from the in vitro protease assays using recombinant IGFBP-4 determined that IGFBP-4 proteolysis was significantly increased during the first (56%) and second trimesters (90%), but reached a plateau by the third trimester (94%). In H-mole disease diagnosed 11 weeks after conception, the IGFBP-4 proteolytic activity was 97%, which was nearly the same as at terminal pregnancy. This activity gradually decreased to 75% at 1 week, 58.7% at 2 and 33% at 3 weeks after the operation. The -HCG was also decreased from 490,400 to 123,822.7, 1,352.3, and 128.5 mIU/mL at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after the operation, respectively. The PAPP-A level also gradually decreased from 34.87 to 25.5, 12.0 and 2.7 g/mL 1, 2 and 3 weeks after the operation, respectively. However, the IGF decreased from 238.3 to 172.9 ng/mL 1 week after the operation, but increased to 251.4 and 295 ng/mL at 2 and 3 weeks after the operation, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrated that the IGFBP-4 protease activity was significantly increased during pregnancy, and was extremely elevated durimg the early stages of H-mole disease, but gradually decreased after removal of molar tissue. Therefore, measuring the IGFBP-4 protease activity may play an important role in the early diagnosis and monitoring of H-mole disease
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A Case of Severe Thyrotoxicosis Induced by Hydatidiform Mole.
Jae Hak Lee, Jong Kun Park, Soon Hyo Kwon, Ji Oh Mok, Ji Sung Yoon, Yeo Joo Kim, Hyung Kyu Park, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Hae Hyeog Lee, Gye Hyun Nam, Gye Hyun Kwan, Eun Suk Ko, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2003;18(4):420-425.   Published online August 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is one of the glycoproteins families synthesized by the placenta, and consists of 2 noncovalently joined subunits, namely, alpha and beta. The alpha and beta-subunits have a structural homology with the alpha and beta-subunits of TSH and LH. The thyrotropic action of HCG results from its structural similarity to TSH, so beta-HCG can bind to the TSH receptor in the thyroid gland. A high level of HCG, accompanied by an increased thyroid hormone level, can be observed in gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD), such as a hydatidiform mole or a choriocarcinoma. However, the clinical symptoms of hyperthyroidism in GTD are rarely observed. A 27-years-old woman, admitted due to an amenorrhea of 11 weeks duration, with thyrotoxic symptoms, such as weight loss, palpitation, sweating, tremor, heat intolerance and anxiety, was evaluated. Her serum free T4 level was 8 times higher than normal, and her serum beta-HCG level was over 1,000,000IU/L. She had a curettage operation, with the pathological findings of a complete hydatidiform mole. These thyrotoxic symptoms developed due to a hydatidiform mole, and were accompanied with a highly increased serum beta-HCG level. After evacuation of the molar tissue, the thyroid hormone and thyrotoxic symptoms normalized. Here, this case is reported, with brief review of the literature.
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The Efficacy of Thyroxine Suppression Therapy in Benign Thyroid Nodules.
Seog Ki Yun, Chul Hee Kim, Young Sun Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 2000;15(4-5):532-541.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Benign pathologic findings are shown in 800% of thyroid nodules by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or needle biopsy. About half of these benign nodules are follicular lesions which are presented only as thyroid follicles or thyroid cell clumps. Differential diagnosis of follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and adenomatous goiter is impossible by FNAC or needle biopsy. Thyroxine suppression therapy has been performed traditionally in order to discriminate malignant nodules, but few studies are available which confirmed the efficacy of thyroxine suppression therapy in thyroid nodules of those the initial pathologic findings were follicular lesions. So we tried to evaluate the efficacy of thyroxine suppression therapy in benign thyroid nodules and also the incidence of thyroid cancer of the thyroid nosules which were not decreased on thyroxine suppression therapy after surgical resection. METHODS: Total 1027 patients with thyroid nodules were evaluated by FNAC or needle biopsy at Soonchunhyang university hospital from 1990 to 1996. Among 1027 patients, 507 patients showed follicular lesions in FNAC or needle biopsy and they received thyroxine suppression therapy. Thyroid nodule volume was measured before and after thyroxine suppression therapy using ultrasonography. We studied 184 patients who were followed up for more than 1 year. Serial changes of thyroid function tests, thyroid nodule volume, serum thyroglubulin (Tg) level before and after therapy were analyzed. RESULTS: l. In 80 (43.5%) of the 184 patients, nodule volumes decreased more than 50 percent after thyroxine suppression therapy. 2. There was no significant difference in serum T3, T4, TSH levels before and after thyroxine suppression therapy between group I (nodule volume decreased less than 50%) and group II (nodule volume decreased more than 50%). 3. In group II patients, thyroid nodule volumes were decreased continuously at 12 month, 18 month and 30 month after thyroxine suppression (p<0.05). 4. There was no significant difference between the group I and group II in the frequency of multiple thyroid nodules on ultrasonography. 5. Among 37 patients who underwent thyroidectomy, 19 cases (51.4%) were revealed as malignant thyroid nodules (papillary cancer 4 cases, follicular cancer 15 cases). Eighteen cases (48.6%) were revealed as benign thyroid nodules (follicular adenoma 10 cases, adenomatous goiter 8 cases). 6. There was no significant difference in the frequency of multiple nodules on ultrasonography between benign and malignant nodules. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested thyroxine suppression therapy was effective in discriminating malignant thyroid nodules from benign nodules, especially in selecting follicular carcinoma from follicular lesion by FNAC or biopsy.
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A Case of Methimazole-Induced Cholestatic Jaundice with Steroid Therapy.
Wan Sup Kim, Jae Han Kim, Byung Ok Yoon, Young Min Kim, Sang Hun Song, Myoung Jin Oh, Heon Gyen Hwang, Chul Hee Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1999;14(3):592-598.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Cholestatic jaundice caused by imidazole derivatives is a rare complication of antithyroid drug therapy. We present a case of cholestatic jaundice with systemic hypersensitivity reaction, which developed in a 27-year old male one day after exposure to methimazole. The patient showed clinical improvement and gradual resolution of jaundice after the discontinuation of methimazole and treatment with prednisolone. Histologic findings of liver revealed bile pigment, predominantly in centrilobular area, and infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells in a few portal area without evidence of degeneration or necrosis of hepatocytes. Methimazole could be presumed as etiologic agent from clear chronological relationship and the lack of other causative factors. We report this unusual case with review of literature.
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A Case of Adult Fanconi Syndrome and Osteomalacia associated with x-Light Chain Monoclonal Gammopathy.
Chul Hee Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Shi Jung Chung, Juog Min Ko, Soo Kil Park, Woo Kun Kim, Ki Soo Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1998;13(1):99-107.   Published online January 1, 2001
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The Fanconi syndrome is a complex tubulopathy, which is characterized by urinary hyperexcretion of amino acids of all classes, phosphate, glucose, bicarbonate, calkium, potassium, and otherions, and proteins with molecular weights under 50,000 daltons. This metabolic disease leads to hypophospatemia, hypokalemia, growth failure, metabolic acidasis, and rickets/osteomalacia. Fanconi syndrome may be inherited or acqulred. Most cases of adult Fanconi syndrome are acquired, and the acquired syndrome is associated with thermal burns, exposure to heavy metals or drugs, vitmnin D deficiency, renal transplantation, or light chain deposition. The most common cause of adult Fanconi syndrome is multiple myeloma. We ribe here a case of adult Fanconi syndrome and osteomalacia associated with x-light chain monoclonal gammopathy. A 47-year-old woman presented with multiple bane pain and proximal muscle weakness for 2 years. Laboratory findmgs showed hypophosphatemia, mild hypocalcemia, marked elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, metabolic acidosis, low 25-OH- vitamm D level and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Urinary excretion of protein, uric acid, phosphate, and glucose was mcreased, and tubular reabsorption of phosphate was decreased to 50%. Protein immunofixation electrophoresis of serum and urine showed x-light chain type monoclonal gammopathy. Bone marrow examination was normal except moderate elevation of plasma cell component(8.8%). The skeletal radiography showed fractures of both lower ribs and pseudofracture in right femoral lesser trochanter. We treated the patient with calcium, 1.25-(OH)2-vitamin D, phosphorus, bicarbonate, and potassium, and her clinical symptoms were gradually relieved.
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A Case of Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome.
Chul Hee Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Young Ki Song, Ki Soo Kim, Kyo Sang Yoo
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(4):672-676.   Published online January 1, 2001
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The polyglandular autoimmune syndrome is constellation of multiple endocrine insufficiencies often associated with diseases of nonendocrine organs occurring in individual patients and their families. In 1980, Neufeld classified this syndrome into three major types. Type II is characterized by adrenocortical insufficiency, autoimmune thyroiditis, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We experienced a case characterized by adrenocortical insufficiency, autoimmune thyroiditis, and ovarian failure and report with the review of the literature. A 38-year-old woman visited our clinic because of progressing brown colored pigmentation of skin and mucosa which is developed a year ago. Nine years ago prior to visit, amenorrhea was developed after right oophrectomy. Three years ago, she revealed feature of hyperthyroidism such as palpitation, loss of body weight (8kg/1-2years), heat intolerance, and sweating, so received antithyroid therapy for 14 months. Brown colored pigmentation of skin and mucosa, especially scar and gingiva, has been progressively aggravated during last year. She had no past or family history of other endocrine disease. Diffuse pigmentation of skin, loss of axillary and pubic hair, and diffuse enlargement of both thyroid glands were shown on physical examination. Blood cell count, serum chemistry and blood sugar test were all within normal range. Basal hormone levels were T3-uptake 29.7% (30~40), T3 153 ng/dL (85~185), T4 7.5ug/dL (5.5~11.5), TSH 2.4 IU (0.34~3.5), anti-TG antibody <100 U/mL (0~100), anti-microsome antibody <50 U/mL (0~100), TBII (thyrotropin binding inhibiting immunoglobulin) 2.2% ( (-15)~15), ACTH 989 pg/mL (0~37), cortisol 0.1 ug/dL (5~25), renin 7.1ng/mL/hr (1~2.5), aldosterone 81.0pg/mL (50~194), LH 115.2 mIU/mL (0.6~16.8), FSH 122 mIU/mL (1.6~19.0), and estradiol <10.0pg/mL (30~120). In ACTH stimulation test, levels of basal cortisol, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes were <0.1, <0.1, and <0.1 g/dL respectively. And, in glucagon stimulation test, levels of basal C-peptide, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes were 0.9, 5,1, 6.3, and 5.5 ng/dL respectively. Thyroid scan showed diffuse enlargement of bilateral thyroid glands and pelvic ultrasonogram showed atrophy of left ovary. We administered corticosteroid, estrogen, and progesterone which were deficient to the patient, and has followed up the clinical course of the patient.
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Effects of Thyroid Hormone on Preduction of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-11 in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells.
Chul Hee Kim, Dong Kwan Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Young Ki Song, Ki Soo Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(4):557-564.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It is well known that excessive thyroid hormone in the body is associated with bone loss. However, the mechanism by which thyroid hormone affects bone cell metabolism remains unclear. It has been shown that thyroid hormones stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption indirectly via some unknown mediators secreted by osteoblasts, This study was undertaken to determine if interleukin-6 (IL-6) or interleukin-11 (IL-l1) could be the mediator (s) of thyroid hormone-induced bone loss. METHODS: We treated primary cultured human bone rnarrow stromal cells with 3,5,3-triiodo-thyronine (T) and measured basal and interleukin-l (IL-1)-stimulated IL-6/IL-ll production. We also investigated the possible modulating effect of 17B-estradiol (17B-E2.) on thyroid hormone action. RESULTS: T3 at 10 (-12) ~ 10 (-8) M concentration, significantly increased the basal IL-6 production in a dose-dependent manner, and also potentiated the stimulatory effect of IL-1 on IL-6 production. However, T failed to elicit a detectable effect on basal or IL-1-stimulated IL-11 production. Treat#ment with l7B-E2. inhibited IL-1-stimulated IL-6 production, but the effects of T3 on IL-6 production were not affected by 17/B-E. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that thyroid hormone may increase bone resorption by increasing basal IL-6 production and potentiating IL-1-induced IL-6 production from osteoblast-lineage cells, and these effects were independent of estrogen status.
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2-Bromopropane as a New Etiology of Primary Ovarian Failure.
Chul Hee Kim, Ghi Su Kim, Jung Min Ko, Eun Sug Sin, Hyo Jung Kim, Young Tak Kim, Kyoung Sik Cho, Ghil Suk Yoon
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(2):255-264.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Primary ovarian failure is reportedly increasing in recent years. Environmental factors have been frequently implicated as responsible for this increase, However, only a few of the environmental factors have been proven to cause the ovarian failure in human. METHODS: In June 1995, 24 female laborers, who worked in a factory which used Solvent #5200 (with a main chemical component being 2-bromopropane), developed symptoms of amenorrhea or irregular menstruation. All subjects underwent laboratory tests including measurement of serum LH, FSH, and estradioL Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography of the pelvis were performed in all subjects. Laparoscopic examination was performed in 6 out of 24 patients after obtaining informed consent and 4 of 6 underwent ovarian biopsy. RESULTS: One subject was excluded because she had undergone hysterectomy previously. Among the remaining 23 subjects, 14 and 9 complained of amenorrhea and irregular menstrual periods, respectively. When we defined primary ovarian failure as FSH>30mIU/mL, all of those 14 patients with amenorrhea could be classified as primary ovarian failure. On the other hand, those 9 patients with irregular menstruations had normal FSH levels. Pathologic examination of ovaries showed interstitial fibrosis, loss of primordial follicles, and development arrest of follicles in the group with amenorrhea, similar to what is found in those who received chemotherapy or were exposed to radiation. CONCLUSION: The female laborers who were exposed to the solvent with 2-bromopropane developed primary ovarian failure. This failure was associated with longer duration of exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the world indicating 2-bromopropane as a possible agent for ovarian failure.
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The Role of Low-dose ACTH Stimulation Test in the Diagnosis of Adrenal Insufficiency.
Chul Hee Kim, Ghi Su Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Young Kee Shong, Ki Up Lee, Il Min Ahn, Sung Kwan Hong
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(2):222-229.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Rapid adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) stimulation test using 250ug of ACTH (1-24) has been used as a standard test in the initial assessment of adrenal function. However, it has recently been suggested that a rnaximal cortisol response can be achieved with a much lower ACTH dose, and reducing the dose might further enhance the sensitivity of the test in the detection of mild adrenal insufficiency. This study was performed to evaluate the role of low-dose (lug) ACTH stimulation test in the assessment of adrenal function and the diagnosis of subtle adrenal insufficiency. METHODS: Twenty-two subjects with suspected adrenal insufficiency due to long-term corticosteroid use were included in this study. The correlations between clinical features and the serum cortisol responses to low dose (lug) and high dose (250 ug) ACTH stimulation were evaluated. RESULTS: In high dose test, 10 (67%) out of 15 subjects with clinical features of adrenal insufficiency showed decreased serum cortisol response (peak cortisol level <18 ug/dL), but 5 (33%) subjects showed normal response (peak cortisol level > 18ug/dL). On the other hand, 14 (93%) subjects with clinical features of adrenal insufficiency showed decreased serum cortisol response in low dose test, while only one showed normal response. In 7 subjects without clinical features of adrenal insufficiency, 5 subject (71%) showed normal response, and 2 subjects (29%) showed decreased response in both low and high dose tests. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the 1-ug low dose ACTH stimulation test might be more sensitive than conventional 250-ug test in the detection of mild adrenal insufficiency. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal dose of ACTH and the criteria for normal response to ACTH stimulation.
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Piruitray Thyrotropin-Secreting Tumors in Korean.
Chul Hee Kim, Ghi Su Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Young Kee Shong, Sang Bum Hong, Jung Min Ko, Chang Jin Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1997;12(2):165-175.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma is an uncommon disease and about 150 cases has been reported in the world literature. In Korea, only seven cases were reported as yet. The authors recently experienced four cases of TSH secreting pituitary tumor and analyzed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of TSH-secreting tumors in Korean. METHODS: We analyzed clinical records of the four cases who had been recently treated at Asan Medical Center and the Korean literature which deals with the previously reported seven cases of TSH-secreting pituitary tumor. RESULTS: The average age at diagnosis was 37 years (ranging from 11 to 55 years). Four were men and seven were women. After the detection of hyperthyroidism, TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma was diagnosed 3.6 years later on the average. Ten patients presented with hyperthyroidism, but one had primary hypothyroidism. Typical features of acromegaly were observed in two patients. Visual disturbance was present in three cases, and galactorrhea was present in one case. Serum TSH concentrations ranged from 1.5 to 42.5uIU/mL showing mildly elevated or unsup-pressed TSH levels despite of elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations. Among six cases in whom a-subunit level was measured, five showed elevated a-subunit level and a-subunit/TSH molar ratio. Two of 11 cases had microadenoma and the remainder had macroadeno#ma. Immunohisto-cheical studies were done in eight cases and revealed that three were positive for TSH only and five patients were positive for multiple hormones. Eight patients underwent transsphenoidal pituitary surgery and seven (88%) of them were cured. External irradiation or octreotide was used as adjunctive treatment in three cases. After treatment, TSH levels decreased in all six patients studied, hyperthyroidism was eliminated in all eight patients studied and visual disturbance was improved in two patients. CONCLUSION: Clinical characteristics of TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma in Koreans were similar with world literature, but were more common in women, had less visual disturbance and better surgical results. Diagnosis was commonly delayed for several years. TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma may be diagnosed more frequently and earlier with widespread use of sensitive TSH assay and early and proper diagnosis would lead proper treatments with improved outcome.
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Clinical Features of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I in Koreans.
Chul Hee Kim, Ghi Su Kim, Hong Kyu Kim, Joong Yeol Park, Young Kee Shong, Ki Up Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(2):163-174.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Background
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I(MEN I) is a rare, eomplex, and potentially lethal disease. In Korean, only five anecdotal cases were reported as yet. The authors rescently experienced four cases of MEN I, and analysed the clinieal characteristics of MEN I in Koreans. Methods: The authors evaluated nine cases of MEN I, retrospectively. Four cases were analysed by clinical records in patients admitted to Asan Medical Center and five cases were reviewed by previously reported Korean literature from 1986 to 1995. Results: The average age was 39 years(ranged from 33 to 59 years). Eight of the nine patients had hyperparathyroidism documented by elevated serum calcium and PTH level with or without evidence of parathyroid mass. Initial presenting manifestations were symptomatic urinary stone, hypoglycernia due to insulinoma, hypogonadism, acromegaly, or peptic ulcer. Eight of nine patients had pancreatic islet cell tumors, and three of them were be malignant by radiologic and/or pathologic findings. The pancreatic tumors produced various hormones, such as gastrin, insulin, glucagon, or combination of them. Six of the nine cases had pituitary lesion. The most cornmon pituitary tumor was prolactinoma and the remaining was GH or GH and TSH producing tumor. In addition to the major components of MEN I, four had adrenocortical hyperplasia or adenoma and two had carcinoid tumor. There was only one familial case. Conclusion: The clinical charateristics of MEN I in Korean are mostly not different from the previous reports except older age at diagnosis, more comrnon adrenal involvement(44%) and gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor(22%). Although only one case was familial, more cases could be found if careful screening were done for the family members of the MBN I patients. In addition, screening and close follow up for endocrine pancreatic tumors are required for MEN I patients without detectable pancreatic lesion becau~se the malignant potential of pancreatic tumors has beeome an increasing concem for the prognosis of MEN I.
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Effects of Interleukin-6 on mRNA Expression of Alkaline Phosphatase, Osteopontin, Decorin and a1(1)-collagen in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells.
Chul Hee Kim, Dong Kwan Kim, Seung Il Park, Kwang Hyun Sohn, Ghi Su Kim
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1996;11(2):156-162.   Published online November 7, 2019
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Background
Inter1eukin-6(IL-6) is known to be produced by osteoblastic cells and to have impartant role in regulation of bone remodelling, Most previous studies indicated that IL-6 bas a major role in stimulating osteoclastic resorption by increasing recruitment and proliferation of preosteoclasts. But its autocrine effect on osteoblastic cells has not been well established yet. Therefore, we studied the effects of IL-6 on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of proteins that are characteristic of osteoblastic cells in human bone marrow stromal (osteoprogenitor) cells (hRMSC). Methods: The expression of mRNAs for alkaline phosphatase, al(1)-collagen, osteopontin and decorin were studied by northern blot analysis after 3 7 days' treatrnent with IL-6 in the concenttation range of 101,000 U/ml. Results: The mRNA levels for any of the osteoblastic proteins studied did not change significantly by IL-6 treatment up to the concentration of 1,000 U/ml. Conclusion: These results suggest that IL-6 does not have a significant role in differentiatian or activities of human bone rnarrow stromal.
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Effect of Antiliyolytic Agents on Glueose Metabolism in Thyrotoxic Patients.
Seong Yeon Kim, Kyung Soo Park, Bo Youn Cho, Hong Kyu Lee, Chan Soo Shin, Chang Soon Koh, Hun Ki Min, Tae Geun Oh, Chul Hee Kim, Moon Kyu Lee, Jong Ho Ahn, Kee Up Lee
J Korean Endocr Soc. 1994;9(4):325-331.   Published online November 6, 2019
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Decreased glucose tolerance is often found in patients with thyrotoxicosis but the pathogenetic mechanisms are poorly understood. Since the concentrations of free fatty acid are usually elevated due to increased lipolysis in thyrotoxicosis, the preferential oxidation of the free fatty acids may explain the decreased glucose tolerance in hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lowering plasma free fatty acid(FFA) by acipimox, a long-acting antilipolytic agent, could affect glucose metabolism in thyrotoxicosis. We performed intravenous glucose tolerance test with acipimox or placebo in 6 untreated thyrotoxicmen and 6 age-and body mass index(BMI)-matched controls. The following results were obtained.1) The basal plasma FFA concentration in thyrotoxic patients were significantly higher than those in controls(997.0+-303.4 uEq/L vs. 290.5+-169.1 uEq/L; p<0.01). 2) Plasma FFA concentrations decreased rapidly with acipimox ingestion in both controls and thyrotoxic patients.3) Plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower with acipimox ingestion than with placebo in thyrotoxic patients from 17min after intravenous glucose load and to the end of the study.4) Plasma insulin concentrations in thyrotoxic patients with acipimox ingestion were higher at 5, 7 min after iv glucose load.5) In thyrotoxic patients, glucose disappearance rate(K_glucose) in acipimox treatment was significantly higher than that in placebo treatment(2.44+-0.84 vs. 1.58+-0.37;p<0.05). 6) K_glucose values were inversely correlated with basal FFA concentrations(r=-0.58, p<0.05). In summary, in thyrotoxic patients with elevated plasma FFA levels, acipimox lowered plasma FFA, which in turn improved glucose tolerance.
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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism