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Endocrinol Metab : Endocrinology and Metabolism


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Ahmad Didi 1 Article
Calcium & bone metabolism
Cardiovascular Impact of Calcium and Vitamin D Supplements: A Narrative Review
Fatima Zarzour, Ahmad Didi, Mohammed Almohaya, David Kendler
Endocrinol Metab. 2023;38(1):56-68.   Published online February 16, 2023
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  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Calcium and vitamin D play an important role in mineral homeostasis and the maintenance of skeletal health. Calcium and vitamin D supplements have been widely used for fracture prevention in elderly populations. Many trials have studied the effectiveness and cardiovascular safety of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, with disparate results. In this review, we summarize the most important trials and systematic reviews. There is significant heterogeneity in clinical trial design, differences in the nature of trial outcomes (self-reported vs. verified), prior calcium intake, and trial size. Inconsistent results have been reported concerning the effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. Most current guidelines recommend calcium intake of up to 1,200 mg daily, preferably from the diet, without concern for cardiovascular risk. Recommendations regarding vitamin D supplementation vary widely. There is compelling evidence from well-conducted randomized trials that modest vitamin D supplementation is safe but does not confer cardiovascular benefit or cardiovascular harm.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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